Index

A

Absorbents/absorbency

Amberlite® polymeric resins, 204

chemical hood filters, 196, 231

gloves, 176

spill containment, 28, 120, 125, 133, 134, 145, 177, 302

waste management, 193, 203, 204

Absorption in the body (see also Exposure)

gastrointestinal tract, 58

prevention, 124, 179

radiation, 81

respiratory tract, 57, 124, 166, 179

skin, 55, 58, 60, 62, 124, 139, 166, 179

Academic laboratories

Chemical Hygiene Officer, 16

chemical hygiene responsibilities, 16-17, 187

culture of safety, 2, 3-4, 5, 6

department chairperson or director, 16-17

departmental safety committee, 17

facilities, maintenance, and custodial personnel, 17

high school laboratories, 3

laboratory personnel, 17, 187

laboratory supervisor, 17

liability concerns, 6

management of chemicals, 88, 93, 102, 296-297

recordkeeping, 3

regulations for, 194

research laboratories, 4

training program, 250

undergraduate laboratories, 3-4

ventilation design, 251

waste management, 3, 186-187, 194, 196, 201

Access control, 20, 22, 28, 29, 92, 95, 101, 123-124, 126, 163, 206, 208, 214, 256, 257, 262, 263, 264, 301, 302

Accidents (see also Emergency; Fire; Injuries and illnesses; Safety and emergency equipment; Spills and releases)

CHP component, 295, 299, 300, 302, 303

costs of, 6

equipment-related, 149, 150, 151, 153

liability consequences, 6, 102, 116

misuse of materials, 7

MSDS information, 50

plant-scale, 139

preparation for, 107, 110, 125, 130, 150, 153, 158, 160, 299

prevention, 16-17, 21, 86, 87, 95, 110, 113, 140, 141, 150, 151, 155, 216, 302

regulations, 272, 281, 299

reporting and record keeping, 5, 16, 19, 29, 30, 181, 281, 299

reviews, 3, 17

slips, trips, and falls, 77, 150, 164

vehicular, 102, 193

working alone and, 17

Acetaldehyde, 67, 72, CD

Acetic acid, 67, 68, 72, 96, 134, 136, 189, 202, 203, 204, CD

Acetone

control banding, 64

–dry ice coolant, 173

dual-use hazard, 260

flammability, 65, 67, 68, 120, 173

inhalation, 57

LCSS, CD

spills, 48

storage of chemical in, 135

waste management, 85, 190

Acetyl peroxide, 303

Acetonitrile, 67, 69, 160, 204, CD

2-Acetylaminofluorene, 273

Acetylene and acetylenic compounds, 62, 69, 71, 72, 129, 135, 140, 166, 172, CD

Acetylides, 70, 71, 130

ACGIH (see American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists)

Acid baths, 220

Acid inhibitors, 70

Acids (see also specific compounds)

allergic response to, 61

chemical hoods and exhaust systems, 139, 214, 224, 226, 233-234, 236, 240, 242, 254

cleaning with, 73, 86, 138, 139-140

corrosivity, 190, 245

decontamination concerns, 254

digestion bombs for microwaves, 159

dilution/dilute, 17, 137, 138, 140, 189, 209

drying with, 140

emergency procedures, 118, 120, 180

in environmental rooms, 245

equipment for use with, 88

explosion hazards, 70, 71, 96, 130, 131, 136, 139-140, 214, 224

fire hazards, 67, 68, 69, 98, 99, 128-129

gloves and protective clothing, 111, 113

incompatibilities, 70, 73, 96, 98, 100, 128-129, 138, 139

injuries, 58, 61, 118, 137, 138, 180, 214, 260

labels/classification, 69

neutralization of, 120, 137, 138, 195, 196, 209

neutralization with, 121, 136, 208



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Index A Access control, 20, 22, 28, 29, 92, Acetyl peroxide, 303 95, 101, 123-124, 126, 163, Acetonitrile, 67, 69, 160, 204, CD Absorbents/absorbency 206, 208, 214, 256, 257, 262, 2-Acetylaminofluorene, 273 Amberlite® polymeric resins, 263, 264, 301, 302 Acetylene and acetylenic 204 Accidents (see also Emergency; compounds, 62, 69, 71, 72, chemical hood filters, 196, 231 Fire; Injuries and illnesses; 129, 135, 140, 166, 172, CD gloves, 176 Safety and emergency Acetylides, 70, 71, 130 spill containment, 28, 120, 125, equipment; Spills and ACGIH (see American Conference 133, 134, 145, 177, 302 releases) of Governmental Industrial waste management, 193, 203, CHP component, 295, 299, 300, Hygienists) 204 302, 303 Acid baths, 220 Absorption in the body (see also costs of, 6 Acid inhibitors, 70 Exposure) equipment-related, 149, 150, Acids (see also specific compounds) gastrointestinal tract, 58 151, 153 allergic response to, 61 prevention, 124, 179 liability consequences, 6, 102, chemical hoods and exhaust radiation, 81 116 systems, 139, 214, 224, 226, respiratory tract, 57, 124, 166, misuse of materials, 7 233-234, 236, 240, 242, 254 179 MSDS information, 50 cleaning with, 73, 86, 138, skin, 55, 58, 60, 62, 124, 139, plant-scale, 139 139-140 166, 179 preparation for, 107, 110, 125, corrosivity, 190, 245 Academic laboratories 130, 150, 153, 158, 160, 299 decontamination concerns, 254 Chemical Hygiene Officer, 16 prevention, 16-17, 21, 86, 87, digestion bombs for chemical hygiene 95, 110, 113, 140, 141, 150, microwaves, 159 responsibilities, 16-17, 187 151, 155, 216, 302 dilution/dilute, 17, 137, 138, culture of safety, 2, 3-4, 5, 6 regulations, 272, 281, 299 140, 189, 209 department chairperson or reporting and record keeping, drying with, 140 director, 16-17 5, 16, 19, 29, 30, 181, 281, 299 emergency procedures, 118, departmental safety reviews, 3, 17 120, 180 committee, 17 slips, trips, and falls, 77, 150, in environmental rooms, 245 facilities, maintenance, and 164 equipment for use with, 88 custodial personnel, 17 vehicular, 102, 193 explosion hazards, 70, 71, 96, high school laboratories, 3 working alone and, 17 130, 131, 136, 139-140, 214, laboratory personnel, 17, 187 Acetaldehyde, 67, 72, CD 224 laboratory supervisor, 17 Acetic acid, 67, 68, 72, 96, 134, fire hazards, 67, 68, 69, 98, 99, liability concerns, 6 136, 189, 202, 203, 204, CD 128-129 management of chemicals, 88, Acetone gloves and protective clothing, 93, 102, 296-297 control banding, 64 111, 113 recordkeeping, 3 –dry ice coolant, 173 incompatibilities, 70, 73, 96, 98, regulations for, 194 dual-use hazard, 260 100, 128-129, 138, 139 research laboratories, 4 flammability, 65, 67, 68, 120, injuries, 58, 61, 118, 137, 138, training program, 250 173 180, 214, 260 undergraduate laboratories, inhalation, 57 labels/classification, 69 3-4 LCSS, CD neutralization of, 120, 137, 138, ventilation design, 251 spills, 48 195, 196, 209 waste management, 3, 186-187, storage of chemical in, 135 neutralization with, 121, 136, 194, 196, 201 waste management, 85, 190 208 CD refers to the CD in the back of the book 313

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314 INDEX oxidizers, 69, 73, 96, 98, 120, oven drying of samples, Air (see also Hot air; Respirators; 128-129, 131, 138, 188 156-157 Ventilation and peroxidizables, 72, 134, 139 “particularly hazardous environmental control radioactive mixtures, 202, 203, substances,” 55, 59, 274-275 systems) 205 risk assessment, 54, 55, 59-60 autooxidation, 136 rules for working with, 301 signs and symptoms, 19, 123, cleanliness in clean rooms, 244 scrubbers, 236 137, 141 compressed, 145, 165, 171, spills, 28, 120 storage of chemicals, 97, 101 180-181 storage, 20, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 125 systemic effects, 59 dispersion modeling, 124 testing with, 188, 189 waste regulation, 277 filters, 124, 126, 142, 143, 178, waste management, 196, 202, Administration and supervision 179, 221, 236 203, 204, 205, 209, 210, 301 (see also Chemical Hygiene liquefied, 69, 135, 138 Acquisition of chemicals Officers; Chemical Hygiene motors, 151, 154 CHP component, 295, 297, 298 Plan; Documentation and pollutants, 86, 234, 235-236 compressed gases, 89, 140, record keeping; Inspections pressure control, 214, 219, 240 164-165 and audits) reactivity in, 70, 72, 87, 93, 125, computerized, 88, 89 chemical hygiene 130, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139, controlled substances, 261 responsibilities, 15, 16, 17, 140, 141, 143, 160, 173 cost containment, 5, 92 18, 22, 24, 297, 298-299 showers, 244 donations and gifts, 87, 92 and culture of safety, 2, 3, 5, 7 supply, 179, 180-181, 217, 222, just-in-time deliveries, 43, 89 emergency preparedness, 39, 226, 227, 241 minimization, 5, 21, 84, 164, 42, 117, 178, 180, 281, 299 Airborne contaminants (see also 186 hazard controls, 14, 18, 19, 24, Exhaust systems; Filters and monitoring, 16, 19 108, 142 filtration) ordering, 21, 86, 88-89 hazard evaluation and risk action levels, 269 receiving, 21, 79, 89-90, 263, assessment, 47, 55, 60, 66, in chemical hoods, 291 278, 299 75, 108, 123, 131, 301 dry materials, 144 in smaller containers, 86 laboratory supervisor, 17, 22, evaluating exposure, 209 standards for, 21, 22, 278, 299 24, 26, 75, 117, 177, 178, 180, explosive limits, 65, 66-67 Acrolein, 60, 70, 303, CD 231, 297-298, 299 lethal (LC) values, 56 Acrylamide, CD management of chemicals, 84, monitoring, 60, 143, 144, 208, Acrylonitrile, 112, 273, 303, CD 123, 173 228, 298 Action levels, 16, 123, 269, 289, OSHA recommendations for, nanoparticles in, 135, 143, 144, 292, 293-294 296-300 248 Activated carbon, 73, 136, 204, reporting to supervisors, 15, particulate materials, 57 231, 236 16, 17, 226, 301 pressure buildup and, 135 Acute toxicity (see also Allergens, security, 123, 145, 262 preventing exposure, 107, 178, sensitizers, and allergic statutory requirements, 279, 219, 296 reactions; Corrosives and 280, 281, 295 protection against, 127, 144, corrosivity; Irritants) waste management, 209, 302 178-180 aquatic, 50 Adverse reactions, 271, 279 risk assessment, 219 defined, 59 Aerosols skin exposure, 179 dose-response relationships, 54 biological hazards, 60, 126, 221 threshold limits, 60 employee protection standards, defined, 57 vapor pressure and, 57 274, 275, 290, 293, 295, in environmental rooms, 245 ventilation systems and, 219, 301-302 filters and scrubbers, 124, 236, 221, 241, 251, 296, 298 empty containers, 191 301, 302-303 ALARA (as low as reasonably examples of highly toxic flammable, 50, 99, 290 achievable) principle, 82, compounds, 56, 60, 275, 301 housekeeping and, 114 219, 221 exposure factors, 60 inhalation, 57-58, 110, 221 Alarms information sources, 48, 50, 51, monitoring, 144 audibility in environmental 59 radioactive, 204, 208, 221 rooms, 245, 299 lethal dose/lethal risk assessment, 55, 60, 80, 221 building code requirements, concentration, 54-55, 59, 60, suppression, 114, 124, 126, 208, 218 275 236, 240, 244, 301, 302-303 in chemical hoods, 169, 226, 250

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315 INDEX equipment, 216 American Biological Safety Aprons, 15, 113, 138, 175 fire, 15, 27, 28, 43, 107, 117, 121, Association, 80 Aqueous solutions 122, 127, 166, 176-177, 178, American Chemical Society, 17, acids, 121 217, 245, 249, 299 53, 86, 109, 116, 218, 262, bleach, 206 gas detectors, 137, 168, 169, 2 267, 274 corrosives, 61, 121 49 American Chemistry Council, 267 hydrogen fluoride, 137 heat sensors and smoke American Conference of hydroxides, 61, 139 detectors, 100, 178, 249 Governmental Industrial pH testing, 188, 189 low-oxygen, 163, 173 Hygienists (ACGIH), 267, plastic equipment for, 168 security, 124, 256, 258, 264 297 potassium iodide, 134, 189 signage and postings for, 250 exposure limits, 48, 86 reducing agents for peroxides, spills and releases, 35, 82, 124 ventilation manual, 239 134 testing/inspection, 43, 193, American Heart Association, 180 waste management, 107, 185, 245, 249, 250 American Industrial Hygiene 190, 192, 195, 196, 202, 203, Alcohols (see also specific Association, 267, 269 204-205, 206, 207 compounds) American Institute of Chemical Argon, 62, 130, 131, 134, 135, 159, consumable, 95, 245 Engineers, 267 160, 161, 172, 174, 234 denatured, 259 American National Standards Armored disinfection with, 247 Institute, 48, 108, 162, 217, chemical hoods, 132 flammability, 99 253, 269, 270 mercury thermometers, 88 incompatibilities, 73, 130, 139 American Society of Heating, Aromatic hydrocarbons, 63, 133 secondary, 72 Refrigeration, and Air Arsine, 60, 239, CD shipment of samples in, 101 Conditioning Engineers, Asbestos, 57, 141, 179, 273 Ascarite®, 136 in thermometers, 88 253, 273 Aldehydes, 210 American Society of Mechanical ASHRAE (see American Society of Aliphatic hydrocarbons, 133 Engineers Heating, Refrigeration, and Alkali metals, 59, 70, 73, 128, 130- Boiler and Pressure Vessel Air Conditioning Engineers; 131, 140, 178, 190, 210 Code, 170-171 ANSI/ASHRAE standards) Alkalis and bases Americans with Disabilities Act, Asphyxiants and asphyxiation, explosive hazards, 69, 70, 73, 6, 218, 272 62, 74, 90, 100, 140, 163, 168, 130-131, 190 Aminechromium 172, 173, 178, 242, 245 fire control, 140, 178 peroxocomplexes, 71 Aspirators, 75, 110, 153, 174 incompatibilities, 73, 128 Ammonia, 57, 61, 69, 121, 129, Assembly point, emergency, 39, injuries, 58 136, 141, 164, 166, 170, 260, 193 neutralization, 120, 209, 210 270, 303, CD Atomic absorption spills, 120 Ammonium hydroxide, 71, 96, spectrophotometers, 121, waste management, 209, 210 CD 237, 254 Alkenes, 72, 135 Ammonium nitrate, 69, CD Atomic Energy Act, 202, 271 Alkyl chloromethyl ethers, 63-64 Ammonium phosphate Audits (see Inspections and Alkyl nitrites, 71 extinguishers, 178-179 audits) Alkyl perchlorates, 71 Anaphylactic shock, 61, 112 Autoclaves and autoclaving, 171 Alkylating agents, 64 Anhydrides, 61, 115, 210 animal carcasses, 208 Alkylbenzenes, 203 Aniline, 303, CD canopy hood, 239 Alkylhydroperoxides, 71 Animal and Plant Health contaminated labware, 206 Alkyllithium compounds, 96, Inspection Service, 205, 260, dedicated rooms or equipment, 135-136 270, 273 208, 215 Allergens, sensitizers, and allergic Animals (see Laboratory animals; headspace, 166 reactions, 16, 58, 59, 60-61, Service animals) hydrogenation reactions, 135 279, 295, 301 Annual Report on Carcinogens, 63, infectious waste, 206 Allylic halides, 61, 72 291, 304 multihazardous waste, 205, Alumina, 136, 160, 236 Anosmia, 60 206, 207, 208 Aluminum chloride, see ANSI (see American National pressurization, 135, 166, 172 Aluminum trichloride Standards Institute) testing for interior surface Aluminum trichloride, 136, CD ANSI/ASHRAE standards, 221, contamination, 208 Amberlite® polymeric resins, 204 222, 225, 227, 231, 249 thermometer, 88

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316 INDEX Autoignition, 65-66, 69, 73, 130, risk assessment, 13, 79, 80, 207, Calcium, 130 135, 136, 139, 140, 141, 156 221 Calcium gluconate gel, 138 Autoxidation, 72, 73, 136 security, 256, 260, 262, 263, 264 Calcium oxide, 61, 70 Azides, 60, 70-71, 96, 130, 136, select agents, 79, 270 Calorimetry, 131 210, 260, 303, CD shipping, export, and import, Cancer, 51, 59, 63, 64, 82, 101 (see Azo compounds, 72, 273 101, 272, 278, 280-281 also Carcinogens) storage, 97 Canopy hoods, 220, 237, 239, 247, synthetic microorganisms, 79 298 B waste management, 87, 108, Capacitors, 76, 150, 152, 153 Back injuries, 77 127, 185, 187, 189, 195, 201, Carbon-14, 81 Bar code labeling, 19, 91 202, 205-208, 278 Carbon brushes, 151 Barriers and barricades, 74, 82, Biosafety cabinets (BSCs), 75, 80, Carbon dioxide, 62, 86, 132, 135, 108, 110, 120, 123, 125, 131, 126, 143, 220, 221, 231, 236, 138, 140, 170, 173, 177, 178, 132, 137, 151, 213, 223, 224, 244, 245-248, 251 205, 245, 252 229, 252, 256, 258 Carbon disulfide, 56, 62, 66, 67, Biosafety in Microbiological and Bases (see Alkalis and bases) Biomedical Laboratories, 79, 69, 128, 129, 136, 303, CD Benchtop 80, 126, 189, 246, 260, 276 Carbon inventory, 251 ventilated enclosures, 143, 220, Biosafety levels, 80, 126 Carbon monoxide, 56, 62, 63, 69, 228, 240 Birth defects (see Developmental 129, 166, 179, 303, CD Benzene, 57, 63, 65, 86, 96, 190, toxicity) Carbon powder, 73, 131, 136 273, 303, CD Bis(chloromethyl)ether, 54, 273, Carbon steel, 174 Benzyl azides, 96 303 Carbon tetrachloride, 137, 140, Benzyl halides, 61 Blankets, 36, 119, 121, 122, 180 178, 303, CD Benzylamine, 96 Boiling chips, 73 Carbonyls, 166, 302, 303 Benzylic hydrogens, 72 Boiling eruptions, 73 Carcinogens Benzyltrimethylammonium Boiling points, 48, 65, 67, 68, 73, clothing and protective hydroxide, 96 86, 99, 139, 172 apparel, 113 Biodegradation and Boron halides, 136 combinations of compounds, biodegradable materials, 88, Boron trichloride, 140, 303 64 196, 203 Boron trifluoride, 140, 170, 303, defined, 63, 275, 291-292 Biological materials and CD examples, 54, 63, 302 biohazards Bourdon tubes, 167 experiment planning, 64 aerosols, 60, 126, 221 exposure factors, 56, 64 Bretherick’s Handbook of Reactive animal tissues and carcasses, Chemical Hazards, 52, 65, 304 information resources, 48, 50, 205, 206, 207-208, 303 Bromine, 61, 62, 303, CD 52, 53, 63, 291, 304 biosafety levels, 80, 126, 126 Building code requirements, 11, labeling, 101 Chemical Hygiene Plan, 15 22, 27, 95, 98, 100, 215, 217, LCSS information, 63 containment and biosafety 218, 242, 253, 272-273 minimizing/avoiding facilities, 75, 80, 126, 143, Bulk materials, 77, 78, 87, 89, 94, exposure, 55, 64, 86, 274 220, 221, 231, 236, 243, 244, 107, 133, 141, 142, 145, 195, MSDS information, 48 245-248, 251 198, 236 radiation, 75 disinfection and Bunsen burners, 27, 69, 128 risk assessment, 54, 55, 63-64 decontamination, 206, 254 Bunsen tube, 172 select carcinogens, 55, 59, dual-use agents, 256 Burns, 19, 28, 58, 59, 61, 66, 75, 63-64, 86, 97, 274-275, 290, exposure limits, 51 113, 118, 119, 122, 136, 137, 291-292 filters, 236 138, 139, 141, 149, 161, 173, spills, 273 gloves and protective clothing, 214 standards for handling, 59, 63, 111 tert-Butyl hydroperoxide, 303, CD 101, 273, 275, 290, 293, 302 information sources, 51, 79, 80, Butyllithiums, 135, 139, 140, CD storage, 97, 101 126, 189, 246, 260, 276 Card files, 91, 92 procedures for working with, Carts, 6, 23, 77, 89, 90, 114, 153, C 126-127 168, 216 radioactive, 207-208 Cabinets (see Biosafety cabinets; Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The regulation, 79, 189, 270-271, Storage) Basic Science of Poisons, 52 272, 276, 278, 280-281 Cadmium, 273 Catalog of Teratogenic Agents, 52, 62

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317 INDEX Catalysts, 70, 72, 73, 74, 78, 130, container size and fill level, 23 benchtop, 232 135, 136-137, 139, 160, 210 determining regulatory status, bypass, 230 Cathode ray tubes, 163 190-191 California chemical fume Cathodes, 75 empty containers, 191 hood, 233 Caustics, 28, 58, 111, 120, 196 gases, 198 in clean rooms, 234, 244 (see also Corrosives and at generation site, 191-192 compressed gas cylinders in, corrosivity) generator types and 222 Celite, 84 definitions, 276 configurations, 232-234 Centers for Disease Control and hazard reduction in-laboratory, constant air volume, 229-230 Prevention, 77, 111, 205, 207, 186 constant operation, 224-225 260, 270, 273, 276 identification responsibilities, distillation (knee-high or low- Centrifuges, 88, 161-162, 172, 216, 187 boy), 229, 232, 233 217 incineration, 193, 195, 196, 197, ductless, 231-232 Characterization of waste 199 energy conservation, 251, identification responsibilities, inspection, 26 252 187 labeling, 23 exhaust treatment and systems, for offsite management, liability concerns, 198-199 234-237, 241 186-187 limited waste, 190 explosion-proof, 248 test procedures for unknowns, manifesting, 199 exposure monitoring, 228 187-189 minimization, 277 design and construction, unidentified materials minimum requirements for 229-232 (unknowns), 187 generators, 277 face velocities, 221-222, 226-227 Checklists monitoring offsite transport filters, 196, 220, 231, 232, 235, continuity of laboratory and management, 197-198 236 operations, 41 nonhazardous and general design emergency planning, 41 nonregulated waste recommendations, 229 inspection, 23, 25, 26, 27 managed as, 194-195 general rules, 15, 110 laboratory closeout, 253, CD offsite management, 186-187, housekeeping, 223 laboratory hazard assessment, 197-198 instrumentation, 228 CD “on-site” definition, 276-277 liquid scrubbers, 235-236 security vulnerability, 262 preparation for shipment, low-flow or high-performance, Chemical Abstracts Service 198 231, 251 (CAS), 52-53 records and recordkeeping, maximizing efficiency, 222-223 registry numbers, 87, 91, 94 199-201 nonbypass, 229-230 Chemical Carcinogenesis regulation, 189-191, 194, 271, perchloric acid, 233-234 Research Information 276-278 performance-related factors, System, 53 sanitary sewer disposal, 196 222 Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism test procedures, 187-189 proximity to windows and Standards (CFATS), 89, 259, transportation of, 277-278 doors, 222 261, 270, 273 treatment and recycling, radioisotope hoods, 234 Chemical hazardous waste 196-197 sashes, 223-224, 252 academic laboratories, 186-187, unidentified materials scrubbers and contaminant 194, 196, 201 (unknowns), 187-189 removal systems, 235 acids, 196, 202, 203, 204, 205, Chemical hoods (see also Exhaust shielding, 131-132, 160, 177, 209, 210, 301 systems) 187 alkalis and bases, 209, 210 acid use in, 139, 214, 224, 226, supply air diffuser proximity, assignment of tasks for 233-234, 236, 240, 242, 254 222 handling, 194 adsorbents, 236 testing and verification, atmospheric disposal, 196 airborne contaminants, 291 225-228 central area for, 192-194 airflow types, 229-232 thermal oxidizers and characteristic waste, 189-190 airfoils and baffles, 229 incinerators, 237 characterization, 186-189 alarms, 169, 226, 250 traffic proximity, 222 choosing transporter and alternatives to, 252 variable air volume, 230, 252 disposal facility, 198 armored, 132 walk-in, 232-233 collection and storage, 191-194 auxiliary air, 230-231 and waste disposal, 222

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318 INDEX Chemical Hygiene Officers Children, 16 Clinical and Laboratory (CHOs), 2-3, 15, 16, 18, 20, Chlorinated hydrocarbons, 63, Standards Institute, 269 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28 n.4, 47, 136 Clinical laboratories, 79, 201, 202, 51, 63, 79, 114, 274, 289, 290, Chlorine, 60, 61, 69, 70, 136, 170, 205, 269, 276, 281 295, 297 260, 303, CD Closure or loss of institution Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) Chlorine dioxide, 75, 130, 136 or building (see also academic institutions, 16 Chlorine trifluoride, 140-141, 303 Decommissioning) access to, 19, 47, 293 Chloroform, 137, 202, 204, 205, alternative laboratory facilities, compliance with, 17, 19, 23 303, CD 42, 43 defined, 15, 289 1-Chloromethyl-4-fluoro-1,4- checklist for continuity of development and diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane operations, 41 implementation, 15, 16, 18, bis(tetrafluoroborate), 86 laboratory closeout checklist, 19, 20, 289, 292, 293, 295, Chloromethyl methyl ether, 63-64, CD 296, 303-305 273, CD long-term, 42 elements/topics, 3, 15, 47, 104, Chromates, 69, 73, 130, 210 short-term, 41-42 117, 222, 274, 275, 292-293, Chromatography/ Clothing and protective apparel 295, 296-305 chromatographs, 24, 69, 86, (see also Gloves and hand general principles for work 93, 113, 134, 192, 195, 216, protection; Personal with chemicals, 296-297 220, 237, 241 protective equipment) governmental laboratory, 20 Chromic acid, 86, 98, 99 aprons, 15, 113, 138, 175 guidance for development, Chromium, 61, 73, 138, 174, 205 choosing, 175 296-305 Chromium-51, 81 contaminated, 118, 122, 126, industry research facility, 18 Chromium trioxide and other 137, 144, 146, 175, 181, 300, information resources for chromium(VI) compounds, 301, 302 developing, 303-305 71, 86, 98, 99, 273, CD disposal, 113, 118, 144, 302 laboratory facility, 297-298 Chromosomal damage, 62, 275, entanglement in equipment, MSDSs, 303 291 153, 163 OSHA Laboratory Standard, 3, Chronic exposure, 19, 56, 87 fires on, 122, 178, 180, 181 15, 47, 269, 274, 275, 292-293, Chronic toxicity and health footware, 120, 144, 175-176, 295, 296 effects, 11, 18, 19, 48, 50, 244, 300, 302 responsibility for chemical 51, 52, 56, 59, 62, 63, 87, jumpsuits, 175, 303 hygiene, 3, 51, 297 121, 123, 290, 295, 301, laboratory coats, 15, 19, 26, 109, review and update, 15, 19, 293 302 (see also Carcinogens; 113, 126, 131, 132, 138, 144, rules and procedures for Neurotoxicity; Reproductive 172, 214, 244, 247, 301, 303 working with chemicals, 61, toxins) laundering, 109, 113, 118, 144, 300-303 Circuit boards, 94 175 safety recommendations, Circuit breakers and fuses, 28, 76, materials, 111-112, 132 303 120, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, for nanomaterials work, 143, training and communication 155, 162, 218 144 on, 17, 18, 29 Clean Air Act, 196, 278 radiation protection, 80, 127, Chemical management program Clean benches/laminar-flow 162 (see Acquisition of hoods, 143, 219, 221, 239, static discharge from, 128 chemicals; Inventory and 248, 250 storage, 113, 175 tracking; Shipment and Clean rooms survival kit, 36 transport; Storage; Waste casework, furnishings, and Cobalt, 61, 136 management) fixtures, 216, 244 Cold baths, 173 Chemical properties (see chemical hoods, 234, 244 Cold burns, 66, 74, 119, 173 Laboratory Chemical classification, 243, 244 Cold rooms, 76, 97, 109, 152, 245, Safety Summaries; Material pressure control system, 219, 298, 299, 300 Safety Data Sheets; specific 243 Cold storage, 97-98 properties) protocols, 243-244 Cold traps, 75, 115, 151, 172, Chemicals of interest (COI), 23, Clean Water Act 173-174 89, 259, 260, 261, 262, 270, Cleaning (see Housekeeping and Color coding for identification, 275 cleaning) 100, 165

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319 INDEX Combustion (see Explosive and Compressed gases Connectors, 115, 139, 156, 166, highly reactive hazards; chemical hazards, 74, 140-141 167, 169 Fire; Flammability and compatibility, 96 Consumer Product Safety flammable chemicals; corrosive, 121 Commission, 49 Ignition sources and causes) defined, 164, 290 Contact lenses, 36, 109, 127, 301 Commingling of waste, 191, 193, in environmental rooms, 245 Containers and packages (see also 194, 198, 203 flammable, 69-70, 74, 114, 120- Compressed gas cylinders; Communication during 121, 165, 170, 190 Glass and glassware; Labels emergencies inert, 165 and labeling) contact list, 38 information sources, 15 accumulation containers, 209 e-mail, 38 in-house gas systems, 100, 140 on benchtops, 113 emergency contacts for inventory control, 140, 164 bulk and economy sizes, 21, 87, individual staff, 39 list of hazardous chemicals, 114 internet and blogs, 38-39 140-141 caps and seals, 154, 159, 192 media and community monitors and alarms, 169 corrosives, 137, 192 relations, 39 oxidizing, 120-121, 170 cyanide, 22 plan for, 38-39 physical hazards, 74, 291 damaged or deteriorating, 90, telephone, 38 procedures for working with, 92, 114 text messages, 38 140-141 dry ice in, 136 regulations, 114, 164, 270, 290, empty, 92, 94, 137, 190, 191, 198 Comprehensive Guide to the 291 flammable and combustible Hazardous Properties of Chemical Substances, 51, 59 toxic gases, 96, 121 substances, 22, 23, 58, 69, 88, Compressed air, 145, 165, 171, transferring, 166 98-99, 128, 129 180-181 Computer simulation of gases, 102, 198 Compressed Gas Association experiments, 5 hazardous, 137, 191 (CGA) standards, 168, 169 Computer systems and services headspace, 23, 73 Compressed gas cylinders (see backup systems, 36, 259 for hydrogen fluoride, 137 also Pressure vessels and cables and wiring, 216 inspection of, 22, 135 reactions) checklist programs, 26 inventory and tracking, 91 acquisition and returns, 89, communication during metal, 69, 90, 128 140, 164-165 emergencies, 38-39 in microwaves, 75-76, 159 in chemical hoods, 222 EHS information services, for nanomaterials, 103, 143, 145 code requirements, 164, 168 52-53 opening, 77, 100, 139 fire extinguishers, 178 ergonomic considerations, 77, overpacks, 97 hazards, 19 216 for peroxide formers, 21, 69, inspection, testing, and face velocity testing, 227 133, 134 records, 26, 27, 164, 165, 169, facilities for, 213, 214, 216 plastic, 99, 129, 145 170 fire extinguishers for, 177 recycling, 93-94, 191 labeling, 140, 165 information and data security, in refrigerators, 154 leak prevention and control, 258-259, 262 regulatory standards, 21, 94, 120-121, 140, 169, 170 inventory and tracking, 22, 91 103, 191, 194, 298, 301 lecture bottles, 89, 100, 165, 239 loss of data or systems, 36, 38 remote handling, 132 outlet connections, 168-169 MSDSs, 47-48, 89 secondary containment, 23, 98, outside location, 34 physical protection, 35 113, 114, 125, 145, 298, 301 precautions for handling and purchasing systems, 88, 89 securing, 95, 97 use, 164-165, 168-170, 303 viewing laser operations on, 75 sharps disposal, 58, 111, 114, pressure-relief devices and Condensation, 69, 74, 92, 98, 133, 206-207 regulators, 26, 164, 168, 151, 152, 172, 173-174, 224, small, 86-87 169-170 225, 232 for storing chemicals, 35, 77, securing and storing, 26, 35, Condensers and condensing, 93, 89, 95, 96, 97, 98-99, 113, 114, 90, 96, 100, 111, 114, 154, 164, 115, 116, 130, 133, 135, 138, 125 166, 168, 170 149, 156, 172, 173, 174, 222, transfers among, 23, 84, 87, 94, transporting, 111, 114, 168 232, 292 104, 113, 123, 125, 240-241 valves, 168, 169 Confidential or Sensitive transport, 6, 23, 89, 90, 114, 125, venting, 168, 170 Information, 259 298

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320 INDEX unpacking and inspecting, 90 nonflammable, 74 donated materials from, 92 vented, 139-140 short-term storage and equipment, 163, 171 waste, 23, 58, 87, 93, 110, 111, conveyance, 175 hazard assessment, 253-254 114, 120, 125, 127, 144, 145, transfer lines, 174 information sources, 253 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 198, Culture of laboratory safety laboratories, 92, 93, 94 199, 206-207, 209 academic laboratories, 3-4, 5 removal of hazards, 92, 253, 254 Contingency plans, 12, 15, 55, 66, accessibility for scientists with Decomposition, 70, 76, 87, 93, 130, 107, 125, 193, 197, 199, 302 disabilities, 6-7 133, 135, 136, 138, 139, 157, Contractors, 4, 10, 12, 13, 14, 264, administration and 166, 290, 292 281 supervision, 2, 3, 5, 7 Decontamination Control banding, 64-65 communication and, 15 of accident victims, 28, 29 Controlled substances. 95, 261 continuous learning authorized personnel, 29 Convulsions, 119 environment, 14 biosafety cabinets, 247-248 Cooling baths, 76, 136, 149, 158, environmental impact, 5-6 in chemical hoods, 124 170, 173 and federal funding, 6 of chemical hoods, 234 Copper, 85, 133, 137, 138, 160, industrial and governmental devices, 75 165-166, 167, 174, 189 laboratories, 4-5 documentation, 253 Corrosives and corrosivity (see legal and regulatory changes, 6 of equipment and glassware, management commitment to, 124-125, 208, 302 also specific classes and chemicals) 10 facilities for personnel, 143 classes, 61 operational excellence, 14 of gloves and other PPE, 112, containers for, 137, 192 oversight, 14 124, 176 engineering controls, 220 responsibility and information sources on, 253, equipment compatibility and accountability, 2-3, 4, 14 293 damage, 50, 76, 88, 165-166, security considerations, 7 of laboratories for 167, 170, 171, 174 technology and, 5, 6 decommissioning, 253, 254 evacuation of systems, 153, 167 tips for encouraging, 5 radiological, 127, 205, 208, 234, examples, 61, 73, 135, 137, 138, Custodial and maintenance 253 139, 140-141 personnel, 17, 25, 58, 110, regulatory standards, 275, 293, experiment planning, 61, 66 120 n.3, 142, 177 n.3, 216, 300, 302 eye contact, 58, 61, 135, 141, 219, 245, 253, 268-269, 282 respiratory protective 190 Cuts, 58, 76, 115, 118-119, 149, 164 equipment for, 178 gases and gas leaks, 61, 121, Cutting and drilling tools and verifying, 121, 254 140-141, 165-166, 167, 170, operations, 16-17, 77, 78, of waste, 205, 206, 207, 208, 172, 174 140, 143, 149, 152, 164 300, 302 gloves and protective apparel, Cyanides, 22, 54, 56, 60, 62, 63, 70, of work surfaces and work 111, 113, 176 125, 166, 180, 187, 189, 190, areas, 27, 121, 124-125, 302 information sources, 52, 303 210, 260, 275, 301, 303 Dehydrating and drying agents, inhalation, 61 Cyanogen bromide, CD 61, 136, 138, 139, 140, 159, labeling, 69, 165, 192, 199 Cyanogen chloride, 260 160, 175 neutralization, 209 Cylinders (see Compressed gas Delivery (see also Receiving rooms PPE, 171-172, 176 cylinders) and loading areas; Shipment shipping and transport, 199 and transport) skin contact, 58, 61, 111, 135, service disruptions, 42 D 141, 190 Department of Energy (DOE) storage, 97, 100, 166, 192, 221 Deactivation, 86, 127, 139, 160, exposure limits, 78, 82, 143 wastes, 153, 174, 190, 191, 192, 209 Integrated Safety Management 199, 209 Decay in storage, 203-204, 207, System, 13-14 Cryogens 208, 278 nanomaterials guidelines, 77, asphyxiation hazard, 163, 173 Decommissioning 141, 142, 145 explosion hazard, 131 ANSI standard, 253, 254, 269 pollution prevention, 201 gases, 75, 90, 100, 173, 242 checklist, 253, CD Department of Homeland information sources, 52 cleaning and decontamination, Security (DHS), 23, 36-37, liquids, 19, 27, 74, 75, 76, 119, 254 89, 259, 261, 262, 263, 267, 135, 163, 170, 172-174, 176 clearance, 254 275

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321 INDEX Department of Transportation Diethyl ether, 28, 65, 67, 68, 69, 72, containment, 128, 159, 174, 204 (DOT), 23, 49, 68, 90, 94, 98, 120, 128, 134, 136, 303, CD explosive compounds, 109 99, 101, 102, 103-104, 116, Diethylamine, 67, 96, 302, 303 flammable/combustible 164, 172, 186, 190, 193, 197, Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether compounds, 159 198, 199, 267, 271, 277, 278, (diglyme), 72 heat guns and, 159 279, 300 Diethylnitrosamine, 273, 302, 303, peroxide hazards, 72, 134, 136 Desiccators, 115, 140, 175 CD PPE, 174 Design of laboratory facilities Differential manometers, 88 radioactive solutions, 204 access control, 214-215 Differential scanning calorimetry, rotary flash evaporation, 204 accommodations for 131 shutoff device, 159 individuals with disabilities, Differential thermal analysis, 131 solvent stills, 93, 159-160 6, 218 Digital thermometers, 58 thermal, 160 adaptability, 215-216 Diisopropyl ether, 136 vacuum, 140, 153, 159, 174 casework, 216 Diisopropylfluorophosphate, 301, venting stills, 140, 153, 300 closed or separate laboratory 303 waste, 195, 204 spaces, 214-215 Diisopropylnaphthalene, 203 Distilled water, 77, 157, 189 doors, 216 Dilution of Divinyl acetylene, 72 equivalent linear feet of acids, 17, 137, 138, 140, 189, 209 Documentation and record workspace, 215 bases, 209 keeping flooring, 216 bleach, 206 academic laboratories, 3 furnishings and fixtures, 216 chemical hood effluent, 241, accidents, 5, 16, 19, 29, 30, 181, layout, 215-216 242 281, 299 noise and vibration issues, flammable substances, 129, compressed gas cylinders, 26, 216-217 162, 228, 240 27, 164, 165, 169, 170 older facilities, 218-219 high-energy reagents, 115 equipment, 42-43, 165, 167, open design, 213-214 peroxides, 133, 134 170-171 safety equipment, 217-219 vapors and toxic gases, 129, exports and imports, 280 storage rooms, 22 162, 240, 242-243 waste management, 199-201 utilities, 217-218 waste chemicals, 134, 196, 204, Donations and gifts of chemicals, wet spaces relative to other 209 87, 92 spaces, 213 Dimethoxyethane, 120 Dose-response relationships, 54 windows and walls, 216 Dimethyl sulfate, CD Downdraft hoods or tables, 220, Designated areas, 22, 36, 39, 89, Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 58, 237, 239 101, 123, 125, 135, 145, 275, 67, 68, 136, CD Drains, 16, 28, 34, 114, 154, 180, 290, 293 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene, 273 217, 232, 233, 234, 235 (see Detergents, 85, 86, 162, 191 Dimethylformamide, 204, CD also Sewer discharges) Developmental toxicity, 52, 53, 2,5-Dimethylhexane, 72 Drills and exercises, 37, 43, 125, 55, 62 Dimethylmercury, 29, 60, 302 259, 299 Dewar flasks, 74, 115, 133, 138, Dioxane, 72, 85, 134, 136, CD Dry benzoyl peroxide, 136 148, 172, 173, 174-175, 300 Diphosgene (trichloromethyl) Dry fire extinguishers and Diaacetylene, 71 chloroformate, 85 sprinkler systems, 177, 178, Diacyl peroxides, 71 Disabilities (see Scientists with 217 Dialkyl peroxides, 71 disabilities) Dry ice, 40, 41, 77, 109, 133, 136, Diazomethane, 60, 61, 70, 72, 132, Disinfection, 79, 126, 127, 206, 140, 153, 164, 172, 173, 245 136, 301, CD 207, 208, 245, 247, 254 Dry nanoparticles, 78, 103, 142, Diborane, 60, 239, CD Disposal (see Waste management) 143, 144, 145, 248 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane, Distillation Dry sand, 131 273 avoiding, 159 Dry sweeping, 114, 145, 302 Dichloroacetylene, 140 chemical hoods and exhaust Dry traps, 216 Dichloromethane (methylene systems, 229, 232, 233, 237, Dryboxes, 89, 132, 173 chloride), 57, 64, 136, 160, 241 Drying 190, 273, CD column purification systems, with acids, 140 Dichromates, 69, 73, 301 160-161 agents, 61, 136, 138, 139, 140, Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, 61 commercial recyclers, 185 159, 160, 175

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322 INDEX gases, 136 as ignition sources, 21, 69, 76, assembly point, 39 glassware, 17, 85, 156, 157, 128, 129, 149, 153, 154, 245 checklists, 41 159 inspection, 26 communications, 38-39 ignition hazards, 128, 136, 156, instruments, 162 community-wide emergencies, 233 magnetic field hazards, 163 42 oven drying of samples, 151, noise extremes, 164 data or computer systems, 36 156-157 outlet receptacles, 150 decision makers, with radioactive waste, 204, 208 personal safety techniques, 152 succession, 37 solvents, 78, 140 precautions, 151-152 delivery and service and spontaneous combustion, rotating equipment and disruptions, 42 73 moving parts, 163 drills and exercises, 43 train, 139 stirring and mixing devices, equipment or materials losses, Dual-use materials, 95, 256, 257, 154 36, 43 258, 259-260, 261, 262, 263 ultrasonicators, 161 essential knowledge and Dusts (see Powders and dusts) wiring, 26, 150-151 supplies, 36-37 Electrical fires, 68, 76, 150, 177, 178 essential personnel, 37-38 Electrical power interruption evacuations, 39 E discontinuation of fire, 34, 42-43 Earthquakes (see Seismic activity) experiments, 40 flood, 34 Eating and drinking, 26, 109, 175, dry ice, 41 general preparation, 117 300 environmental and storage highly toxic materials, 125 ECOTOX, 53 conditions, 40 high-profile visitors, 35 Education and training in safety generator power, 41 high-value or difficult-to- practices laboratory procedures, 40 replace equipment, 36 academic laboratories, 3-4 long-term, 40 impact/occurrence mapping, case studies, 53 potential effects, 40 34 computer simulations, 5 preplanning, 40-41 institutional or building and culture of safety, 2, 3, 4 security issues, 40 closure, 41-42 EHS management system, 12 short-term, 40 intentional acts of violence or emergencies and spills, 34 UPS, 41 theft, 35-36 first aid, 16, 29, 37, 137, 138, Electrochemical equipment, 149 leadership, 37-38 299 Electrocution and electric shock, loss of laboratory, 42-43 hands-on, 4, 5, 29, 53, 121, 146 76 mission-critical equipment, 34, informal, 4 Electromagnetic radiation 36 new employees, 29 hazards outside responders and radioisotope users, 13 laser light sources, 75, 162 resources, 43 regulatory requirements, 4 radio frequency and pandemic-related, 35 risk assessment and, 53 microwave sources, 75-76, political or controversial student manuals, 4 162 researchers or research, 35 in teaching laboratories, 3-4 visible, ultraviolet, and power loss, 40 topics, 29 infrared laser light sources, preplanning, 33-37, 40-41, 43 Electrical equipment (see also 75, 162 priorities, 37 Distillation; Heaters X-rays and electron beams, records for replacement of and heating equipment; 162-163 equipment, 42-43 Refrigerators and Elephant trunks, 220-221, 237, regulations, 281 refrigeration; Vacuum 241, 250 seismic activity, 35 systems and operations; Elevators, 23, 39, 69, 90, 114, 298 shelter in place, 39-40 other types of equipment) Emergency action plan, 15, 22, spills or releases, 35, 117, 125 capacitors, 76, 150, 152, 153 23, 27 staff shortages, 35, 42 codes, 149, 150, 151, 152, 154 Emergency equipment (see Safety survival kit, 36-37 electromagnetic radiation and emergency equipment) training of laboratory hazards, 162-164 Emergency preparedness personnel, 29, 37 general principles, 149-153 administration and vulnerability assessment, high-current or high voltage, supervision, 39, 42, 117, 178, 33-36 152-153 180, 281, 299 weather-related, 34-35

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323 INDEX Emergency response (see also Environmental Protection Agency Evacuation of systems, 153, 167 Safety and emergency (EPA), 49, 53, 56, 83, 94, 102, Evacuations, 27, 36, 37, 39, 82, equipment) 117, 145, 186, 187, 189, 190, 117, 120, 127, 169, 178, 299 accident procedures, 29, 117 191, 194, 195, 198, 199, 201, Excess material (see Unused and acid spills, 118, 120, 180 202, 205, 206, 207, 219, 253, excess material) burns from heat, 119 261, 267, 271, 272, 273, 275, Exhaust systems (see also clothing contamination, 118 276, 277, 278, 279-280, 281 Chemical hoods) cold burns, 119 Environmental rooms (see also benchtop ventilated convulsions, 119 Cold rooms) enclosures, 143, 220, 228, cuts, 118-119 acids in, 245 240 eye splashes, 118 aerosols in, 245 canopy hoods, 220, 237, 239, fires, 27, 121-122 alarm audibility in, 245, 299 247, 298 gas cylinder leaks, 120-121 alternatives to, 245 clean benches/laminar-flow general procedures, 181 compressed gases in, 245 hoods, 143, 219, 221, 239, information sources, 48 design, 245 248, 250 ingestion, 119 guidelines for working in, 245 downdraft hoods or tables, notification of personnel, 117 Equipment (see also Electrical 220, 237, 239 skin exposures, 118 equipment; Safety and elephant trunks, 220-221, 237, spills, 28-29, 118, 120 emergency equipment; 241, 250 training, 29 Vacuum systems and filters, 239, 243, 302 treatment of contaminated/ operations) flammable-liquid storage injured personnel, 117-119 accidents with, 149, 150, 151, cabinets, 239-240 unconscious victims, 119 153 fume extractors, 237, 239 Engineering controls, 14, 220 for acid use, 88 gas cabinets, 239 (see also Chemical hoods; alarms, 216 hybrid, 242 Gloveboxes) cutting and drilling tools, 164 manifolded (common header), Environmental health and safety glass components, 167-168, 242 (EHS) management systems 171-172 room purge, 242 (see also Chemical Hygiene high-termperature, 27 slot hoods, 220, 237, 238 Plan; Chemical management incompatibility with snorkels, 143, 220-221, 226, 237, program; Emergency corrosives, 50, 76, 88, 165- 238, 240, 241, 250, 251, 298 . . .; Inspections and audits; 166, 167, 170, 171, 174 stacks, 242-243 Safety rules and policies) inspections, 24 ventilated balance enclosures, change management, 13 low temperature, 172-174 220, 238 elements, 10, 11 noise extremes, 164 Exits and passageways, 27, 28, 39, employee safety training pressure extremes, 170, 172 95, 113, 117, 122, 123, 127, program, 29 repair and maintenance, 193, 213, 214, 264, 277, 299 example, 13-14 114-115 Experiment planning (see also functions, 14 rotating, 27, 160, 162, 163 Hazard evaluation; Risk implementation, 12 safety switches, 27 assessment) information sources, 11, 14 water-cooled, 149 access control, 123-124 management commitment to Ergonomics, 77, 149, 164, 216, 239 change management, 13 performance, 3, 10 Ethane, 62 corrosives, 61, 66 performance measurement, Ethanol (ethyl alcohol), 67, 196, demonstrations and magic 12-13 206, 270, CD shows, 116 planning, 10-12 Ethers, 72, 114, 136, 138 (see also designated areas, 123 policy and policy statement, 10 specific compounds) emergency response to principles, 13-14 Ethidium bromide, CD accidents and spills, 125 regulations, 10 Ethyl acetate, 72, 190, CD explosive and highly reactive review by management, 13 Ethyl benzene, 190 substances, 130-140 safety committees, 12, 16-17, Ethyl chloromethyl ether, 63 highly toxic substances, 64, 23, 24-25, 64, 276 Ethyl ether, 190 122-122 staff and responsibilities, 3 Ethylene dibromide (EDB), CD minimizing exposure, 124-125 Environmental health and safety Ethylene glycol ethers, 62, 72, 149 multihazardous materials, 125 policy, 10 Ethylene oxide, 60, 137, 273, CD protocols, 123

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328 INDEX Infrared radiation, 75, 162, 176 Integrated Safety Management Ion exchange resins, 204 Ingestion hazards, 58, 109-110, 119 system, 13-14 Ionizing radiation, 62, 80, 81, 162, Inhalation hazards, 55, 57-58, 61, Interlocks, 40, 108, 124, 149, 155, 271 110, 141, 221 170 Irritants, 50, 55, 58, 59, 60, 61, 112, Inhibitors, 70, 72, 73, 134 International Agency for Research 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 169, Injection hazards, 58, 111 on Cancer (IARC), 63, 275, 179, 290 Injuries and illnesses (see also 291 Isopropyl alcohol, 67, 172, 173 Accidents) International Air Transport Isopropyl ether, 72 acid burns, 58, 61, 118, 137, 138, Association, 23, 101, 271, 279 180, 214, 260 International Association K alkalis and bases, 58 for Assessment and assisting recovery and return Accreditation of Laboratory Kekulé, August, 1 to work, 12 Animal Care, 23 cuts, 58, 76, 115, 118-119, 149, International Chemical Safety Cards, L 164 51 emergency response, 117-119 International Civil Aviation Labels and labeling regulations, 281 Organization, 279 acids, 69 Inorganic compounds, 28, 52, 57, International Code Agency, 98 bar code, 19, 91 61, 62, 73, 96, 97, 120, 125, International Code Council, 273 color coding, 100, 165 130, 134, 135, 136, 139, 189, n.1 compressed gas cylinders, 140, 196, 210, 273, 279 International Commission on 165 Inorganic Syntheses, 209 Non-ionizing Radiation, 76 corrosives, 69, 165, 192, 199 Inspections and audits International Conference of experimental materials, 94 alarm systems, 43, 193, 245, Building Officials, 273 n.1 flammability and flash point, 249, 250 International Electromagnetic 65, 68 checklists, 23, 25, 26, 27 Field Project, 76 GHS system, 47 n.1, 49-50 compressed gas cylinders, 26, International Labour hazard communication, 49-50, 27, 164, 165, 169, 170 Organization, 49 51, 68, 94 conducting, 26 International Mechanical Codes, information to be included on, containers, 22, 135 242 94 corrective actions, 26 International Organization for inspection of, 22, 23, 27 EHS management system Standardization (ISO), 78 and inventory and tracking, performance, 24-25 n.3, 243, 280 94 elements of, 25-26 International Programme on nanomaterials, 103, 145 fire department, 25 Chemical Safety, 51 quality of information on, 51 glassware, 26, 66, 76-77, 115, 174 International Toxicity Estimates reading and heeding, 22, 28 hazardous waste, 26 for Risk (ITER), 53 regulatory standards, 51, 92, items to include in, 26-27 Inventory and tracking (see 268, 270, 271, 272, 274, 277, peer, 24 also Labels and labeling; 279, 294, 298 PPE, 15, 180 Recycling) replacement, 92 preparing for, 25 benefits, 22 by suppliers, 21, 51, 90, 94 pressure equipment, 165, 167, compressed gases, 140, 164 transfer and storage containers, 170-171 computerized, 23, 91 21, 51, 87, 94, 154, 277 program audits, 24 by container, 91 verification on receipt, 90, 298 regulatory agencies, 25 and emergency response, 94 warning, 51, 101 reports, 26 exchanges between waste, 23, 187, 191, 192, 193, routine, 24 laboratories and stockrooms, 194, 197, 198, 203, 206 self-audits, 24 92-93 Laboratory animals storage, 27 general considerations, 90-92 biohazards, 80, 205 types, 24-25 information in, 22-23 carcinogenicity testing and ventilation systems, 250 regulations, 22 results, 63, 275, 291-292, 302 Insurance, 36, 42, 43, 95, 102, 116, safety issues when performing, disposal of tissues and 198, 267, 269 23 carcasses, 205, 206, 207-208, Integrated Risk Information security issues, 23 303 System, 53 Iodine, 61, 81, 87, 136, 159, 203, CD facilities, 215, 239, 262

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329 INDEX personal protection for lighting, 258 toxic gases, 121 working with, 303 normal (Level 1), 263 waste containers, 185, 192, 197 security/protection of, 37, 260- operational, 258 water, 151 261, 262 physical and electronic, Lecture bottles, 89, 100, 165, 239 toxicity testing and results, 256-258 Lethal dose/lethal concentration, 54-55, 56, 59, 60, 62, 78, 269, protesters and civil 54-55, 56, 59, 60, 275 295, 302-303 disobedience, 35 Liability and litigation, 6, 102, 116 Laboratory Chemical Safety radioactive materials and Life cycle analysis, 86, 251 Summaries, 91, 108, 129, 140 related equipment, 261 Lifting injuries, 164 access to, 91, 123 requirements, 260-261 Light and lighting, 21, 41, 72, 100, content, 60, 62, 63, 68 research animals, 260-261 116, 154, 172, 216, 224, 245, criteria for selection of, 50-51 risks to, 7 250, 252, 258, 262, 301 limitations of, 50 systems integration, 259 explosion hazards, 70, 130, 133, preparation of, 51, 52, 55, 63, terrorist attacks, 35-36 248 CD video surveillance system, 258 fire hazards, 67, 136 and risk assessment, 55, 59, 60, vulnerability assessment, Liquefied gases, 69-70, 114, 61 261-262 135, 138, 140-141, 164, Laboratory coats, 15, 19, 26, 109, Laboratory supervisor, 17, 22, 24, 166, 172-174, 176, 242 (see 113, 126, 131, 132, 138, 144, 26, 75, 117, 177, 178, 180, also Compressed gases; 172, 214, 244, 247, 301, 303 231, 297-298, 299 Cryogens; specific gases) Laboratory Decommissioning Laboratory Ventilation Standard Liquid scintillation counter, 85, 203 Standard (ANSI), 253, 254, (AIHA/ANSI), 249 Liquid scintillation fluid, 202 269 Labpacks, 87, 186-187, 193, 194, Lithium, 70, 130, 178 Laboratory facilities (see Closure 198, 199 Lithium aluminum hydride, 90, or loss of institution or Lamps, 75, 151, 162 96, 138, CD building; Decommissioning; Landfills, 185, 190, 193, 194, 195, Lithium hydroxide, 96 Design of laboratory 196, 197, 300 Lower explosive limit (LEL), 66- facilities; Ventilation and Lasers, 19, 29, 34, 75, 76, 109, 137, 67, 68, 228, 240 environmental control 149, 151, 162, 176, 214, 215, Low-valent metal salts, 70 systems) 216, 217 computer laboratories, 213, Laundry, clothing, 109, 113, 118, M 214, 216 144, 175 Laboratory security (see also Lead and lead compounds, 62, 73, Magnesium, 73, 122, 130, 131, 136, Security plans) 81, 136, 166, 189, 193, 202, 141, 159, 178 administration and 203, 205, 206, 234, 273, 301, Magnesium hydroxide, 209 supervision, 123, 145, 262 CD Magnetic fields, 76, 163 alarms, 124, 256, 258, 264 Leadership, 2, 4, 37 Maintenance and repair, 4, 17, 24, barriers, 258 Leaks 41, 76, 102, 110, 114-115, 143, basics, 256-259 chemical hoods, 221, 224, 225, 149, 150, 162, 166, 167, 171, biohazards, 256, 260, 262, 263, 226, 227, 229, 231 180, 218, 221-222, 231, 232, 264 compressed gas cylinders, 120- 241, 248-249, 250, 252, 257, checklists, 262 121, 140, 166, 169, 170 295, 297, 298-299 chemicals of interest, 23, 89, corrosive gases, 121 Manometers, 75, 87, 88, 249 259, 260, 261, 262, 270, 275 detection, 100, 165, 171 Material Safety Data Sheets controlled substances, 261 flammable gases, 35, 69, 100, (MSDSs) controversial research and 120-121, 166, 170 access to, 27, 47-48, 89, 91, 268 researchers and, 35 gas cabinets, 239 audience for, 48-49, 78-79 and culture of safety, 7 gloveboxes, 243, 302 content, 22, 48, 50, 62 door locks, 257 microwave, 159 for emergency responders, 117, dual-use materials, 259-260, packages, 21, 90 118, 119, 138, 181 262 refrigerant, 245 for experimental materials, elevated (Level 2), 263-264 reporting, 245 101, 280, 281 high (Level 3), 264 secondary containment and, guidelines on use of, 13, 15, 21, information and data, 23, 258- 23, 98, 113, 114, 125, 127, 145, 22, 51, 59, 97, 108, 110, 118, 259, 262 298, 301 123, 127-128, 140

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330 INDEX information sources for Methyl-isobutyl ketone, 72, 190 incineration, 203, 205, 206, 207, preparing, 52-53 Methyl lithium, 96 208 limitations, 49, 91 Methyl methacrylate, 72, 177 labware, 206, 208 for nanomaterials, 103, 104 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, 72 medical waste and sharps, regulatory requirement, 47, Methylene chloride, 57, 64, 160, 206-207 270, 272, 274, 279, 280 190, 273 minimization, 202, 203, 207 and risk assessment, 47-49, 51, Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, offsite management, 207 55, 59, 61, 62 61 radioactive–biological spills and, 28, 29 Methylenedianiline, 273 laboratory waste, 207-208 from suppliers, 72, 89 Methylmercury, 275 risk assessment, 202 McLeod gauges, 75 Met-L-X, 122, 130, 178 sewer disposal, 206 Mechanical shock, 70, 130, 131, Microscale and miniaturized storage, 203-204 174-175 operations, 5, 49, 70, 74, 84- Multimeters, 152 Melting points, 48, 116, 158 85, 131, 203 Mercaptans, 210, 240 Microwave ovens, 141 N Mercury, CD acid digestion bombs, 159 bubblers, 170 containers in, 75-76, 159 Nanomaterials decontamination, 254 Microwaves, 75-76, 162 airborne concentrations, 135, incompatibilities, 166 Molecular sieves, 204, 236 143, 144, 248 in meters and gauges, 75, 87- Molecular weights, 48 in biosafety cabinets, 248 88, 157 Monitoring (see also Laboratory in chemical hoods, 248 MSDSs, 303 security) clothing and PPE, 143, 144 properties, 57 aerosols, 144 containers, 103, 143, 145 reclamation, 93 airborne concentrations, 60, controls for R&D laboratories, replacement, 87-88 143, 144, 208, 228, 298 141-146 spills, 121, 157, 254 chemical hoods, 17, 23, 124, determining appropriate toxicity, 62, 75 223, 225, 226, 231, 236, controls, 142-143 waste, 174, 195, 196, 205, 206 297-298 engineering controls, 143-146, Metal acetylides, 71 cold storage, 97-98 248 Metal alkyls, 128, 178 exposure, 16, 81, 228, 269, 289, facilities, 248 Metal azides, 210 292, 293-294, 295 filters 79, 142, 143, 145, 221, Metal fires and explosions, 132, heating equipment, 157, 158 236, 240, 244, 248 140, 141, 160, 177-178, 254 nanomaterials, 79, 144, 248 hazards, 77-79 Metal fulminates, 71 pressure equipment, 135, 141, housekeeping, 144-145 Metal halides, 70, 210 165, 166, 243 information sources, 142 Metal hydrides, 70, 122, 128, 136, radiation, 81, 82, 127, 132 marking, labeling, and signage, 178, 210 regulatory compliance, 20, 123, 145 Metal hydroxides, 61 272, 273, 294 monitoring and Metal nitrides, 70 spills and leaks, 35, 79, 140, characterization, 111 Metal oxides, 57, 70, 86, 141 168, 245, 249 offsite transport and shipment, Metal perchlorates, 254 ventilation systems, 252, 298 103 Metal peroxides, 71, 73, 130-131 wastes, 197-198 onsite transfer and transport, Methane, 62, 70, 129, 172 Multihazardous waste 103-104 Methanol, 57, 65, 67, 69, 96, 190, animal tissues and carcasses, personnel competency, 196, 202, 203, 204, 214, 303, 206, 207-208 145-146 CD chemical–biological waste, planning and hazard Methyl acetate, 204 205-207 assessment, 142 Methyl acetylene, 72 chemical–radioactive– regulations, 280 Methyl chloride, 141 biological waste, 208 ventilation systems, 143, 248 Methyl chloroform, 278 chemical–radioactive waste, waste disposal, 145 Methyl cyclopentane, 72 202-205 work area design, 143 Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), 67, commercial disposal services, work practices, 145 CD 205 NARM (naturally-occurring Methyl fluorosulfonate, 60 hazard reduction (treatment), or accelerator-produced Methyl iodide (see CD) 204-205 radioactive material), 80, 202

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331 INDEX National Electrical Code (NEC), Nitrogen, 34, 62, 69, 73, 74, 75, 76, Oily rags, 178 149, 152 77, 111, 129, 130, 131, 133, Olfactory fatigue, 60 National Emission Standards for 134, 135, 138, 140, 153, 154, Online services (see Computer Hazardous Air Pollutants, 158, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, systems and services; specific 270 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, databases) National Fire Protection 239, 243, 245 Open houses, 25 Association Nitrogen compounds, 71 Ordering chemicals (see chemical hood standards, 224, Nitrogen dioxide, 56, 57, 60, 61, Acquisition of chemicals) 231 275, 303, CD Organic compounds, 52, 58, 61, 62 electrical code, 149, 152 Nitrogen mustard, 260 acetylenic, 135 fire code, 22, 51, 67, 68, 95, 98, Nitrogen oxides, 138 adsorbents, 236 224, 231, 243, 270, 273 Nitrogen triiodide, 70, 136 air emissions, 278 fire protection guidelines, 52, Nitrosamines (see CD) azides, 70, 71, 72, 136 68 N-Nitroso compounds, 70, 71, compatible, 98 hazard classification, 68, 69 138-139, 273, 302, 303 drying, 157 storage regulations, 22, 95, 98, Noise extremes, 77, 132, 149, 164, explosion hazards, 138, 139- 273 214, 216-217, 229, 250, 272 140, 141, 173 National Institute for Notifying personnel of flammability/combustion, 65, Occupational Safety and emergencies, 117 69, 159, 190, 205 Health (NIOSH), 48, 51, 52, Nuclear Regulatory Commission halides, 136, 205 53, 59, 60, 64, 66, 77, 78-79, (USNRC), 79, 81, 82, 127, mercury, 62 109, 111, 112, 141, 142, 144, 189, 201, 202, 204, 205, 207, nitrates, 70, 130 164, 178, 179, 268, 269 208, 253, 261, 271, 276 oxidizable, 73, 208 National Institutes of Health, 77, Nucleating agents, 73, 129 peroxides, 50, 70, 72, 73, 100- 79, 126, 201, 203, 207, 260 101, 130-131, 133-135, 189, National Library of Medicine, 52, 210, 290, 291 O 53, 63 solvents, 62, 70, 76, 93, 111, 112, National Pollutant Discharge Occupational and Educational 136, 138, 139, 140, 151, 153, Elimination Systems Eye and Face Protection, 108 157, 159, 177, 188, 190, 196 (NPDES), 271 Occupational Safety and Health waste, 186-187, 188, 189, 190, National Toxicology Program Act, 268, 270, 281 196, 203, 204-205, 208, 210 (NTP), 63, 275, 291 Occupational Safety and Health water solublity, 188, 192, 196 Near-infrared radiation, 75 Administration (see also Organisation for Economic Co- Needle valves, 168 OSHA Standards) operation and Development, Needles and syringes, 30, 58, 111, GHS implementation, 49 49 114, 131, 164, 206-207, 208, information resources, 53 Organolithium compounds, 136 278 state laws, 268 Organomercurial compounds, 301 Neurotoxicity, 54, 55, 56, 59, 62, Odor and odor thresholds, 60, Organometallic compounds, 70, 290 92, 95, 99, 137, 139, 141, 179, 122, 130, 139, 170 Neutralization and neutralizers 187, 216, 237, 240, 293, 301 Organophosphates, 62 acids, 120, 121, 136, 137, 138, Odorants, 70 OSHA standards 195, 196, 208, 209 Oil chemical-specific, 273 alkalis and bases, 120, 209, baths, 88, 93, 128, 129, 133, 154, Control of Hazardous Energy 210 155, 156, 158 Standard, 150 Nickel, 61 bubblers, 170 enforcement, 268 Nickel alloys, 166, 174 filters, 179 exposure limits, 269, 273 Nickel carbonyl, 60, 166, 302, 303, fires, 174 Hazard Communication CD PCBs, 275-276 Standard, 47, 48, 49, 51, 101, Nitrates, 69, 70, 71, 96, 130, 138, reactivity, 139, 140, 165, 167, 268-269, 270, 275 139, 190 169, 170 Laboratory Standard, 2, 6, 13 Nitric acid, 69, 73, 96, 120, 131, vacuum pump, 93, 133, 153, n.2, 14-15, 17, 18, 20, 21, 138, 139, 214, CD 173, 174 22, 48, 59, 62, 63, 101, 175, Nitrites, 69, 71, 140 waste, 174, 277 268-269, 270, 272, 273-275, Oil Dri, 120 289-305

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332 INDEX Occupational Exposure to Paracelsus, 18 familiarity with, 22 Bloodborne Pathogens Particularly hazardous substances foot protection, 175-176 Standard, 79, 206 (PHSs), 5, 13, 14, 18, 23, 55, glass hazards, 26, 36, 75, 108, Personal Protective Equipment 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 80, 118, 109, 124, 132, 172, 176, 214 Standard, 111, 112, 175 216, 220, 274-275, 278, 293, PHSs and, 13 Respiratory Protection 296 Petroleum ether, 120 Standard, 110, 178, 179, 180, Particulates, 49, 57, 79-80, 144, Pets, 16 270 176, 179, 181, 221, 231, 235, Phenol, 58, 61, 139, 202, 204, 303, Osmium tetroxide, 60, 260, CD 236, 237, 239, 243-244, 254 CD Ovens (see also Nanomaterials; Phorbol esters, 64 drying samples, 156-157 Powders and dusts) Phosgene, 57, 60, 85-86, 239, 260, general precautions, 156-157 Pentanes, 67, 72, 120 303, CD microwave, 141, 159 Peracetic acid, 303, CD Phosphate buffer, 54 Oxidants and oxidation (see also Perchlorates, 69, 70, 71, 74, 98, 99, Phosphine, 139, 141 specific compounds) 130, 131, 139, 254 Phosphorus, 61, 69, 81, 90, 96, 139, acids, 69, 73, 96, 98, 120, 128- Perchloric acid, 69, 71, 73, 96, 100, 203, CD 129, 131, 138, 188 129, 131, 139, 224, 226, 233- Phosphorus pentachloride, 70 adsorbents, 236 234, 240, 242, 254, CD Phosphorus pentoxide, 61, 136 corrosive, 61, 121, 138 Permanganates, 69, 73, 98, 99, 130, Phosphorus trichloride, 139 fire hazard, 34, 69, 70, 128-129, 139, 210, 236 Physical hazards (see also specific 141 Permissible exposure limits hazards) gases, 50, 69, 70, 120-121, 135, (PELs), 60, 268, 269, 273, 274, compressed gases, 74, 291 137, 141, 169, 170, 291 292, 294, 295, 297 cryogens (nonflammable), 74 incompatibilities, 70, 73, 139, Peroxides and peroxidizables (see electrocution, 76 140 also specific compounds) ergonomic, 77 liquids, 69 acids, 72, 134, 139 high-pressure reactions, 74 metal oxidants, 57, 70, 86, 141 containers, 21, 69, 133, 134 information sources, 48 nonoxygen examples, 69 detection tests, 134 magnetic fields, 76 reactivity, 70, 130, 131, 139, 140 dilution, 133, 134 radio frequency and solids, 69 distillation, 72, 134, 136 microwaves, 75-76 spills and leaks, 120-121 explosives, 19, 72-73, 133-135 sharp edges, 76-77 storage, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 140, metal peroxides, 71, 73, 130-131 slips, trips, and falls, 77 170 organic peroxides, 50, 70, 72, ultraviolet, visible, and waste, 187, 188, 195, 204, 205, 73, 100-101, 130-131, 133- infrared radiation, 75 208 135, 189, 210, 290, 291 vacuum work, 74-75 Oxygen, 62, 65, 66, 67, 135, CD peroxidizable compounds, 134 Pipets and pipetting, 77, 110, 126, cylinders/tanks, 139, 163, 169 precautions for handling, 127, 206, 252 depletion, 163, 173, 179, 245 133-134 Planning (see Chemical Hygiene gas/atmospheric, 70, 72, 73, 78, reducing agents for, 134 Plans; Emergency action 129, 134, 135 storage, 21, 72, 100, 133-134 plan; Emergency response; isotopes, 203 waste disposal, 134-135, 187, Experiment planning) leak testing, 169 188-189, 190, 210 Plastic equipment and containers, liquefied, 69, 74, 135, 172, 173 Personal protective equipment 76, 88, 94, 96, 97, 98, 99, 112, monitors, 163, 173, 245 (see also Clothing and 113, 114, 115, 120, 128, 129, oil/lubricant reactivity, 139, protective apparel; Gloves 130, 144, 145, 149, 150, 156, 140, 165, 167, 169, 170 and hand protection; 168, 169, 172, 173, 174, 175, scavenging/scavengers, 160 Goggles; Respirators) 191, 203, 224, 233, 234, 236, Ozone, 57, 60, 69, 76, 139, 151, airborne contaminants, 127, 240, 243, 244, 245, 302, 303 271, 278, CD 144, 178-180 Platinum, 61, 130, 135, 139 corrosives, 171-172, 176 Polychlorinated biphenyls eye protection, 26, 36, 75, 108, (PCBs), 187, 206, 270, P 109, 124, 132, 144, 162, 176 275-276 Palladium on carbon, 139, 130, face protection, 26, 61, 108, 109, Polymerization, 70, 72, 73, 116, CD 114, 131, 132, 138, 144, 162, 130, 292 Pandemic planning, 35 173, 174, 176 Polyols, 139

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333 INDEX R Potassium, 69, 70, 75, 130, 134, piping, tubing, and fittings, 140, CD 164, 166, 167, 168, 169 Radiation and radioactive Potassium amide, 72 plastic equipment, 168 materials (see also Potassium chloride, 195, 196 pressure gauges, 167 Multihazardous waste) Potassium cyanide, CD records, inspection, and absorbed dose, 81-82 Potassium hydride, 122, CD testing, 165, 167, 170-171 acids, 202, 203, 205 Potassium hydroxide, 120, 140, relief devices and regulators, aerosols, 204, 208, 221 207, CD 166-167 biological materials, 207-208 Potassium iodide, 134, 188, 189 shielding, 166, 170, 172, 174, clothing and PPE, 80, 127, 162 Potassium metals, 72, 122, 134, 175, 300 decay in storage, 203-204, 207, 178, 180 stuffing boxes and gland joints, 208, 278 Potassium permanganate, 73, 236 166 disposal, 202-205, 207-208 Potassium peroxides, 139 Teflon tape applications, 165, filters, 236 Powders and dusts, 55, 57, 60, 73, 168 hazards, 75, 79-82 78, 112, 124, 130, 131, 136, valves, 166, 167, 168 procedures for working with, 145, 161, 177, 178, 179, 190, venting, 167 127 222, 231, 237, 244, 248, 254, warning signs, 166 shielding, 81, 82, 127, 203, 234 302 Principal investigators and training requirements, 13 Preparation (see Emergency project managers, 3, 4, 6, Radio frequency hazards, 75 preparedness; Experiment 19, 38, 251, 262 (see also Raney nickel, 73, 130, 136, 139 planning; Procedures for Laboratory supervisor) Reaction hazard index, 65 working with materials) Procedures for working Reactivity (see also Explosive Pressure control systems/devices with materials (see also and highly reactive air, 214, 219, 240 Experiment planning) hazards; Incompatibility clean rooms, 219, 243 biohazards, 126-127, 247-248 of chemicals; Pyrophorics; compressed gas cylinders, 26, compressed gases, 140-141 Water reactivity; specific 164, 168, 169-170 equipment and glassware compounds) gauges, 88, 167, 172, 180, 243, maintenance, 114-115 in air, 70, 72, 87, 93, 125, 130, 249 explosive and highly reactive 134, 135, 136, 137, 139, 140, precautions, 166-167 materials, 130-140 141, 143, 160, 173 Pressure vessels and reactions flammable chemicals, 127-130 gases 57, 70, 133, 135, 140, 141 (see also Autoclaves and highly toxic substances, glass, 137, 141 autoclaving; Compressed 122-125 hazards, 70 gases; Vacuum systems and housekeeping, 113-114 information sources, 52, 65, 304 operations) information sources, 48 pressure reactions, 166 and airborne contamination, minimizing exposure, 108-113, storage hazards, 100-101 135 124-125 Receiving chemicals, 21, 79, 89-90, assembly and operation, nanomaterials, 141-146 263, 278, 299 165-168 personal behavior, 108 Receiving rooms and loading cleaning, 165 radioactive materials, 127 areas, 89-90, 240, 256 closed-system vessels, 166 storage of chemicals, 114 Recycling compatibility of equipment transport of chemicals, 114 characterization of wastes for, materials and fittings with Procurement (see Acquisition of 187, 190 chemicals, 166, 167, 169 chemicals) containers, packaging, and gas monitors and alarms, 168 Publicly owned treatment works labware, 93-94, 191 glass equipment, 26, 74-75, 109, (POTW), 196, 202, 204, 278 energy reclamation, 195-196, 115, 131-132, 135, 149, 153, Pull stations, 121, 127 198 167, 170, 171-172, 174-175 Putrescible waste, 204, 206, 207, general considerations, 92, 93, headspace, 166 208 192, 194 for highly reactive materials, Pyridine, 72, 303, CD information sources, 201 166 Pyrolysis, 73, 136 manufacturer and supplier role maintenance, 167 Pyrophorics, 19, 34, 50, 69, 70, 74, multihazardous waste, 201, maximum allowable working 96, 100, 113, 128-129, 135- 202, 204, 205 pressure, 167 136, 141, 145, 159, 233, 291 nonhazardous solid waste, 192

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334 INDEX off-site, 93, 185, 186, 198 characteristic waste, 189-190 accidents, 5, 16, 19, 29, 30, 181, regulations for chemical chemical hazardous waste, 281, 299 hazardous waste, 193-194, 189-191 supervisors, 15, 16, 17, 226, 301 195-196, 277, 300 Chemical Hygiene Plan, 3, 15, TSCA requirements, 279 solvents, 5-6, 84, 93, 185, 192 47, 269, 274, 275, 292-293, Reproductive toxins, 50, 52, 53, Reducing agents, 69, 70, 73, 100, 295, 296 55, 56, 59, 62-63, 86, 97, 101, 130, 133, 138, 139-140, 170 chemicals used in laboratories, 274-275, 290, 291, 293 Refrigerators and refrigeration 270, 273 Resource Conservation and access control, 123, 216 compliance monitoring, 3 Recovery Act (RCRA), 93, alarms on, 216 compressed gases, 114, 164, 189, 190, 193, 194, 196, 201, azo and peroxide storage, 72, 270, 290, 291 202, 209, 267, 271, 272, 276, 100, 133-134 containers, 21, 94, 103, 191, 194, 277-278 containers, 154 298, 301 Respirators decommissioning, 253, 254 and culture of safety, 6 inspections, 180 defrosting and cleaning, 21, determining regulatory status procedures and training, 180 154 of waste, 190-191 types, 179 explosion-proof, 21, 153-154 electrical codes, 149, 150, 151, Respiratory tract, 57, 124, 166, 179 flammability hazards, 21, 152, 154 (see also Inhalation hazards) 153-154 emergency preparedness and Risk assessment (see also Hazard food or beverages, 21, 153 response, 6, 272, 299 evaluation) freezer space for samples, 37 employee information and aerosols, 55, 60, 80, 221 labeling of samples, 154 training, 6 airborne contaminants, 219 power loss, 40, 41, 76 empty containers, 191 biohazards, 13, 79, 80, 207, 221 safety precautions, 153 and experiment planning, carcinogens, 54, 55, 63-64 sharing between research 281-282 control banding, 64-65 groups, 216 federal processes, 267 existing control systems, 11 spark-proof, 154 fire codes, 11, 22, 27, 51, 89, explosivity, 70-74, 132 storage management, 97-98, 95, 98, 100, 113, 114, 128, flammability, 65-70 154 151, 154, 214, 216, 243, 270, information sources, 47-49 waste storage in, 207 272-273 review of, 12 Registry of Toxic Effects of limited waste, 190 toxicity, 54, 55, 58-60 Chemical Substances participation in regulatory Risk-Based Performance Standard (RTECS), 59 processes, 267 (DHS), 262 Regulations and legislation (see PCBs, 275-276 also Occupational Safety penalties for violations, 6, 23, S and Health Administration; 267-268 OSHA standards; individual physical hazards, 6 Safety and emergency equipment statutes) radioactive materials, 79, 127, (see also Fire safety accident reporting and record 270, 276, 278 equipment) keeping, 272, 281, 299 rationale for, 267 access to, 15, 27 acquisition of chemicals, 21, 22, relationships between automatic external 278, 299 regulations and standards, defibrillators, 180 acutely toxic substances, 274, 268-269 eyewash units and safety 275, 290, 293, 295, 301-302 risk-based performance showers, 15, 27, 28, 29, 34, administration and supervision standards, 89, 259, 261, 270, 113, 117, 118, 121, 122, 125, of laboratories, 279, 280, 281, 273 127, 128, 137, 176, 178, 180, 295 shipping, export, and import, 181, 217, 218, 273, 297, 299 biohazards, 79, 189, 270-271, 23, 271-272, 278-281 first aid, 15, 28, 36, 125, 137, 272, 276, 278, 280-281 state, 268 180 building codes, 11, 22, 27, 95, storage, 95 respirators, 178-180 98, 100, 215, 217, 218, 242, training in, 23 shields, 177 253, 272-273 waste management, 6, 271, spill control kits and cleanup, carcinogens, 59, 63, 101, 273, 276-278 177 275, 290, 293, 302 Reporting storage and inspection, 180-181 academic laboratories, 3

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335 INDEX Safety committees, 12, 16-17, 23, safety shields, 74, 108, 172, Sodium bisulfate, 120, 136 24-25, 64, 276 176, 177, 187 (see also Face Sodium bisulfite, 134 Safety rules and policies shields) Sodium borohydride, 96 general guidelines, 15-17 Shipment and transport (see also Sodium carbonate, 120, 195 housekeeping practices, 19-20 Exports and imports) Sodium cyanide, 54, 56, 60, 260, working alone, 17-18 in alcohol, 101 303, CD Safety shields, 74, 108, 172, 176, biological materials, 101, 272, Sodium hydride, CD 177, 187 278, 280-281 Sodium hydrogen sulfide, 96 Scientists with disabilities, 6-7 carts, 23 Sodium hydroxide, 61, 96, 136, Scrubbers, 236 chemicals, within U.S., 280 140, 190, 209, CD Security (see Laboratory security) containment, 6, 23, 89, 90, 114, Sodium hypochlorate, 96 Security plans 125, 298 Sodium nitrite, 140 elements, 262-263 corrosives, 199 Sodium peroxide, 90 levels of security, 263-264 gas cylinders 111, 114, 168 Solvents (see also specific chemicals) managing security, 264 information sources, 48 drying, 78, 140 training, 264 “materials of trade” filtration, 84 Seismic activity, 35, 36, 70, 95, 96, exemption, 102 flammable, 28, 120 97, 100, 168, 199 nanomaterials, 102-104, 280 green chemistry, 85-86 Select agents, 79, 270 regulations, 23, 271-272, organic compounds, 62, 70, 76, Select carcinogens, 55, 59, 63-64, 278-281 93, 111, 112, 136, 138, 139, 86, 97, 274-275, 290, 291-292 training, 23 140, 151, 153, 157, 159, 177, Sensitizers (see Allergens, waste, 87, 186-187, 193, 194, 188, 190, 196 sensitizers, and allergic 198, 199 recycling, 5-6, 84, 93, 185, reactions) Signage and postings, 39, 250, 298 192 Service animals, 16, 218 Short-term exposure limits spills, 28, 120 Sewer discharges, 16, 35, 69, 85, (STELs), 51, 60, 269 stills, 93, 159-160 134, 145, 149, 153, 185, 186, Showers Southern Building Code Congress 192, 193, 195, 196, 202, 203, air, 244 International, Inc., 273 n.1 204, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, safety, 15, 27, 28, 29, 34, 113, Spills and releases 222, 232, 276, 278, 300, 301 117, 118, 121, 122, 125, 127, absorbents, 28, 120, 125, 133, Sharps 137, 176, 178, 180, 181, 217, 134, 145, 177, 302 disposal, 58, 111, 114, 206-207 218, 273, 297, 299 acids, 28, 120 hazards, 76-77 Silver and silver compounds, 166, alarms, 35, 82, 124 Shelf life and expiration dates, 167, CD alkalis and bases, 120 21, 22, 92, 100, 101, 112, 125, Skin contact and effects cleanup, 28-29, 120, 280-281 132, 134, 138, 261 absorption of toxins, 55, 58, 60, containment, 120 Shielding 62, 124, 139, 166, 179 debris management, 120 bench shields, 132 airborne contaminants, 179 disposal, 28 blast/explosion, 109, 110, 130, cold and cryogenic substances, emergency planning and 131, 161, 174 119 response, 28-29, 35, 118, 120, chemical hoods, 131-132, 160, corrosives, 58, 61, 111, 135, 141, 121, 280-281 177, 187 190 environmental releases, 28 full-face, 26, 61, 108, 109, 114, emergency response, 118 flammable solvents, 28, 120 131, 132, 138, 144, 162, 173, minimizing, 111-113 highly toxic substances, 29, 174, 176 toxic chemicals, 58 120, 273 glass materials, 177, 225, 229, Slips and falls, 77, 164 information sources, 28 248 Slot hoods, 220, 237, 238 low-flammability and low- for magnetic fields, 76 Snorkels, 143, 220-221, 226, 237, toxicity materials, 28 microwave or radio frequency 238, 240, 241, 250, 251, 298 mercury, 121 emissions, 162 Sodium, 69, 70, 75, 122, 130, 137, policy, 28-29 pressure/vacuum reactions, 139, 140, 159, 178, CD regulations, 281-282 166, 170, 172, 174, 175, 300 Sodium amide, 72, 140 reporting, 28, 29, 281 radiation, 81, 82, 127, 203, 234 Sodium azide, 61, 136, 260, 303, Standards Completion Program, rotating equipment, 160, 162, CD 52 163 Sodium bicarbonate, 120, 177

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336 INDEX Standards for Protection Against Sulfur, 73, 81, 121, 131, 136, 203, exposure routes, 57-58 Radiation (USNRC), 79, 127, 209 gases, 57, 85, 122, 140, 172, 190, 270, 276 Sulfur dioxide, 96, 170, 303, CD 261, 275 Static electric discharges, 22, 23, Sulfuric acid, 61, 69, 73, 96, 120, hazard evaluation, 53-65 69, 113, 128, 129, 132, 168, 139-140, CD information sources, 48, 52 170, 176 Suppression of aerosols, 114, 124, minimizing exposure, 124-125 Stoppers, 133, 154 126, 208, 236, 240, 244, 301, planning experiments, 122-123 Storage (see also Refrigerators and 302-303 protocols, 123 refrigeration) Survival kit, 36 risk assessment, 55, 58-60 access control, 21, 22 storage, 101, 125 acids, 20, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, target organs, 63 T 125 types, 60-65 biosafety cabinets, 75, 80, 126, Teachers and instructors, 3-4 waste disposal, 125 143, 220, 221, 231, 236, 244, Teaching laboratories (see TOXLINE, 53 245-248, 251 Academic laboratories) TOXNET, 52, 53, 63 carcinogens, 97, 101 Technology advances, and culture Tracer gases, 221 chemical storage cabinets, 22 of safety, 5 Training (see Education and clothing and PPE, 113, 175 Temperature sensors and smoke training in safety practices) cold storage, 21, 97-98 detectors, 100, 178, 249 Transfer and exchange of compatibility, 21, 22, 27, 96-97 Teratogens, 52, 62, 275, 291 (see chemicals compressed gas cylinders, 26, also Developmental toxicity; between containers, 23, 84, 35, 90, 96, 100, 111, 114, 154, Reproductive toxins) 87, 94, 104, 113, 123, 125, 164, 166, 168, 170 Testing 240-241 containers, 35, 73, 77, 89, 94, 95, with acids, 188, 189 compressed gases, 166 96, 97, 98-99, 100, 113, 114, alarm systems, 43, 193, 245, nanomaterials, 103-104 125, 129, 133, 137, 154, 191, 249, 250 Transport (see Shipment and 192, 302 Tetrahydrofuran, 28, 67, 72, 96, transport) controlled substances. 95 120, 134, 136, 138, 160, CD Trifluoroacetic acid, CD corrosives, 97, 100, 166, 192, Thermometers, 17, 87-88, 157 Trimethylaluminum, CD 221 Titanium, 73, 136 Trimethyltin chloride, CD cyanides, 22 Titanium dioxide, 49, 78-79, 141 Tubing, 17-18, 76, 115, 128, 137, dating, 21 Toluene, 67, 85, 86, 93, 96, 133, 149, 154, 156, 164, 165-166, experiment planning, 125 140, 202, 203, CD 167, 168, 170, 171, 172, 175, flammable and combustible Toluene diisocyanate, 61, CD 176, 237, 239 (see also Hoses) liquids, 22, 98-99 Toxic Substances Control Act gas cylinders, 100 (TSCA), 279-280 U general considerations, 95-96, Toxins and toxicity (see also 114 Acute toxicity; Allergens, ULPA (ultra-low penetration air) in glass, 73, 94, 99, 100, 129, sensitizers, and allegic filters, 236, 248 133, 137, 154, 191, 192, 302 reactions; Asphyxiants and Ultrasonic equipment, 85, 86, 149, highly toxic substances, 22, 97, asphyxiation; Carcinogens; 161 101, 125 Chronic toxicity and health Ultraviolet peroxidation, 203, inappropriate places, 21 affects; Corrosives and 208 information sources, 48 corrosivity; Developmental Ultraviolet radiation, 72, 75, 76, inspection, 27 toxicity; Exposure; Irritants; 109, 139, 151, 162, 176 labeling, 21, 51, 94, 154 Neurotoxicity; Reproductive Unattended experiments, 34, 39, odiferous materials, 22 toxins) 40, 41, 42, 116, 124, 128, 149, peroxides, 21, 72, 100, 133-134 access control, 123-124 151, 154, 155, 156, 158, 160, reactive substances, 100-101 compressed gases, 96, 121 161, 170, 301 regulations, 95 designated areas, 123 Unconscious victims, 119 rooms, 22 dose-response relationship, Uniform Fire Code, 270 shelving, 21 54-56 Uniform Hazardous Waste size of containers, 99 duration and frequency of Manifest, 199, 200 sprinkler head distance, 21 exposure, 56 United Nations ventilation, 22 emergency planning, 125 Environment Programme, 51

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337 INDEX Recommendations on the engineering controls for wastes, 153, 174, 190, 191, Transport of Dangerous personal protection, 220 192, 199, 209 Goods, 49 exhaust systems, 241-243 cost-effectiveness, 5-6 Sub-Committee of Experts on goals performance and culture of safety, 5-6 the Transport of Dangerous measurement, 250-251 experiment planning, 125 Goods, 49 information sources, 253 filter disposal, 107, 191, 192 Unused and excess material, 73, inspection, 250 highly toxic materials, 125 86, 87, 114, 133, 185, 192 maintenance, 248-249, 250 information sources, 48 management program, 249-251 landfill disposal, 185, 190, 193, monitoring systems, 252 194, 195, 196, 197, 300 V retrocommissioning, 252 packaging and shipment, 87, Vacuum cleaners, 121, 145, risk assessment, 219-221 186-187, 193, 194, 198, 199 302-303 supply systems, 179, 180-181, radioactive waste, 202-205, 208, Vacuum systems and operations 217, 222, 226, 227, 241 278 assembly of apparatus, 175 sustainability considerations, reduction/minimization, 5, desiccators, 175 251-253 6, 85, 86, 108, 195, 201, 202, Dewar flasks, 174-175 training program, 250 203, 207, 277 glass vessels, 26, 74-75, 109, Venting (see also Exhaust systems) regulations, 271, 276-278 115, 131-132, 135, 149, 153, gas cylinders, 168, 170 sewer discharges, 16, 35, 69, 85, 167, 170, 171-172, 174-175 Vinyl acetylene, 71 134, 145, 149, 153, 185, 186, hazards, 74-75 Visible radiation, 75 192, 193, 195, 196, 202, 203, pumps, 153 Visitors, 15, 16, 35 204, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, rotary evaporators, 175 222, 232, 276, 278, 300, 301 spill cleanup, 121 sharps, 77, 114, 115, 203, 205 W Valves, gas cylinders, 168, 169 source reduction, 5, 122, 185, Vapor pressure, 56, 57, 65, 122, Waste management (see also 195, 201, 202 128, 164, 219, 220, 290 Characterization of waste; treatment (laboratory-scale) Variable autotransformers, 151, Chemical hazardous waste; of surplus and waste 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 170 Multihazardous waste) chemicals, 209-210 Vehicular accidents, 102, 193 absorbents, 193, 203, 204 Water reactivity Ventilated balance enclosures, academic laboratories, 3 hazardous materials, 70 220, 238 administration and Weather, severe, 34-35 Ventilation and environmental supervision, 209, 302 Windows, 132, 258 control systems (see also air emissions, 278 Working alone, 15, 17-18, 116, 120, Chemical hoods; Exhaust biohazards, 87, 108, 127, 185, 122, 301 systems) 187, 189, 195, 201, 202, 205- World Health Organization, 51, and airborne contaminants, 208, 278 76 219, 221, 241, 251, 296, 298 commingling of waste, 191, code requirements, 253 193, 194, 198, 203 X choosing, 253 containers, 23, 58, 87, 93, 110, commissioning, 251 111, 114, 120, 125, 127, 144, Xylene, 62, 67, 85, 93, 190, 203 constant air volume systems, 145, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 241 198, 199, 206-207, 209 Z containers, 139-140 corrosives, 113, 118, 144, 302 design criteria, 249-250 Zirconium, 73, 136

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