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Appendix C Glossary Anthroponotic: Transmission from human to human and potentially from human to animal. Conjunctiva: The thin, transparent tissue that covers the outer surface of the eye. It begins at the outer edge of the cornea, covering the visible part of the sclera, and lining the inside of the eyelids. It is nourished by tiny blood vessels that are nearly invisible to the naked eye (http://www.stlukeseye.com/Anatomy/ Conjunctiva.asp [accessed June 3, 2009]). Copepod: A type of crustacean which may live in both salt and freshwater and is one of the most abundant animals on the planet (http://jaffeweb.ucsd.edu/pages/ celeste/Intro/ index.html [accessed June 3, 2009]). Cornea: The transparent, dome-shaped window covering the front of the eye (http://www.stlukeseye.com/anatomy/cornea.asp [accessed June 3, 2009]). CT measurement: The product of free chlorine residual (C) and contact time (T) required for disinfection which measures the effectiveness of free chlorine in inactivating microorganisms. Dracunculiasis: Dracunculiasis, or Guinea worm disease, is caused by the para- site Dracunculus medinensis. The disease affects poor communities in remote parts of Africa that do not have safe water to drink. There is no treatment for Guinea worm disease, yet removal of the worm as it emerges from the infected 283
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284 GLOBAL ISSUES IN WATER, SANITATION, AND HEALTH person’s skin is curative or surgical removal by a trained doctor (http://www.cdc. gov/ncidod/dpd/parasites/dracunculiasis/ default.htm [accessed June 3, 2009]). Evaporation: The conversion of liquid to gas. Flocculation: The separation of a solution. Most commonly, flocculation is used to describe the removal of a sediment from a fluid. In addition to occur- ring naturally, flocculation can also be forced through agitation or the addition of flocculating agents. Numerous manufacturing industries use flocculation as part of their processing techniques, and it is also extensively employed in water treatment. The technique is also widely used in the medical world to analyze vari- ous fluids (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-flocculation.htm [accessed June 3, 2009]). Fomite: Inanimate objects or substances that can transmit infectious organisms from one host to another (IOM. 1993. Indoor allergens: assessing and controlling adverse health effects. Washington, DC: National Academy Press). Megacity: Urban concentration with more than 10 million inhabitants (wwap. unesco.org/ev.php [accessed June 4, 2009]). Recreational water: That which is used for water-based activities in marine, freshwater, hot tubs, spas and swimming pools (Pond, K. 2005. Water recreation and disease. plausibility of associated infections: acute effects, sequelae and mor- tality. London: IWA Publishing on behalf of the World Health Organization). Sullage: Sullage (or grey water) is dirty water from the laundry, kitchen, and bathroom. Grey water contains chemicals such as dish detergent and soap as well as fats, grease, and whatever washes off our body while bathing. Sullage does not usually contain sewage but can be equally contaminated and can cause infections (http://www.nt.gov.au/health/healthdev/health_promotion/bushbook/ volume2/chap2/intro.htm [accessed May 18, 2009]). Superfund: The U.S. government program to clean up the nation’s uncontrolled hazardous waste sites.