ENSURING THE QUALITY, CREDIBILITY, AND RELEVANCE OF U.S. JUSTICE STATISTICS

Panel to Review the Programs of the Bureau of Justice Statistics

Robert M. Groves and Daniel L. Cork, Editors

Committee on National Statistics

Committee on Law and Justice

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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ENSURING THE QUALITY, CREDIBILITY, AND RELEVANCE OF U.S. JUSTICE STATISTICS Panel to Review the Programs of the Bureau of Justice Statistics Robert M. Groves and Daniel L. Cork, Editors Committee on National Statistics Committee on Law and Justice Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, DC www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Gov- erning Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support of the work of the Committee on National Statistics is provided by a con- sortium of federal agencies through a grant from the National Science Foundation (No. SES-0453930). The project that is the subject of this report was supported by an allocation from the U.S. Department of Justice to the National Science Foun- dation under this grant. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-13910-6 International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-13910-4 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001; (202) 334-3096; Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2009 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2009). Ensuring the Quality, Cred- ibility, and Relevance of U.S. Justice Statistics. Panel to Review the Programs of the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Robert M. Groves and Daniel L. Cork, eds. Committee on National Statistics and Committee on Law and Justice, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the gov- ernment, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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PANEL TO REVIEW THE PROGRAMS OF THE BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS R OBERT M. G ROVES (Chair), Survey Research Center, University of Michigan, and Joint Program in Survey Methodology, University of Maryland W ILLIAM G. B ARRON , J R ., Consultant, Princeton University and U.S. Department of Commerce W ILLIAM C LEMENTS, School of Graduate Studies and Department of Criminal Justice, Norwich University, and Vermont Center for Justice Research PAMELA K. L ATTIMORE,∗ RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina JANET L. L AURITSEN, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Missouri–St. Louis C OLIN L OFTIN, School of Criminal Justice, University at Albany, State University of New York JAMES P. LYNCH, John Jay College of Criminal Justice R UTH D. P ETERSON, Department of Sociology, Ohio State University T RIVELLORE E. RAGHUNATHAN, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, and Survey Research Center, University of Michigan, and Joint Program in Survey Methodology, University of Maryland S TEVEN R. S CHLESINGER, Statistics Division, Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts W ESLEY G. S KOGAN, Department of Political Science and Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University B RUCE D. S PENCER, Department of Statistics and Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University B RUCE W ESTERN, Department of Sociology, Harvard University DANIEL L. C ORK, Study Director C AROL V. P ETRIE, Senior Program Officer A GNES E. G ASKIN, Administrative Assistant ∗ Resigned from the panel April 2, 2007. v

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COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL STATISTICS 2008–2009 W ILLIAM F. E DDY (Chair), Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University KATHARINE G. A BRAHAM, Department of Economics and Joint Program in Survey Methodology, University of Maryland A LICIA C ARRIQUIRY, Department of Statistics, Iowa State University W ILLIAM D U M OUCHEL, Phase Forward, Inc., Waltham, Massachusetts J OHN C. H ALTIWANGER, Department of Economics, University of Maryland V. J OSEPH H OTZ, Department of Economics, Duke University KAREN KAFADAR, Department of Statistics, Indiana University, Bloomington D OUGLAS S. M ASSEY, Department of Sociology, Princeton University S ALLY M ORTON, Statistics and Epidemiology, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina J OSEPH N EWHOUSE, Division of Health Policy Research and Education, Harvard University S AMUEL H. P RESTON, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania H AL S TERN, Department of Statistics, University of California, Irvine R OGER T OURANGEAU, Joint Program in Survey Methodology, University of Maryland, and Survey Research Center, University of Michigan A LAN Z ASLAVSKY, Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School C ONSTANCE F. C ITRO, Director vi

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COMMITTEE ON LAW AND JUSTICE 2008–2009 JAMES Q. W ILSON (Chair), University of California, Los Angeles (emeritus) P HILIP J. C OOK (Vice Chair), Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy, Duke University DAVID H. B AYLEY, School of Criminal Justice, University of Albany, State University of New York R ICHARD J. B ONNIE, Institute of Law, Psychiatry, and Public Policy, University of Virginia Law School R OBERT D. C RUTCHFIELD, Department of Sociology, University of Washington S TEVEN N. D URLAUF, Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin–Madison A RTHUR S. G OLDBERGER, Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin–Madison R OBERT L. J OHNSON, Pediatric and Clinical Psychiatry and Director of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine, New Jersey Medical School G ARY L A F REE, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Maryland J OHN H. L AUB, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Maryland G LENN L OURY, Department of Economics, Brown University T RACEY L. M EARES, School of Law, University of Chicago T ERRIE E. M OFFITT, Institute of Psychiatry, University of London R UTH P ETERSON, Department of Sociology, Ohio State University R ICHARD R OSENFELD, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Missouri–St. Louis R OBERT J. S AMPSON, Department of Sociology, Harvard University J EREMY T RAVIS, John Jay College of Criminal Justice C HRISTY V ISHER, Justice Policy Center, Urban Institute DAVID W EISBURD, Hebrew University Law School, Jerusalem, Israel C AROL P ETRIE, Director vii

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Acknowledgments T PANEL to Review the Programs of the Bureau of Justice Statistics HE of the Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT) is pleased to sub- mit this final report on the programs and priorities of the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). The work that leads to such a report always repre- sents a collectivity—a devoted and talented staff of the National Research Council (NRC) and a set of volunteers, both panel members and those who met with the panel. Finally, the agency seeking advice from CNSTAT is key to the success of the endeavor. The staff of BJS has been exceptionally receptive to our external review of the agency’s programs. We benefited greatly from the energy and enthusi- asm of BJS Director Jeffrey Sedgwick during the course of our study, partic- ularly given his added responsibilities during the latter half of our work. In January 2008 he took on the duties of acting assistant attorney general for the Office of Justice Programs, the parent division of BJS, while retaining the BJS directorship. He was subsequently nominated as assistant attorney gen- eral in April 2008 and confirmed in October 2008, serving in that capacity until the end of the Bush administration. The other members of BJS’s senior leadership were also unstinting in their support. Deputy Director Maureen Henneberg provided considerable assistance as the lead liaison between BJS and the panel, and BJS Senior Statistical Advisor Allen Beck gave greatly of his time and expertise in interacting with the panel and led a wide-ranging discussion of BJS data collections required by the Prison Rape Elimination Act. Patrick Campbell, special assistant to Director Sedgwick, also partici- pated in the public sessions of the panel’s meetings. Michael Rand, chief of victimization statistics, deserves particular credit for leading a thorough and extremely useful review of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) at the panel’s first meeting. Program managers and BJS staff briefed the panel on their work and fielded numerous questions about their designated subject ix

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x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS areas; for this service, we thank Thomas Cohen and William Sabol. More than just cooperation is notable; in its meetings with BJS staff, the panel observed clear devotion among BJS staff to the quality and efficiency of the agency’s statistical activities and a common purpose of serving the country well through its activities. Under a separate contract—but with the intent of supporting our panel’s work—BJS commissioned the Council of Professional Associations on Fed- eral Statistics (COPAFS) to host a dedicated one-day conference on BJS data user perspectives. Through its commissioned papers and its wide-ranging list of approximately 80 participants, the February 12, 2008, workshop pro- vided the panel with a great deal of material to consider in this report. We appreciate the contributions of the authors and presenters of lead papers at the workshop: Lynn Addington, American University; Theodore Eisenberg, Cornell Law School; Brian Forst, American University; and Karen Heimer, University of Iowa. Foremost, though, we thank Edward Spar, COPAFS ex- ecutive director, for his hard work in organizing and convening the session. We greatly appreciate the work of the Justice Research and Statistics Association; its invitation to panel staff to attend the association’s annual meeting in Denver in October 2006 was helpful in structuring the panel’s work. Joan Weiss, executive director of the association, provided helpful comments and suggestions as the panel began its work, and research direc- tor Stan Orchowsky spoke to the panel about the sweep of the organization’s work and its relationship with BJS. Pursuant to the panel’s charge, subgroups of the panel met with a variety of individuals and representatives of interested groups to elicit opinions on the range of BJS programs, the usefulness of BJS data series, and possible ar- eas for change and refinement. To facilitate full and candid discussions, these subgroup sessions were done with the understanding that comments made therein were not intended for direct attribution. We thank those persons who gave generously of their time and expertise to speak to members of the panel: James Boden, chief, Justice Branch, U.S. Office of Management and Budget; Michael Crowley, policy analyst, Justice Branch, U.S. Office of Man- agement and Budget; John Firman, research director, International Associa- tion of Chiefs of Police; Lawrence Greenfeld, senior statistical advisor, Of- fice of the Inspector General, General Services Administration; Chris Koper, deputy director of research, Police Executive Research Forum; Bruce Kubu, senior research associate, Police Executive Research Forum; Shelly Martinez, statistician, U.S. Office of Management and Budget; Bruce Taylor, director of research, Police Executive Research Forum; and Katherine Wallman, chief statistician, U.S. Office of Management and Budget. We gratefully acknowledge the other expert speakers who contributed to our plenary meetings: Kim English, research director, Division of Criminal Justice, Colorado Department of Public Safety; Mark Epley, senior counsel

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xi to the deputy attorney general, U.S. Department of Justice; Pat Flanagan, as- sistant division chief, Demographic Statistical Methods Division, U.S. Cen- sus Bureau; David Hagy, director, National Institute of Justice, U.S. De- partment of Justice; Paula Hannaford-Agor, principal court research consul- tant, National Center for State Courts; Douglas Hoffman, director, Center for Research, Evaluation, and Statistical Analysis, Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency; Howard Hogan, associate director for demo- graphic programs, U.S. Census Bureau; Krista Jansson, Home Office, United Kingdom; Ruth Ann Killion, chief, Demographic Statistical Methods Divi- sion, U.S. Census Bureau; Cheryl Landman, chief, Demographic Surveys Division, U.S. Census Bureau; Marilyn Monahan, chief of NCVS Branch, Demographic Surveys Division, U.S. Census Bureau; Richard Schauffler, di- rector of research services and director of Court Statistics Project, National Center for State Courts; Jon Simmons, head of research analysis and statis- tics, Crime Reduction and Community Safety Group, Home Office, United Kingdom; and Philip Stevenson, Statistical Analysis Center director, Arizona Criminal Justice Commission. The study director of the panel was Daniel Cork, whose ability to absorb reams of technical, administrative, and organizational information about BJS and the Department of Justice earned the admiration of all panel members. His wisdom in assembling and integrating the writing of panel members and in structuring and writing the report was notable. The panel’s work is conducted in cooperation with the NRC’s Committee on Law and Jus- tice (CLAJ). As senior program officer to this panel, CLAJ Director Carol Petrie helped the panel integrate its work with prior studies and activities of the NRC concerning the Department of Justice. As is true with other CNSTAT studies, our panel benefited greatly from the regular and active participation and engagement in our meetings of Constance Citro, director of CNSTAT. Agnes Gaskin, the administrative assistant, made sure meetings were organized and conducted in the professional manner that CNSTAT always achieves. The Survey Research Center of the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan hosted two deliberative sessions of the panel at Ann Arbor in June 2007 and August 2008. Deborah Serafin, Rose Myers, and Kelly Smid handled the arrangements for the panel with grace and efficiency. We also appreciate Chris Eskridge, University of Nebraska–Lincoln and ex- ecutive director of the American Society of Criminology, for providing space for the panel to hold a writing and reviewing meeting at the end of the soci- ety’s annual meetings in St. Louis, Missouri, in November 2008. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with proce- dures approved by the Report Review Committee of the NRC. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that

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xiv CONTENTS 3 Overview of Bureau of Justice Statistics Data Series 75 3–A Victimization 77 3–A.1 National Crime Victimization Survey 80 3–A.2 NCVS Supplements 83 3–A.3 The NCVS “Break in Series” 88 3–B Corrections 91 3–B.1 Prisons 92 3–B.2 Jails 98 3–B.3 Custodial Conditions 101 3–B.4 Capital Punishment 103 3–B.5 Inventory of State and Federal Corrections Information Systems 103 3–B.6 Probation and Parole 104 3–B.7 Recidivism 105 3–C Law Enforcement 106 3–C.1 Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics 107 3–C.2 Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies 112 3–C.3 Special-Agency and Service-Agency Censuses 113 3–C.4 Police Traffic Stop Data 119 3–D Adjudication, Prosecution, and Defense 120 3–D.1 National Judicial Reporting Program 122 3–D.2 State Court Processing Statistics 125 3–D.3 National Prosecutors Survey 127 3–D.4 National Survey of Indigent Defense Systems 128 3–E Other Data Collections 129 3–F Assessment of the Portfolio 129 3–F.1 Lack of Longitudinal Series 134 3–F.2 Lack of Conceptual Frameworks 141 3–F.3 Improving Statistical Coverage of the Justice System 152 4 State and Local Partnerships 165 4–A State Justice Statistics: The Statistical Analysis Center Network 166 4–A.1 State Partnerships in the Federal Statistical System 169 4–A.2 Assessment 174 4–B National Criminal History Improvement Program and Related Grant Programs 177 4–B.1 Background Checks and the Development of NCHIP 177 4–B.2 Recent Law and Developments 182 4–B.3 Assessment 184 4–C BJS and the Uniform Crime Reporting Program 185 4–C.1 Overview of the UCR Program 186

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CONTENTS xv 4–C.2 BJS Role in UCR and NIBRS 194 4–C.3 The UCR Program and the FBI’s Strategic Priorities 195 4–C.4 Assessment 196 5 Principles and Practices: BJS as a Principal U.S. Federal Statistical Agency 209 5–A Principles of a Federal Statistical Agency 211 5–A.1 Trust Among Data Providers 211 5–A.2 Strong Position of Independence 225 5–A.3 Relevance to Policy Issues 245 5–A.4 Credibility Among Data Users 246 5–B Practices of a Federal Statistical Agency 247 5–B.1 Clearly Defined and Well-Accepted Mission 247 5–B.2 Continual Development of More Useful Data 249 5–B.3 Openness About Sources and Limitations of Data 252 5–B.4 Wide Dissemination of Data 254 5–B.5 Cooperation with Data Users 260 5–B.6 Fair Treatment of Data Providers 260 5–B.7 Commitment to Quality and Professional Standards of Practice 261 5–B.8 Active Research Program 264 5–B.9 Strong Internal and External Evaluation Program 271 5–B.10 Professional Advancement of Staff 272 5–B.11 Coordination and Cooperation with Other Statistical Agencies 273 5–C Summary 275 6 Strategic Goals for the Bureau of Justice Statistics 277 6–A Priority Setting and Constrained Resources 277 6–B Current BJS Strategic Goals 280 6–C Suggested BJS Strategic Goals 281 6–C.1 A Strong Position of Independence 281 6–C.2 Building Statistical Systems and Conceptual Frameworks 283 6–C.3 Improving Coverage of the Justice System 286 6–C.4 Facilitating Access and Improving Dissemination and Outreach 291 6–D Summary 293 References 297

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xvi CONTENTS Appendixes 323 A Findings and Recommendations 325 B Summary of Surveying Victims: Options for Conducting the National Crime Victimization Survey 333 C Biographical Sketches of Panel Members and Staff 347

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List of Figures 1-1 First page of example from BJS “Bulletin” series of data releases 27 1-2 Bureau of Justice Statistics budget requests to Congress (fiscal years 1981–2009), final total appropriations (1981–2008), and National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) data collection costs (1990–2008) 29 1-3 Bureau of Justice Statistics organizational structure, June 2008 36 1-4 U.S. Department of Justice organizational structure, March 2009 39 2-1 Sequence of events in the criminal justice system 50 2-2 Mapping of Bureau of Justice Statistics data series to sequence of events in the criminal justice system 52 3-1 Module of questions on identity theft in the 2004 National Crime Victimization Survey (part 1) 85 3-2 Module of questions on identity theft in the 2004 National Crime Victimization Survey (part 2) 86 3-3 Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics questionnaire, 2003, p. 7 110 3-4 Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics questionnaire, 2003, p. 8 111 3-5 Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies questionnaire, p. 1 114 3-6 Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies questionnaire, p. 2 115 5-1 Estimated direct funding levels for principal federal statistical agencies, fiscal year 2008 210 5-2 Review, approval, and dissemination process for BJS survey press releases, 2007 228 5-3 Example summary and links to report and data on Bureau of Justice Statistics website 229 5-4 Excerpt from example Office of Justice Programs press release accompanying new Bureau of Justice Statistics data release 229 5-5 Bureau of Justice Statistics home page, July 2008 258 xvii

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List of Tables 3-1 Estimated Funding for Bureau of Justice Statistics Criminal Justice Statistics Program, Fiscal Year 2008 76 3-2 Bureau of Justice Statistics Data Collection History and Schedule, Victimization, 1981–2009 79 3-3 Number of Households and Persons Interviewed by Year, 1996–2006 81 3-4 Estimated Number of Adults Under Correctional Supervision in the United States, 1980–2006 93 3-5 Bureau of Justice Statistics Data Collection History and Schedule, Corrections, 1981–2009 94 3-6 Bureau of Justice Statistics Data Collection History and Schedule, Law Enforcement, 1981–2009 108 3-7 Bureau of Justice Statistics Data Collection History and Schedule, Adjudication, 1981–2009 123 3-8 Bureau of Justice Statistics Data Collection History and Schedule, Criminal History Improvement and Miscellaneous Studies, 1981–2009 130 4-1 National Data Sources Related to Crime Victimization in the United States 197 5-1 Prison Facilities with Highest and Lowest Prevalence of Sexual Victimization, National Inmate Survey, 2007 221 xviii

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List of Boxes 1-1 Bureau of Justice Statistics Publications and Data Dissemination Venues 25 1-2 Statutory Functions of the Bureau of Justice Statistics 32 1-3 “Principal Statistical Agencies” and the Interagency Council on Statistical Policy 35 1-4 Organizational Structure of the Office of Justice Programs 41 3-1 Bureau of Justice Statistics Collections on Tribal Justice 78 3-2 The Court Statistics Project and the National Center for State Courts 124 3-3 Congressional Uses of Bureau of Justice Statistics Data 131 3-4 The Federal Justice Statistics Resource Center of the Urban Institute 136 3-5 The Second Chance Act of 2007 156 4-1 State Statistical Analysis Center Network 168 4-2 State Justice Statistics Program Themes, 2008 170 4-3 Information Systems Covered by the Crime Identification Technology Act of 1998 and National Criminal History Improvement Program 180 4-4 Law Enforcement Coverage in the Uniform Crime Reporting Program 187 4-5 Hierarchy Rule for Part I Offenses and Suboffenses, Uniform Crime Reporting Program 190 5-1 Statistical Reporting Provisions of Original and Final Versions of the Prison Rape Elimination Act 215 5-2 Critique of the Reported Rankings in the Prison Rape Elimination Act Inmate Surveys 223 5-3 Excerpts from Travis (2008) Open Letter on an Office of Justice Research 242 5-4 Review Process for an Information Collection by a Federal Agency 263 5-5 Problems in Bureau of Justice Statistics Information Collection Requests 265 6-1 Summary of Recommendations and Commentary on Strategic Goal 1: A Strong Position of Independence 281 xix

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xx LIST OF BOXES 6-2 Summary of Recommendations and Commentary on Strategic Goal 2: Building Statistical Systems and Conceptual Frameworks 284 6-3 Summary of Recommendations and Commentary on Strategic Goal 3: Improving Coverage of the Justice System 287 6-4 Summary of Recommendations and Commentary on Strategic Goal 4: Facilitating Access and Improving Dissemination and Outreach 292

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Acronyms and Abbreviations assistant attorney general (for the Office of Justice AAG Programs) audio computer-assisted self-interviewing ACASI American Community Survey ACS Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring program (National ADAM Institute of Justice) alternative dispute resolution ADR Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts AO Annual Survey of Jails ASJ Bureau of Justice Assistance (Office of Justice Programs, BJA U.S. Department of Justice) Bureau of Justice Statistics (Office of Justice Programs, BJS U.S. Department of Justice) Bureau of Labor Statistics BLS Federal Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice) BOP computer-assisted personal interviewing CAPI computer-assisted telephone interviewing CATI U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S. CDC Department of Health and Human Services) Current Employment Statistics program (U.S. Bureau of CES Labor Statistics) Code of Federal Regulations CFR Committee on Law and Justice (National Research CLAJ Council) Committee on National Statistics (National Research CNSTAT Council) “computerized statistics” or “comparative statistics” (term COMPSTAT xxi

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xxii ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS used to describe police information system developed in New York, Los Angeles, and other cities) community policing or community-oriented policing COP Council of Professional Associations on Federal Statistics COPAFS Community Oriented Policing Services (as in the Office of COPS Community Oriented Policing Services in the U.S. Department of Justice) Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies CSLLEA Drug Abuse Warning Network (Substance Abuse and DAWN Mental Health Services Administration) Drug Enforcement Administration (U.S. Department of DEA Justice) U.S. Department of Justice DOJ Drug Use Forecasting program (historical name for DUF Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring [ADAM] program) Federal Activities Inventory Reform Act FAIR Federal Bureau of Investigation (U.S. Department of FBI Justice) Federal Justice Statistics Research Center (Urban Institute) FJSRC U.S. Government Accountability Office (formerly, GAO General Accounting Office) International Association of Chiefs of Police IACP International Association of Directors of Law IADLEST Enforcement Standards and Training Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System IAFIS U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (U.S. ICE Department of Homeland Security) Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social ICPSR Research Information Collection Review ICR Interstate Identification Index III Justice Research and Statistics Association JRSA Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (predecessor LEAA to Office of Justice Programs) Law Enforcement Management and Administrative LEMAS Statistics Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted LEOKA Monitoring the Future Survey MFS National Archive of Criminal Justice Data NACJD (Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research, University of Michigan) National Association of State Departments of Agriculture NASDA

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ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS xxiii National Agricultural Statistics Service (U.S. Department NASS of Agriculture) National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System NCANDS National Center for Education Statistics (U.S. NCES Department of Education) National Criminal History Improvement Program NCHIP National Center for Health Statistics (U.S. Department of NCHS Health and Human Services) National Crime Information Center (Federal Bureau of NCIC Investigation) National Criminal Justice Information and Statistics NCJISS Service (historical name for Bureau of Justice Statistics) National Center for Juvenile Justice NCJJ National Criminal Justice Reference Service NCJRS National Corrections Reporting Program NCRP National Center for State Courts NCSC National Crime Victimization Survey (formerly, National NCVS Crime Survey, NCS) National Incident-Based Reporting System NIBRS National Instant Criminal Background Check System NICS National Institute of Justice (Office of Justice Programs, NIJ U.S. Department of Justice) National Inmate Surveys (data collection for the Prison NIS Rape Elimination Act of 2003) National Judicial Reporting Program NJRP National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 NLSY97 National Opinion Research Center NORC National Prisoner Statistics NPS National Research Council NRC National Survey on Drug Use and Health (Substance NSDUH Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) National Survey of Family Growth (National Center for NSFG Health Statistics) National White Collar Crime Center NW3C National Youth Risk Behavior Survey NYRBS Office of Justice Assistance, Research, and Statistics OJARS (predecessor to Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice) Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention OJJDP (Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice) Office of Justice Programs (U.S. Department of Justice) OJP U.S. Office of Management and Budget OMB Originating Agency Identifier ORI

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xxiv ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS Performance Assessment Rating Tool PART Police Executive Research Forum PERF Public Law P.L. Police-Public Contact Survey (periodic supplement to the PPCS National Crime Victimization Survey) Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003, P 108-79 .L. PREA QCEW Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics) rap Record of Arrest and Prosecution (“rap sheet”) request for proposals RFP Statistical Analysis Center SAC Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services SAMHSA Administration State Court Processing Statistics SCPS School Crime Supplement (periodic supplement to the SCS National Crime Victimization Survey) Survey of Inmates in Federal Correctional Facilities SIFCF Survey of Inmates in Local Jails SILJ Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities SISCF Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional SISFCF Facilities State Justice Statistics SJS Summary Reporting System (of the Uniform Crime SRS Reporting program) Survey on Sexual Violence (data collection for the Prison SSV Rape Elimination Act of 2003) System to Retrieve Information from Drug Evidence STRIDE (Drug Enforcement Administration) Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative SVORI Tribal Criminal History Record Improvement Program T-CHRIP Interstate Identification Index; also, III Triple I Uniform Crime Reporting program or Uniform Crime UCR Reports U.S. Code USC