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America’s Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Space Program with National Needs A Committee Member and Staff Biographies LESTER L. LYLES, Chair, is a consultant with the Lyles Group. He retired from the U.S. Air Force (USAF) in 2003 as commander of the Air Force Material Command at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (AFB) in Ohio. General Lyles entered the USAF in 1968 as a distinguished graduate of the Air Force ROTC program. He served in various positions, including program element monitor of the Short-Range Attack Missile at USAF Headquarters (USAF/HQ), special assistant and aide-de-camp to the commander of Air Force Systems Command (AFSC), chief of the Avionics Division in the F-16 Systems Program Office, director of Tactical Aircraft Systems at AFSC headquarters, and as director of the Medium-Launch Vehicles Program and Space-Launch Systems offices. General Lyles became AFSC headquarters’ assistant deputy chief of staff for requirements in 1989, and deputy chief of staff for requirements in 1990. In 1992, he became vice commander of Ogden Air Logistics Center at Hill AFB in Utah. He served as commander of the center until 1994, when he was assigned to command the Space and Missile Systems Center at Los Angeles AFB in California. In 1996, General Lyles became the director of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization. In May 1999, he was assigned as vice chief of staff at USAF/HQ. He is a member of the National Research Council (NRC) Air Force Studies Board and served on the NASA Advisory Council. His numerous awards include the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, the Astronautics Engineer of the Year from the National Space Club, the National Black Engineer of the Year Award, Honorary Doctor of Laws from New Mexico State University, and NASA’s Distinguished Public Service Medal for serving on the President’s Commission on Implementing the U.S. Space Exploration Policy.
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America’s Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Space Program with National Needs RAYMOND S. COLLADAY, Vice Chair, is a retired corporate officer of Lockheed Martin Corporation and a former president of Lockheed Martin Astronautics Company. Before entering the private sector, he served as director of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and as a NASA associate administrator for the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. At NASA he had senior executive responsibility for the agency’s aeronautics and space research and technology development including operations oversight of Ames, Langley, Dryden, and Glenn research centers. He has been a member of the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board and various Defense Science Board summer studies. Dr. Colladay owns an aerospace consulting company, RC Space Enterprises, Inc. He also teaches leadership and ethics for the Colorado School of Mines and serves on a number of steering committees, boards, and commissions. He is chair of the NRC Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board and has served on six NRC study committees, four of which he chaired. LENNARD A. FISK, Vice Chair, is the Thomas M. Donahue Distinguished University Professor of Space Science in the Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences at the University of Michigan. He is an active researcher in both theoretical and experimental studies of the solar atmosphere and its expansion into space to form the heliosphere. He was the associate administrator for space science and applications and chief scientist at NASA from 1987 to 1993. From 1977 to 1987, he served as professor of physics and vice president for research and financial affairs at the University of New Hampshire. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the board of directors of the Orbital Sciences Corporation and a co-founder of the Michigan Aerospace Corporation. He is a former chair of the NRC Space Studies Board, and his prior NRC service also includes the Committee on Scientific Communication and National Security, the Committee on Fusion Science Assessment, the Committee on International Space Programs, the Air Force Physics Research Committee, and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics. JAY APT is Distinguished Service Professor in Engineering and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). He also serves as executive director of the CMU Electricity Industry Center, and he is associate research professor in the Tepper School of Business. He was director of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History from 1997 to 2000. Dr. Apt began his career in 1976 as a postdoctoral fellow in laser spectroscopy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He served as the assistant director of Harvard University’s Division of Applied Sciences from 1978 to 1980. He then joined the Earth and Space Sciences Division of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). In 1981 he became science manager of JPL’s Table Mountain Observatory. From 1982 to 1985, he was a flight controller responsible for shuttle payload operations at NASA’s Johnson Space Center. Dr. Apt is a former astronaut who has flown in space four times and performed
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America’s Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Space Program with National Needs two space walks. He was a member of the NRC Panel on Earth Science Applications and Societal Needs of the Survey Steering Committee for Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future. JAMES B. ARMOR, JR., retired as major general from the USAF in 2008. His last position was as director of the National Security Space Office (NSSO) in the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO). There he led efforts to align and architect all military and intelligence space activities, and to coordinate with those of civil space. He jointly coordinated with the Department of Commerce to understand the adverse impact of U.S. import and export regulations on the space industrial base. Prior to the NSSO position, he served as director of Signals Intelligence Acquisition and Operations at NRO, as director of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System, and he was a NASA astronaut who participated in a number of military missions carried by the space shuttle. Major General Armor is an elected associate fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). He is currently founder and CEO of the Armor Group, LLC, a space consulting firm. WANDA M. AUSTIN is the president and CEO of the Aerospace Corporation. She previously served as a senior vice president of the company’s National Systems Group, which supports the national security space and intelligence community in the acquisition, launch, and orbital operation of advanced technology space systems and their ground data stations. She was elected a corporate officer of the company in 2001 and served as the senior vice president of the Engineering and Technology Group. She is internationally recognized for her work in satellite and payload system acquisition, systems engineering, and system simulation. Her numerous awards include the National Intelligence Medallion, the Air Force Meritorious Civilian Service Medal for her service on the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, and the 2009 Black Engineer of the Year award. She is a member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), a fellow of the AIAA, and a member of the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA). She has served on the NASA Advisory Council, the NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP), and NRC Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. DAVID BALTIMORE is the Robert Andrews Millikan Professor of Biology at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). His research interests focus on virology, immunology, cancer, and AIDS. He was awarded a 1975 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Dr. Baltimore served as president of Caltech from 1997 to 2006 and as president of Rockefeller University from 1990 to 1991. He was president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in 2007. Dr. Baltimore is a member of numerous organizations and boards, including Amgen, Inc., board of directors; BB Biotech AG board of directors; Jackson Laboratory board of directors; and, previously, chair of the National Institutes of
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America’s Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Space Program with National Needs Health AIDS Vaccine Research Committee. He is a member of both the NAS and the Institute of Medicine (IOM), and he has served as co-chair of the NAS/IOM Committee on a National Strategy for AIDS, the NRC Committee on Science, Security, and Prosperity in a Changing World, and the Committee on Scientific Communication and National Security. ROBERT BEDNAREK is CEO of SES AMERICOM/NEW SKIES and a member of the executive committee of SES. Mr. Bednarek was formerly with SES GLOBAL where he served as executive vice president for corporate development as well as a member of the executive committee. Before joining SES in 2002, Mr. Bednarek held the position of executive vice president and chief technology officer at satellite operator PanAmSat. Prior to joining PanAmSat, Mr. Bednarek was the co-founder and partner of a Washington, D.C.-based technology-consulting firm, Rubin, Bednarek, and Associates, specializing in communication systems engineering and technical regulatory matters pending before the Federal Communications Commission. He previously served as deputy chief scientist for the U.S. Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Mr. Bednarek is currently a board member of the nonprofit Space Foundation. JOSEPH A. BURNS is the Irving Porter Church Professor of Engineering, Theoretical and Applied Mechanics and a professor of astronomy at Cornell University. His research interests center on using the principles of mechanics and classical physics to understand various aspects of the current structure of the solar system. He is particularly interested in the structure and dynamics of planetary rings. Dr. Burns is a member of the Cassini Imaging Team. He has curated exhibits of those images simultaneously being shown at the American Museum of Natural History (NYC) and the National Air and Space Museum. Dr. Burns is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union, the AAAS, and the Royal Astronomical Society. He is an elected member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the IAA. He has been a vice president of the American Astronomical Society and has chaired their divisions for Planetary Sciences and of Dynamical Astronomy. His NRC experience includes membership on the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (chair), the Space Studies Board, the Committee on a New Science Strategy for Solar System Exploration (solar system exploration decadal survey), and the Panel on Ultraviolet, Optical, and Infrared Astronomy from Space of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee. PIERRE CHAO is a senior associate with the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), and managing partner of Renaissance Strategic Advisors. While at CSIS from 2003 to 2007 as a senior fellow, his work focused on policy issues related to the defense industrial base, including defense industrial policy, acquisition reform, transatlantic relations, export controls, and technology/innovation policy. Before joining CSIS in 2003, Mr. Chao was a managing director and
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America’s Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Space Program with National Needs senior aerospace/defense analyst at Credit Suisse First Boston (CSFB), where he was responsible for following the U.S. and global aerospace/defense industry. Prior to joining CSFB, Mr. Chao was the senior aerospace/defense analyst at Morgan Stanley Dean Witter. He served as the senior aerospace/defense industry analyst at Smith Barney and as a director at JSA International, a Boston/Paris-based management-consulting firm that focused on the aerospace/defense industry. Mr. Chao was also a co-founder of JSA Research, an equity research boutique specializing in the aerospace/defense industry. He is a member of the NRC Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, and he has served as a member of the Committee on Critical Technology Accessibility. KENNETH S. FLAMM is the Dean Rusk Chair in International Affairs at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin. Dr. Flamm’s expertise is in international trade and high-technology industry. From 1993 to 1995, he served as principal deputy assistant secretary of defense for economic security and special assistant to the deputy secretary of defense for dual-use technology policy. Prior to his service at the Department of Defense, he spent 11 years as a senior fellow in the Foreign Policy Studies Program at the Brookings Institution. Dr. Flamm has been a professor of economics at the Instituto Tecnologico A. de Mexico in Mexico City, the University of Massachusetts, and George Washington University. He has also been an adviser to the director general of income policy in the Mexican Ministry of Finance and a consultant to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the World Bank, the Latin American Economic System, the Department of Justice, the U.S Agency for International Development, and the Office of Technology Assessment. He has extensive NRC experience, including current membership on the Committee on Capitalizing on Science, Technology, and Innovation and the Committee on Comparative Innovation Policy, and former service on the Board on Science, Technology, and Public Policy. JOAN JOHNSON-FREESE is chair of the Department of National Security Decision Making at the U.S. Naval War College (NWC). Prior to that, she held positions as chair of the Transnational Studies Department at the Asia Pacific Center for Security Studies in Honolulu, Hawaii, as a faculty member at the Air War College in Montgomery, Alabama, and as director of the Center for Space Policy and Law at the University of Central Florida. Dr. Johnson-Freese has focused her research and writing on security studies generally, and space programs and policies specifically, including issues relating to technology transfer and export, missile defense, transparency, space and regional development, transformation, and globalization. She is on the editorial board of China Security and a member of the IAA and the International Institute for Strategic Studies. She has testified before Congress concerning U.S.-Sino security issues concerning space. Dr.
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America’s Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Space Program with National Needs Johnson-Freese’s latest book is Heavenly Ambitions: America’s Quest to Dominate Space. PAUL D. NIELSEN is the CEO and director of Carnegie Mellon University’s Software Engineering Institute. Dr. Nielsen served in the USAF and retired as a major general after 32 years of distinguished service. He served as commander of the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson AFB and as the Air Force technology executive officer and as vice commander of the Aeronautical Systems Center. He held assignments at the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Cheyenne Mountain Operations Center, and the North American Aerospace Defense Command. In 2004, Dr. Nielsen became a fellow of the AIAA. He served as the AIAA president from 2007 to 2008 and was a member of the AIAA board of directors from 2006 until 2009. In 2006, he was elected as a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. Dr. Nielsen serves on the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board and is a member of the board of directors for the Hertz Foundation. MICHAEL S. TURNER is the Rauner Distinguished Service Professor in the Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and the Department of Physics at the University of Chicago. He served as assistant director for the Mathematical and Physical Science Directorate at the National Science Foundation (NSF) from 2003 to 2006 and as chief scientist at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) from 2006 to 2008. Dr. Turner helped to bring together astronomers and particle physicists to create the interdisciplinary field of particle astrophysics and cosmology. He has made important contributions to cosmology in the areas of particle dark matter and its role in the formation of structure in the universe, inflationary cosmology, and understanding how dark energy (a term he coined) is causing the expansion of the universe to speed up. He is a member of NRC Board on Physics and Astronomy and is chair of the Physics Section of the NAS. He also serves on the Council of the NAS. He has served on numerous other NRC committees, including the Committee on NASA Astrophysics Performance Assessment, the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, and the Committee on the Physics of the Universe (chair). Dr. Turner is a fellow of the American Physical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the AAAS. THOMAS H. VONDER HAAR is the former director of the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) and University Distinguished Professor of Atmospheric Science at Colorado State University. His studies on the interaction of clouds, water vapor, and radiation formed a basis for national and international plans that led to the Global Energy and Water Experiment and other programs related to global change. In 1980, Dr. Vonder Haar took the lead in forming CIRA, a center for international cooperation in research and training,
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America’s Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Space Program with National Needs covering virtually all physical, economic, and societal aspects of weather and climate. Dr. Vonder Haar is also director of the Center for Geosciences, a Department of Defense–sponsored research center that focuses on the study of weather patterns and how they affect military operations, including investigations of fog, cloud layering, cloud drift winds, and dynamics of cloud persistence as detected from satellites. He was honored as a Fellow and with the Charney Award by the American Meteorological Society and was elected to NAE in 2003. In 2005 to 2007 he served as vice chair of the Weather Panel for the NRC study that authored the report Earth Science and Applications from Space—National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond (2007). Staff JOSEPH K. ALEXANDER, Co-Study Director, served previously as director of the Space Studies Board (SSB; 1998-2005); deputy assistant administrator for science in the Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Research and Development (1994-1998); associate director of space sciences at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (1993-1994); and assistant associate administrator for space sciences and applications in the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications (1987-1993). Other positions have included deputy NASA chief scientist and senior policy analyst at the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. Mr. Alexander’s own research work has been in radio astronomy and space physics. He received B.S. and M.A. degrees in physics from the College of William and Mary. BRIAN D. DEWHURST, Co-Study Director, joined the NRC in 2001 and is a program officer with the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB). Before joining ASEB, he served as a senior program associate with the Board on Physics and Astronomy. Previously, he worked with the Space Studies Board staff as a research assistant. He is a staff officer for a variety of NRC activities, including the Committee to Review NASA’s Aviation Safety-related Programs and the Astro2010 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey, among others. He received a B.A. in astronomy and history from the University of Virginia in 2000 and an M.A. in science, technology, and public policy from George Washington University in 2002. CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN, adminstrative coordinator, has worked for the National Academies since 1974. She started as a senior project assistant at he Institute for Laboratory Animals for Research, which is now a board in the Division on Earth and Life Sciences, where she worked for 2 years, then transferred to the Space Science Board, which is now the SSB. She is now a program associate with the SSB.
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America’s Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Space Program with National Needs CATHERINE A. GRUBER is an editor with the SSB. She joined the SSB as a senior program assistant in 1995. Ms. Gruber first came to the NRC in 1988 as a senior secretary for the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board and has also worked as an outreach assistant for the NAS-Smithsonian Institution’s National Science Resources Center. She was a research assistant (chemist) in the National Institute of Mental Health’s Laboratory of Cell Biology for 2 years. She has a B.A. in natural science from St. Mary’s College of Maryland. LEWIS GROSWALD, research associate, joined SSB as a Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern. He is a first-year graduate student pursuing his masters degree in International Science and Technology Policy at George Washington University (GW). A recent graduate of GW, he studied international affairs with a double concentration in conflict and security and Europe and Eurasia as an undergraduate. Mr. Groswald has always expressed an interest in space, but it was not until he had the opportunity to work with the National Space Society during his senior year at GW that he decided to pursue a career in space policy: educating the public on space issues and formulating policy. He also hopes to put his experience with the SSB to use fostering greater international collaboration in space. VICTORIA SWISHER, research associate, joined the SSB in 2006. She has supported studies and workshops on the Beyond Einstein program, NASA workforce, Mars research, research enabled by the lunar environment, ITAR, and other topics. Before joining the SSB, she performed research in x-ray astronomy and laboratory astrophysics, which included studying the rays of plasma and culminated in her senior thesis, “Modeling UV and X-ray Spectra from the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment.” A graduate of Swarthmore College, she majored in astronomy and minored in English literature.