RAYMOND S. COLLADAY, Vice Chair, is a retired corporate officer of Lockheed Martin Corporation and a former president of Lockheed Martin Astronautics Company. Before entering the private sector, he served as director of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and as a NASA associate administrator for the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. At NASA he had senior executive responsibility for the agency’s aeronautics and space research and technology development including operations oversight of Ames, Langley, Dryden, and Glenn research centers. He has been a member of the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board and various Defense Science Board summer studies. Dr. Colladay owns an aerospace consulting company, RC Space Enterprises, Inc. He also teaches leadership and ethics for the Colorado School of Mines and serves on a number of steering committees, boards, and commissions. He is chair of the NRC Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board and has served on six NRC study committees, four of which he chaired.

LENNARD A. FISK, Vice Chair, is the Thomas M. Donahue Distinguished University Professor of Space Science in the Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences at the University of Michigan. He is an active researcher in both theoretical and experimental studies of the solar atmosphere and its expansion into space to form the heliosphere. He was the associate administrator for space science and applications and chief scientist at NASA from 1987 to 1993. From 1977 to 1987, he served as professor of physics and vice president for research and financial affairs at the University of New Hampshire. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the board of directors of the Orbital Sciences Corporation and a co-founder of the Michigan Aerospace Corporation. He is a former chair of the NRC Space Studies Board, and his prior NRC service also includes the Committee on Scientific Communication and National Security, the Committee on Fusion Science Assessment, the Committee on International Space Programs, the Air Force Physics Research Committee, and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics.

JAY APT is Distinguished Service Professor in Engineering and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). He also serves as executive director of the CMU Electricity Industry Center, and he is associate research professor in the Tepper School of Business. He was director of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History from 1997 to 2000. Dr. Apt began his career in 1976 as a postdoctoral fellow in laser spectroscopy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He served as the assistant director of Harvard University’s Division of Applied Sciences from 1978 to 1980. He then joined the Earth and Space Sciences Division of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). In 1981 he became science manager of JPL’s Table Mountain Observatory. From 1982 to 1985, he was a flight controller responsible for shuttle payload operations at NASA’s Johnson Space Center. Dr. Apt is a former astronaut who has flown in space four times and performed

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