E
List and Statistical Analysis of NIAC Grants

LIST OF NIAC GRANTS

The NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) awards are categorized according to the NASA directorate (Aeronautics Research, Exploration Systems, Science, and Space Operations) which appeared to be most closely associated with the ultimate application of the work. A statistical analysis of the origin of each proposal is also presented.

Aeronautics Research

An Advanced Counter-Rotating Disk Wing Aircraft Concept

Artificial Neural Membrane Flapping Wing

Environmentally-Neutral Aircraft Propulsion Using Low-Temperature Plasmas

Solid State Aircraft

Exploration Systems

A Contamination-Free Ultrahigh Precision Formation Flight Method Based on Intracavity Photon Thrusters and Tethers

A Realistic Interstellar Explorer

A System of Mesoscale Biomimetic Roboswimmers for Exploration and Search of Life on Europa

Advanced Solar- and Laser-pushed Lightsail Concepts

Advanced System Concept for Total ISRU-Based Propulsion and Power Systems for Unmanned and Manned Mars Exploration

An Architecture of Modular Spacecraft with Integrated Structural Electrodynamic Propulsion (ISEP)

Antimatter Driven Sail for Deep Space Missions

Antiproton-Driven, Magnetically Insulated Inertial Fusion (MICF) Propulsion System

Architectures and Algorithms for Self-Healing Autonomous Spacecraft

Autonomous Self-Extending Machines for Accelerating Space Exploration

Bio-electric Space Exploration

Cislunar Tether Transport System

Cyclical Visits to Mars Via Astronaut Hotels

Development of Lunar Ice Recovery System Architecture

Directed Application of Nanobiotechnology for the Development of Autonomous Biobots

Electromagnetic Formation Flight

Enabling Exploration of Deep Space: High Density Storage of Antimatter

Europa Sample Return Mission Utilizing High Specific Impulse Refueled with Indigenous Resources



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E List and Statistical Analysis of NIAC Grants LIST OF NIAC GRANTS The NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) awards are categorized according to the NASA directorate (Aeronautics Research, Exploration Systems, Science, and Space Operations) which appeared to be most closely associated with the ultimate application of the work. A statistical analysis of the origin of each proposal is also presented. Aeronautics Research An Advanced Counter-Rotating Disk Wing Aircraft Concept Artificial Neural Membrane Flapping Wing Environmentally-Neutral Aircraft Propulsion Using Low-Temperature Plasmas Solid State Aircraft Exploration Systems A Contamination-Free Ultrahigh Precision Formation Flight Method Based on Intracavity Photon Thrusters and Tethers A Realistic Interstellar Explorer A System of Mesoscale Biomimetic Roboswimmers for Exploration and Search of Life on Europa Advanced Solar- and Laser-pushed Lightsail Concepts Advanced System Concept for Total ISRU-Based Propulsion and Power Systems for Unmanned and Manned Mars Exploration An Architecture of Modular Spacecraft with Integrated Structural Electrodynamic Propulsion (ISEP) Antimatter Driven Sail for Deep Space Missions Antiproton-Driven, Magnetically Insulated Inertial Fusion (MICF) Propulsion System Architectures and Algorithms for Self-Healing Autonomous Spacecraft Autonomous Self-Extending Machines for Accelerating Space Exploration Bio-electric Space Exploration Cislunar Tether Transport System Cyclical Visits to Mars Via Astronaut Hotels Development of Lunar Ice Recovery System Architecture Directed Application of Nanobiotechnology for the Development of Autonomous Biobots Electromagnetic Formation Flight Enabling Exploration of Deep Space: High Density Storage of Antimatter Europa Sample Return Mission Utilizing High Specific Impulse Refueled with Indigenous Resources 57

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Extreme Expeditionary Architecture (EXP-Arch): Mobile, Adaptable Systems for Space and Earth Exploration Formation Flying with Shepherd Satellites High-Speed Interplanetary Tug/Cocoon Vehicles (HITVs) High-Acceleration Micro-Scale Laser Sails for Interstellar Propulsion Hypersonic Airplane Space Tether Orbital Launch System Lorentz-Actuated Orbits: Electrodynamic Propulsion Without a Tether Low Cost Space Transportation Using Electron Spiral Toroid (EST) Propulsion Lunar Space Elevators for Cislunar Space Development Magnetized Beamed Plasma Propulsion (MagBeam) Micro Asteroid Prospector Powered by Energetic Radioisotopes: MAPPER Microbots for Large-Scale Planetary Surface and Subsurface Exploration Mini-Magnetospheric Plasma Propulsion, M2P2 Modular Laser Launch Architecture: Analysis and Beam Module Design Modular Spacecraft with Integrated Structural Electrodynamic Propulsion Multi-Mice: A Network of Interactive Nuclear Cryoprobes to Explore Ice Sheets on Mars and Europa Optimal Navigation in a Plasma Medium Planetary Exploration Using Biomimetics Positron Propelled and Powered Space Transport Vehicle for Planetary Missions Primary Propulsion for Piloted Deep Space Exploration Propellantless Control of Spacecraft Swarms Using Coulomb Forces Pulsed Plasma Power Generation Rapid Manned Mars Mission with a Propagating Magnetic Wave Plasma Accelerator Sailing the Planets: Science from Directed Aerial Robot Explorers Scalable Flat-Panel Nano-Particle MEMS/NEMS Propulsion Technology for Space Exploration in the 21st Century Self-Organized Navigation Control for Manned and Unmanned Vehicles in Space Colonies Self-Transforming Robotic Planetary Explorers Space Transport Development Using Orbital Debris Spacecraft Propulsion Utilizing Ponderomotive Forces System Architecture Development for a Self-Sustaining Lunar Colony The Black Light Rocket Engine The Magnetic Sail The Mesicopter: A Meso-Scale Flight Vehicle The Plasma Magnet The Space Elevator Ultrafast Laser-Driven Plasma for Space Propulsion Ultralight Solar Sails for Interstellar Travel Science 3D Viewing of Images on the Basis of 2D Images A Deep Field Infrared Observatory near the Lunar Pole A Self-Sustaining Boundary-Layer-Adapted System for Terrain Exploration and Environmental Sampling Adaptive Observation Strategies for Advanced Weather Prediction Assessment of the Feasibility of Extremely Large, Structureless Optical Telescopes and Arrays An Ultra-High-Throughput X-Ray Astronomy Observatory with a New Mission Architecture Architecture of Intelligent Earth Observation Satellite for Common Users in 2010-2050 Autonomous VTOL Scalable Logistics Architecture Controlling the Global Weather 58

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Efficient Direct Conversion of Sunlight to Coherent Light at High Average Power in Space Exploration of Jovian Atmosphere Using Nuclear Ramjet Flyer Extraction of Antiparticles Concentrated in Planetary Magnetic Fields Extremely Large Swarm Array of Picosats for Microwave/RF Earth Sensing, Radiometry and Mapping Feasibility of Communications Using Quantum Entanglement Global Constellation of Stratospheric Scientific Platforms Global Environmental MEMS Sensors: A Revolutionary Observing System for the 21st Century Global Observations and Alerts from Lagrange-Point, Pole-Sitter, and Geosynchronous Orbits (GOAL&GO) High Resolution Structureless Telescope Inherently Adaptive Structural Systems Intelligent Satellite Teams for Space Systems Investigation of the Feasibility of Laser Trapped Mirrors in Space Large Telescope Using Holographically Corrected Membranes Large Ultra-Lightweight Photonic Muscle Telescope Large-Product General-Purpose Design and Manufacturing Using Nanoscale Modules New Architecture for Space Solar Power Systems: Fabrication of Silicon Solar Cells Using In-Situ Resources New Worlds Imager Planetary Circumnavigation: A Concept for Surface Exploration of the Inner Planets Planetary-Scale Astronomical Bench Practicality of a Solar Shield in Space to Counter Global Warming Primary Objective Grating Astronomical Telescope Protein Based Nano-Machines for Space Applications Reduction of Trapped Energetic Particle Fluxes in Earth & Jovian Radiation Belts Scientific Exploration and Human Utilization of Subsurface Extraterrestrial Environments: A Feasibility Assessment of Strategies, Technologies and Test Beds Self-Assembly of Optical Structures in Space SHIELD⎯A Comprehensive Earth Protection System The Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy for Exploration of Space The League of Extraordinary Machines: A Rapid and Scalable Approach to Planetary Defense Against Asteroid Impactors Ultra-High Resolution Fourier Transform X-Ray Interferometer Ultrahigh Resolution X-Ray Astronomy Using Steerable Occulting Satellites Very Large Optics for the Study of Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets X-Ray Interferometry: Ultimate Astronomical Imaging Space Operations A Chameleon Suit to Liberate Human Exploration of Space Environments A Flexible Architecture for Plant Functional Geonomics in Space Environments A Modular Robotic System for Surface Operations of Human Mars Exploration A Novel Information Management Architecture for Maintaining Long Duration Space Crews A Novel Interface System for Seamlessly Integrating Human-Robot Cooperative Activities in Space Achieving Comprehensive Mission Robustness An Architecture for Unmanned Self-Replicating Lunar Factories Analysis of a Lunar Base Electrostatic Radiation Shield Concept Antimatter Harvesting in Space Astronaut Bio-Suit System for Exploration Class Missions Biologically Inspired Legged Robots for Space Operations 59

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Customizable, Reprogrammable, Food Preparation, Production and Invention System Development of a Single-Fluid Consumable Infrastructure for Life Support, Power, Propulsion, and Thermal Control Development of Plant Genetic Assessment and Control System for Space Environments Development of Self-Sustaining Mars Colonies Utilizing the North Polar Cap and the Martian Atmosphere Electric Toroid Rotor Technology Development In-Orbit Assembly of Modular Space Systems with Non-Contacting, Flux-Pinned Interfaces Magnetically Inflated Cable (MIC) System for Space Applications Mars Atmosphere Resources Recovery System (MARRS) Methodology for the Study of Autonomous VTOL Scalable Logistics Architecture Modeling Kinematic Cellular Automata: An Approach to Self-Replication Networks of the Edge of Forever: Meteor Burst Communication Networks on Mars Plasma Magnetic Shield for Crew Protection Programmable Plants: Development of an In Planta System for the Remote Monitoring and Control of Plant Function for Life Support Redesigning Living Organisms to Survive on Mars Robotic Lunar Ecopoiesis Test Bed Self-Deployed Space or Planetary Habitats and Extremely Large Structures System Feasibility Demonstrations of Caves and Subsurface Constructs for Mars Habitation and Scientific Exploration Tailored Force Fields for Space-Based Construction Use of Superconducting Magnet Technology for Astronaut Radiation Protection Wide Bandwidth Deep Space Quantum Communication STATISTICAL ANALYSIS As noted in Chapter 2 section on the diversity of grantees, over the 9 years of NIAC’s existence, a total of 1,066 Phase I proposals and 129 Phase II proposals were received at NIAC and evaluated for possible funding. Tables E-1 through E-4 (and corresponding Figures E-1 through E-4) provide a breakdown of submissions for the entire history of NIAC, excluding the proposals that were submitted during the CP 07-01 solicitation, which were returned without review due to the closure of NIAC. 60

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TABLE E-1 Number of Phase I Proposals Submitted to and Evaluated by NIAC CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP 98- 98- 99- 00- 01- 02- 04- 05- 06- 01a 02b 03c 02d 02e 02f 01g 01h 01i Category Total Universities 58 15 33 62 34 17 35 56 45 355 Small Disadvantaged 7 5 8 3 9 0 12 12 15 71 Businesses Small Businesses 47 39 50 87 59 37 64 86 97 566 Historically Black Colleges 0 1 2 2 1 1 0 0 2 9 and Minority-Serving Institutions Large Businesses 5 3 11 8 11 1 1 3 7 50 National Laboratories 2 1 0 10 0 0 1 1 0 15 Total 119 64 104 172 114 56 113 158 166 1,066 a NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, NIAC 2nd (1999) Annual Report, Atlanta, Ga., 2000. Discrepancies in the numbers from one annual report to the next were found. When this was encountered, the most recent report was used. b Ibid. c NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, Annual Report (3rd; 2000-2001), Atlanta, Ga., 2001. d NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, Annual Report (4th; 2001-2002), Atlanta, Ga., 2002. e NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, 5th Annual Report (2002-2003), Atlanta, Ga., 2003. f NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, Annual Report (6th; 2003-2004), Atlanta, Ga., 2004. g NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, 7th Annual Report (2004-2005), Atlanta, Ga., 2005. h Ibid. i NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, 9th Annual and Final Report (2006-2007), Atlanta, Ga., 2007. FIGURE E-1 Percentage of evaluated proposals by submission category for all Phase I solicitations during the life of NIAC. 61

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TABLE E-2 Number of Phase I Proposals Awarded CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP 98- 98- 99- 00- 01- 02- 04- 05- 06- 01a 02b 03c 02d 02e 02f 01g 01h 01i Category Total Universities 8 3 1 10 9 4 7 3 4 49 Small Disadvantaged Businesses 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 1 6 Small Businesses 6 10 13 5 4 6 4 6 6 60 Historically Black Colleges and Minority- 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 3 Serving Institutions Large Businesses 0 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 6 National Laboratories 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Total 16 14 16 18 16 11 12 12 11 126 a NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, Annual Report (2nd; 1999-2000), Atlanta, Ga., 2000. b Ibid. c NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, Annual Report (3rd; 2000-2001), Atlanta, Ga., 2001. d Ibid. e NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, 5th Annual Report (2002-2003), Atlanta, Ga., 2003. f NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, Annual Report (6th; 2003-2004), Atlanta, Ga., 2004. g NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, 7th Annual Report (2004-2005), Atlanta, Ga., 2005. h Ibid. i NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, 9th Annual and Final Report (2006-2007), Atlanta, Ga., 2007. FIGURE E-2 Percentage of awarded proposals by submission category for all Phase I solicitations during the life of NIAC. 62

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TABLE E-3 Number of Phase II Proposals Submitted to and Evaluated by NIAC CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP 99- 99- 00- 01- 02- 03- 05- 06- 01a 02b 01c 01d 01e 01f 02g 02h Category Total Universities 8 5 1 9 11 7 10 4 55 Small Disadvantaged Businesses 0 0 1 1 1 0 2 1 6 Small Businesses 6 9 16 6 6 6 2 8 59 Historically Black Colleges and 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Minority-Serving Institutions Large Businesses 0 1 1 2 1 1 1 0 7 National Laboratories 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Total 16 15 19 18 19 14 15 13 129 a NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, Annual Report (2nd; 1999-2000), Atlanta, Ga., 2000. b NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, Annual Report (3rd; 2000-2001), Atlanta, Ga., 2001. c Ibid. d NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, Annual Report (4th; 2001-2002) Atlanta, Ga., 2002. e NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, Annual Report (6th; 2003-2004), Atlanta, Ga., 2004. f Ibid, and NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, 7th Annual Report (2004-2005), Atlanta, Ga., 2005. g Ibid (7th Annual). h NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, 9th Annual and Final Report (2006-2007), Atlanta, Ga., 2007. FIGURE E-3 Percentage of evaluated proposals by submission category for all Phase II solicitations during the life of NIAC. 63

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TABLE E-4 Number of Phase II Proposals Awarded CP CP CP CP CP CP CP CP 99- 99- 00- 01- 02- 03- 05- 06- 01a 02b 01c 01d 01e 01f 02g 02h Category Total Universities 4 2 0 2 3 3 5 2 21 Small Disadvantaged Businesses 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 2 Small Businesses 1 2 4 2 2 2 0 1 14 Historically Black Colleges and Minority- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Serving Institutions Large Businesses 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 4 National Laboratories 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Total 6 5 5 5 6 5 5 5 42 a NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, Annual Report (2nd; 1999-2000), Atlanta, Ga., 2000. b NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts Annual Report (3rd; 2000-2001), Atlanta, Ga., 2001. c Ibid. d NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, 5th Annual Report (2002-2003), Atlanta, Ga., 2003. e NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, Annual Report (6th; 2003-2004), Atlanta, Ga., 2004. f Ibid, and NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, 7th Annual Report (2004-2005), Atlanta, Ga., 2005. g NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, 7th Annual Report (2004-2005), Atlanta, Ga., 2005. h NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, 9th Annual and Final Report (2006-2007) Atlanta, Ga., 2007. FIGURE E-4 Percentage of awarded proposals by submission category for all Phase II solicitations during the life of NIAC. 64