A
Committee and Staff Biographies

COMMITTEE

HAROLD T. SHAPIRO (Chair), a member of the Institute of Medicine, is president emeritus of Princeton University and a professor of economics and public affairs at the Woodrow Wilson School. He served as president of the University of Michigan from 1980 to 1988. Dr. Shapiro’s expertise is in the intersection of public policy, science policy, and bioethics. Widely recognized for his astute judgment in policy situations, he has chaired the National Bioethics Advisory Committee under President Bill Clinton and served as vice chair of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology under President George H.W. Bush. Other distinctions include his chairing of the Association of American Universities and service on the board of directors of the National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc., and the board of trustees of the Universities Research Association, Inc. He has also served on numerous National Research Council committees, including the Committee on the Organizational Structure of the National Institutes of Health. In 2006, the American Association for the Advancement of Science awarded Dr. Shapiro the William Carey Medal for Lifetime Achievement in Science Policy. In 2008, he was awarded the Clark Kerr Medal for lifetime achievement in higher education. He received a bachelor’s degree from McGill University in 1956 and a Ph.D. in economics from Princeton in 1964.


MARK S. WRIGHTON (Vice Chair) is chancellor and professor of chemistry at Washington University in St. Louis. Prior to moving there in 1995, he had been a faculty member at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology since 1972. Dr. Wrighton was head of the Department of Chemistry at MIT from 1987 until



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A Committee and Staff Biographies COMMITTEE HAROLD T. SHAPIRO (Chair), a member of the Institute of Medicine, is presi- dent emeritus of Princeton University and a professor of economics and public affairs at the Woodrow Wilson School. He served as president of the University of Michigan from 1980 to 1988. Dr. Shapiro’s expertise is in the intersection of pub- lic policy, science policy, and bioethics. Widely recognized for his astute judgment in policy situations, he has chaired the National Bioethics Advisory Committee under President Bill Clinton and served as vice chair of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology under President George H.W. Bush. Other distinctions include his chairing of the Association of American Universities and service on the board of directors of the National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc., and the board of trustees of the Universities Research Association, Inc. He has also served on numerous National Research Council committees, including the Committee on the Organizational Structure of the National Institutes of Health. In 2006, the American Association for the Advancement of Science awarded Dr. Shapiro the William Carey Medal for Lifetime Achievement in Science Policy. In 2008, he was awarded the Clark Kerr Medal for lifetime achievement in higher education. He received a bachelor’s degree from McGill University in 1956 and a Ph.D. in economics from Princeton in 1964. MARK S. WRIgHTON (Vice Chair) is chancellor and professor of chemistry at Washington University in St. Louis. Prior to moving there in 1995, he had been a faculty member at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology since 1972. Dr. Wrighton was head of the Department of Chemistry at MIT from 1987 until 

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 America’s Energy Future Summary Edition 1990, when he was appointed provost. He was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1988 and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1986. In 2001, he was elected to membership in the American Philosophical Society. From 2000 to 2006, Dr. Wrighton was a presi- dential appointee to the National Science Board (NSB), which serves as a science policy advisor to the president and Congress and is the primary advisory board of the National Science Foundation. While serving on the NSB, he chaired the Audit and Oversight Committee. Dr. Wrighton earned a B.S. from Florida State Univer- sity in 1969 and a Ph.D. in chemistry from the California Institute of Technology in 1972. JOHN F. AHEARNE, a member of the National Academy of Engineering, is Exec- utive Director Emeritus of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society; an adjunct scholar at Resources for the Future; and an adjunct professor of civil and envi- ronmental engineering at Duke University. His professional interests are reactor safety, energy issues, resource allocation, and public policy management. He has served as commissioner and chair of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, system analyst for the White House Energy Office, deputy assistant secretary of energy, and principal deputy assistant secretary of defense. Dr. Ahearne currently is vice chair of the Department of Energy’s Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society, the Society for Risk Analysis, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Acad- emy of Arts and Sciences; he is a member the American Nuclear Society; and he has been active in several National Research Council committees that examined issues in risk assessment. Dr. Ahearne received a Ph.D. in physics from Princeton University. ALLEN J. BARD, a member of the National Academy of Sciences, is a professor of chemistry and biochemistry and holds the Norman Hackerman/Welch Regents Chair in Chemistry at the University of Texas at Austin. He has published widely and is the winner of numerous honors and awards, including the Priestley Medal and the Welch and Wolf Prizes. Dr. Bard was president of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists (IUPAC) and editor in chief of the Journal of the American Chemical Society from 1982 to 2001. He has served on the National Research Council’s Energy Engineering Board (EEB), been chair of the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, chaired the EEB Committee on Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Photons, and served as president of the U.S.

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Appendix A 7 National Committee for IUPAC. His research interests include electro-organic chemistry, photoelectrochemistry, electrogenerated chemiluminescence, electroana- lytical chemistry, and fuel cells. His policy interests include issues related to elec- trochemical and renewable-energy sources. Dr. Bard received a Ph.D. in chemistry from Harvard University. JAN BEyEA, chief scientist of Consulting in the Public Interest, consults on nuclear physics and other energy/environmental topics for numerous local, national, and international organizations, including the National Audubon Soci- ety. He has served as chief scientist and vice president of the National Audubon Society and has held positions at Holy Cross College, Columbia University, and Princeton University’s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies. Dr. Beyea has been a member of numerous advisory committees and panels, including the National Research Council’s Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, Energy Engineering Board, Committee on Alternative Energy R&D Strategies, and Com- mittee to Review DOE’s Fine Particulates Research Plan. He has also served on the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board’s Task Force on Economic Modeling, been a member of the policy committee of the Recycling Advisory Council, and advised various studies of the Office of Technology Assessment. Dr. Beyea has expertise in energy technologies and associated environmental and health concerns, and he has written numerous articles on energy and the environment. He received a B.A. from Amherst College and a Ph.D. in physics from Columbia University. WILLIAM F. BRINKMAN is vice president of physical sciences research for Lucent Technologies, formerly AT&T Bell Laboratories; he held the same posi- tion at AT&T Bell Laboratories. He was vice president of the Sandia National Laboratories in 1984–1987, director of the Chemical Physics Research Laboratory in 1981–1984, head of the Infrared Physics and Electronics Research Department of Bell Laboratories in 1972–1974, and a resident fellow at Oxford University in 1965–1966. Dr. Brinkman received his B.S. (1960), M.S. (1962), and Ph.D. (1965) in physics from the University of Missouri at Columbia. He received an honorary D.H.L. from the same institution in 1987. He is a member of the National Acad- emy of Sciences. DOugLAS M. CHAPIN, a member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), until recently was principal officer and director of MPR Associates, Inc., in Alexandria, Virginia. He has extensive experience in electrical, chemical, and

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8 America’s Energy Future Summary Edition nuclear engineering, with particular application to nuclear and conventional power plants. He has worked in areas such as instrumentation and control sys- tems, nuclear fuels, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, pumps, advanced analysis methods, test-facility design, and electrical systems and components. Dr. Chapin has participated in projects such as the Japan/Germany/United States research program on loss-of-coolant accidents; served as project leader for the design, con- struction, and testing of the loss of fluid test facility; been a member of the Elec- tric Power Research Institute’s (EPRI’s) Utility Review Committee on Advanced Reactor Designs; and worked with the Utility/EPRI Advanced Light Water Reac- tor Program that defines utility requirements for future nuclear power plants. He was chair of the National Research Council’s Committee on Application of Digital Instrumentation and Control Technology to Nuclear Power Plant Opera- tions and Safety. He is currently a member of the NRC’s Committee on Review of DOE’s Nuclear Energy R&D Program, chair of the NRC’s Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, and a member of the NAE’s Committee on Member- ship. He formerly served as a member of the NAE’s Electric Power/Energy Systems Engineering Peer Committee. He is also a fellow of the American Nuclear Society. Dr. Chapin has a B.S. in electrical engineering from Duke University, an M.S. in applied science from George Washington University, and a Ph.D. in nuclear studies in chemical engineering from Princeton University. STEVEN CHu,1 a recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1997), was appointed by President Obama as Secretary of Energy and sworn into office on January 21, 2009. Dr. Chu has devoted his recent scientific career to the search for new solu- tions to our energy challenges and to stopping global climate change—a mission he continues with even greater urgency as Secretary of Energy. He is charged with helping to implement President Obama’s ambitious agenda to invest in alternative and renewable energy, end U.S. addiction to foreign oil, address the global climate crisis, and create millions of new jobs. Prior to his appointment, Dr. Chu was director of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Labora- tory and a professor of physics and professor of molecular and cell biology at the University of California, Berkeley. He has successfully applied the techniques he developed in atomic physics to molecular biology and, motivated by his deep interest in climate change, has in recent years led the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab in pursuit of new alternative and renewable energies. Previously, he held posi- 1Dr. Chu resigned from the committee on January 21, 2009.

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Appendix A  tions at Stanford University and AT&T Bell Laboratories. Dr. Chu’s research in atomic physics, quantum electronics, polymers, and biophysics includes tests of fundamental theories in physics, the development of methods to laser-cool and trap atoms, atom interferometry, and the manipulation and study of polymers and biological systems at the single-molecule level. While at Stanford, he helped start Bio-X, a multidisciplinary initiative that brings together the physical and biologi- cal sciences with engineering and medicine. Dr. Chu is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Academica Sinica, the Korean Academy of Sciences and Technology, and numerous other professional and civic organizations. He holds an A.B. in math- ematics and a B.S. degree in physics from the University of Rochester, a Ph.D. in physics from the University of California, Berkeley, and honorary degrees from 10 universities. CHRISTINE A. EHLIg-ECONOMIDES, a member of the National Academy of Engineering, is a professor in the Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering at Texas A&M University and holder of the Albert B. Stevens Chair in Petroleum Engineering. Before returning to academia, she worked for Schlumberger for 20 years. Dr. Ehlig-Economides is a distinguished member of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) and has held a variety of leadership posi- tions in the society. In 1982 she was named the Alaska SPE Engineer of the Year and received the SPE Distinguished Achievement Award for Petroleum Engineer- ing Faculty. She received the SPE Formation Evaluation Award in 1995 and the society’s Lester C. Uren Award in 1997, and was named distinguished lecturer in 1997. Dr. Ehlig-Economides is also a member of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society. She received a bachelor’s degree in math-science from Rice University, a master’s degree in chemical engineering from the University of Kansas, and a Ph.D. in petroleum engineering from Stanford University. ROBERT W. FRI is a visiting scholar and senior fellow emeritus at Resources for the Future (RFF), where he served as president from 1986 to 1995. From 1996 to 2001, he was director of the National Museum of Natural History at the Smithsonian Institution. Before joining RFF, Mr. Fri served in both the public and the private sectors, specializing in energy and environmental issues. In 1971 he became the first deputy administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In 1975, President Ford appointed him deputy administrator of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. He served as acting adminis-

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0 America’s Energy Future Summary Edition trator of both agencies for extended periods. From 1978 to 1986, Mr. Fri headed his own company, Energy Transition Corporation. He began his career with McK- insey & Company, where he was elected a principal. A senior advisor to private, public, and nonprofit organizations, Mr. Fri is currently a member of the National Petroleum Council and of the Advisory Council of the Electric Power Research Institute. He is also vice chair of the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Board on Energy and Environmental Systems. He has chaired several NRC committees, most recently the Committee on Review of DOE’s Nuclear Energy R&D Program. Mr. Fri is a member of Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society. He received a B.A. in physics from Rice University and an M.B.A. (with distinction) from Harvard University. CHARLES H. gOODMAN has had a long career in electric utility research and development at Southern Company, primarily in establishing and improving coal- to-energy processes and in addressing the public policy issues associated with coal utilization. His contributions span heat transfer, emission controls, environmental science, and advanced generation technologies. Prior to retirement in 2007 he was the senior vice president for generation policy, with responsibilities that included serving as chair of the board for the FutureGen Industrial Alliance. Earlier, he was senior vice president for research and environmental policy—Southern Company’s chief environmental officer. In that capacity he directed environmental research and development, environmental policy, and compliance-strategy efforts for Southern Company as it initiated cleaner and more efficient ways to meet the energy needs of its customers. Dr. Goodman served for many years on the Electric Power Research Institute’s Research Advisory Committee and was chair of its Environment Sector Council. He is a member of the National Research Council’s Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, the Energy and Environment Directorate Review Committee at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the R&D Advisory Council for the Babcock and Wilcox Company. He has chaired the Environmental Staff Committee of the Business Roundtable, and he was a member of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Clean Air Act Advisory Committee. His responsibilities included oversight of the Power Systems Development Facility—the United States’ premier clean-coal-technology research center—in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, he led the development and execution of four DOE Clean Coal Technology projects that provided new emission-control options, which have now been applied to the industry’s conventional power plants. He is a life fellow in the American Society of

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Appendix A  Mechanical Engineers. Dr. Goodman received an undergraduate degree from the University of Texas at Arlington and a master’s degree and Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Tulane University. JOHN B. HEyWOOD, a member of the National Academy of Engineer- ing, is Sun Jae Professor of Mechanical Engineering and director of the Sloan Automotive Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Dr. Heywood’s research has focused on engine combustion, pollutant formation, the operating emissions characteristics and fuel requirements of automotive and aircraft engines, and on reducing transportation’s petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. He has served on a number of National Research Coun- cil committees, including the Committee on Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, and has consulted for many com- panies in the automotive and petroleum industries and for governmental organiza- tions. Among the many awards he has received for his research contributions, Dr. Heywood was honored by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Brit- ish Institution of Mechanical Engineers, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. He has a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from MIT, an Sc.D. from Cambridge University, and honorary doctorates from Chalmers University of Technology (Swe- den) and City University (UK). He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. LESTER B. LAVE, a member of the Institute of Medicine, is the Harry B. and James H. Higgins Professor of Economics, a university professor, director of the Green Design Initiative, and codirector of the Electricity Industry Center at Carn- egie Mellon University. Dr. Lave’s teaching and research interests include applied economics, political economy, quantitative risk assessment, safety standards, mod- eling the effects of global climate change, public policy concerning greenhouse gas emissions, and issues surrounding the electric transmission and distribution system. A recipient of the Distinguished Achievement Award of the Society for Risk Analysis, he is a member of the National Research Council’s Committee on Prospective Benefits of DOE’s Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy R&D Program Phase 2; he is also chair of the NRC’s Panel on Benefits of Sequestration R&D. Dr. Lave has a B.S. in economics from Reed College and a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University.

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 America’s Energy Future Summary Edition JAMES J. MARKOWSKy, a member of the National Academy of Engineer- ing, is retired executive vice president of American Electric Power (AEP) Service Corporation, where he led the power-generation group and was responsible for providing overall administrative, operational, and technical direction to the AEP System’s fossil and hydropower generating facilities, including fuel procurement and transportation, coal mining, planning, licensing, environmental engineer- ing, design, construction, maintenance, and integrated operation of the fossil and hydro generation fleet. Dr. Markowsky served as chair of the National Research Council’s Committee to Review DOE’s Vision 21 R&D Program, Phase 1, and he was chair of the Committee on R&D Opportunities for Advanced Fossil-Fueled Energy Complexes. He was also a member of the NRC’s Board on Energy and Environmental Systems and of its Energy Engineering Board. Dr. Markowsky received a B.S. in mechanical engineering from the Pratt Institute, master’s degrees from Cornell University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Cornell University. RICHARD A. MESERVE, a member of the National Academy of Engineering, is president of the Carnegie Institution for Science. He previously was chair of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC; the federal agency with respon- sibility for ensuring public health and safety in the operation of nuclear power plants and usage of nuclear materials). He served as chair during the terms of Presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush and led the USNRC in responding to the terrorism threat after the 9/11 attacks. Before joining the USNRC, Dr. Meserve was a partner in the Washington, D.C., law firm of Covington & Burling, and he now serves as Senior of Counsel to the firm. Early in his career, he served as legal counsel to the president’s science advisor and was law clerk to Justice Harry A. Blackmun of the U.S. Supreme Court and to Judge Benjamin Kaplan of the Mas- sachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Dr. Meserve has served on numerous legal and scientific committees over the years, including many established by the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering; currently he serves as chair of the Academies’ Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board. He is chair of the International Nuclear Safety Group, which is chartered by the Inter- national Atomic Energy Agency, and serves as a member of the Harvard Board of Overseers. Among other affiliations, he is a member of the American Philosophi- cal Society and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Amer- ican Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the American Physical Society, and Phi Beta Kappa. Dr. Meserve serves on the boards of directors of the

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Appendix A  PG&E Corporation, Luminant Holding Co. LLC, the Universities Research Asso- ciation, Inc., and the Council of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has a bachelor’s degree from Tufts University, a law degree from Harvard Univer- sity, and a Ph.D. in applied physics from Stanford University. WARREN F. MILLER, JR., a member of the National Academy of Engineering, is associate director of the Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute at Texas A&M University. He has expertise in nuclear reactor analysis and theory, reactor design, radioactive waste management, transmutation of materials, and manage- ment of R&D programs. From 1974 to 2001 he held a number of positions at Los Alamos National Laboratory, including group leader for reactor and transport the- ory, deputy associate director for nuclear programs, associate laboratory director for energy programs, and deputy laboratory director for science and technology. Dr. Miller has held positions at the University of New Mexico, the University of Michigan, Howard University, the University of California, Berkeley, and North- western University. He is a fellow of the American Nuclear Society and a State of New Mexico Eminent Scholar (1989); he was honored as 2004 distinguished engineer by the National Society of Black Engineers. He has served on a variety of advisory groups and committees, including as vice chair of the National Research Council’s Division of Earth and Life Sciences and as a member of the NRC’s Committee on Long-Term Environmental Quality Research and Development. Dr. Miller was a member of the NRC’s Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board and the NRC Committee on Review of DOE’s Nuclear Energy R&D Program. He served on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee from 1997 to 2006. He has a B.S. in engineering sciences from the United States Military Academy at West Point and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in engi- neering sciences from Northwestern University. FRANKLIN M. (“LyNN”) ORR, JR., a member of the National Academy of Engineering, became director of the Precourt Institute for Energy at Stanford Uni- versity upon its establishment in 2009. He served as director of Stanford’s Global Climate and Energy Project from 2002 to 2008, was the Chester Naramore Dean of the university’s School of Earth Sciences from 1994 to 2002, and has been a member of the faculty since 1985. Dr. Orr’s research activities involve the flow of complex fluid mixtures in the porous rocks of Earth’s crust; the design of gas- injection processes for enhanced oil recovery; and CO2 storage in subsurface for- mations. He is a member of the board of directors of the Monterey Bay Aquarium

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 America’s Energy Future Summary Edition Research Institute and was a board member of the David and Lucile Packard Foundation from 1999 to 2008; he now chairs the foundation’s Science Advisory Committee. Dr. Orr received a B.S. in chemical engineering from Stanford Univer- sity and a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of Minnesota. LAWRENCE T. PAPAy, a member of the National Academy of Engineering, is currently a consultant with a variety of clients in electric power and other energy areas. His expertise and knowledge span a wide variety of electric system tech- nologies, including production, transmission and distribution, utility manage- ment and systems, and end-use. He has served as senior vice president for the integrated solutions sector of Science Applications International Corporation and as senior vice president and general manager of Bechtel Technology and Consult- ing. Dr. Papay also held several positions at Southern California Edison, includ- ing senior vice president, vice president, general superintendent, and director of research and development, with responsibilities for bulk power generation, system planning, nuclear power, environmental operations, and development of the orga- nization and plans for the company’s R&D efforts. Among his other professional affiliations, past and present, are the Electric Power Research Institute’s Research Advisory Committee; the Atomic Industrial Forum; the U.S. Department of Ener- gy’s Energy Research Advisory Board, Lab Operations Board, and Environmental Management Advisory Board; the Department of Homeland Security’s Science and Technology Advisory Board; numerous National Academies’ boards and commit- tees, including the National Academy of Engineering’s Board of Councillors; and the Renewable Energy Institute. Dr. Papay received a B.S. in physics from Ford- ham University and S.M. and Sc.D. degrees in nuclear engineering from the Mas- sachusetts Institute of Technology. ARISTIDES A.N. PATRINOS is president of Synthetic Genomics, Inc. (SGI), a pri- vately held company founded in 2005 that is devoted to applying genomic-driven commercial solutions to global energy and environmental challenges. Prior to joining SGI, he was instrumental in advancing the scientific and policy framework underpinning key governmental energy and environmental initiatives while serving as director of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the Depart- ment of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Science. Dr. Patrinos oversaw the department’s research activities in human and microbial genome research, structural biology, nuclear medicine, and climate change. Previously Dr. Patrinos worked at several DOE National Laboratories and the University of Rochester. The recipient of

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Appendix A  numerous awards and honorary degrees, including three presidential-rank awards for meritorious and distinguished service and two Secretary of Energy gold med- als, Dr. Patrinos is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Meteorological Society, and is a member of the Ameri- can Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American Geophysical Union, and the Greek Technical Society. Dr. Patrinos received a diploma in mechanical and electri- cal engineering from the National Technical University of Athens and a Ph.D. in mechanical and astronautical sciences from Northwestern University. MICHAEL P. RAMAgE, a member of the National Academy of Engineering, is a retired executive vice president of ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company. Previously he was executive vice president, chief technology officer, and director of Mobil Oil Corporation. Dr. Ramage held a number of positions at Mobil, including research associate, manager of process research and develop- ment, general manager of exploration and producing research and technical ser- vices, vice president of engineering, and president of Mobil Technology Company. He has broad experience in many aspects of the petroleum and chemical indus- tries. Dr. Ramage has served on a number of university visiting committees, was a director of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, and now is a member of Secretary of Energy Chu’s Hydrogen Technical Advisory Council. He is a member of several professional organizations and serves on the Energy Advisory Board of Purdue University. Dr. Ramage was a member of the National Academies’ Govern- ment-University-Industry Research Roundtable. He chaired the National Research Council (NRC) committees responsible for the reports The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs and Resource Requirements for a Hydrogen Economy. He is currently chairing the NRC Panel on Alternative Liq- uid Transportation Fuels. Dr. Ramage has B.S., M.S., Ph.D., and H.D.R. degrees in chemical engineering from Purdue University. MAxINE L. SAVITz, vice president of the National Academy of Engineering, is a director of the Washington Advisory Group. A former deputy assistant secretary for conservation at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), she received the depart- ment’s Outstanding Service Medal in 1981. Prior to her DOE service, she was a program manager for research applied to national needs at the National Science Foundation. Following her government service, Dr. Savitz held executive posi- tions in the private sector—including president of the Lighting Research Institute, assistant to the vice president for engineering at the Garrett Corporation, and gen-

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 America’s Energy Future Summary Edition eral manager of AlliedSignal Ceramic Components. She recently retired from the position of general manager for technology partnerships at Honeywell. Dr. Savitz serves on advisory bodies for Sandia National Laboratories and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. She serves on the board of directors of the Draper Labora- tory and the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy. She was recently appointed to the President’s Council of Advisors for Science and Technology. Dr. Savitz received a B.A. in chemistry from Bryn Mawr College and a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ROBERT H. SOCOLOW is a professor of mechanical and aerospace engineer- ing at Princeton University, where he has been a faculty member since 1971. He was previously an assistant professor of physics at Yale University. Dr. Socolow currently codirects Princeton’s Carbon Mitigation Initiative, a multidisciplinary investigation of fossil fuels in a future carbon-constrained world. From 1979 to 1997, he directed Princeton’s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies and contributed significantly to progress in energy efficiency technologies, policy, and applications. Dr. Socolow has served on many National Research Council boards and committees, including the Committee on R&D Opportunities for Advanced Fossil-Fueled Energy Complexes, the Committee on Review of DOE’s Vision 21 R&D Program, and the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Socolow has B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees in phys- ics from Harvard University. JAMES L. SWEENEy, Stanford University, is director of Stanford University’s Pre- court Energy Efficiency Center, professor of management science and engineering, senior fellow of the Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research, and senior fellow of the Hoover Institution. His professional activities focus on economic policy and analysis, particularly regarding energy, natural resources, and the envi- ronment. Dr. Sweeney served as chair of the Stanford Department of Engineering- Economic Systems, chair of the Department of Engineering-Economic Systems and Operations Research, director of the Energy Modeling Forum, chair of the Insti- tute for Energy Studies, and director of the Center for Economic Policy Research. He was a founding member of the International Association for Energy Econom- ics, served as director of the Office of Energy Systems Modeling and Forecasting of the U.S. Federal Energy Administration, has been a member of numerous com- mittees of the National Research Council, and is a lifetime National Associate of

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Appendix A 7 the National Academies. Dr. Sweeney is a senior fellow of the U.S. Association for Energy Economics and a council member and senior fellow of the California Council on Science and Technology; he is also a member of the External Advisory Council of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and a member of Gover- nor Arnold Schwarzenegger’s Council of Economic Advisors. He holds a B.S. in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Ph.D. in engineering-economic systems from Stanford University. g. DAVID TILMAN, a member of the National Academy of Sciences, is Regents’ Professor and McKnight Presidential Chair in Ecology at the University of Min- nesota. His research explores how to meet human needs for energy, food, and ecosystem services sustainably. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a J.S. Guggenheim Fellow, and a recipient of the Ecological Society of America’s Cooper Award, the ESA’s MacArthur Award, the Botanical Society of America’s Centennial Award, and the Princeton Environmental Prize. He has writ- ten two books, edited three others, and published more than 200 scientific papers, including more than 30 in Science, Nature, and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. For the past 18 years, the Institute for Scientific Information has ranked him as the world’s most-cited environmental scientist. In 2008, the emperor of Japan presented him with the International Prize for Biology. C. MICHAEL WALTON, a member of the National Academy of Engineering, is a professor of civil engineering and holds the Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering at the University of Texas at Austin. In addition, he holds a joint academic appointment in the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs. He is a past chair and member of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) Execu- tive Committee. As the National Research Council chair of the TRB Division he serves as an ex-officio member of the Governing Board of the NRC. He is a past chair of the board of the American Road and Transportation Builders Association, past member of the Board of Governors of the Transportation and Development Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers, and a founding member and past chair of the board of the Intelligent Transportation Society (ITS) of America. Dr. Walton has published widely and received numerous honors and awards for his research in the areas of ITS, freight transport, and transportation engineering, planning, policy, and economics. Dr. Walton has a B.S. from the Virginia Military Institute and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from North Carolina State University, all in civil engineering.

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8 America’s Energy Future Summary Edition STAFF KEVIN D. CROWLEy (Study Director) is senior board director of the Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board, which advises the National Academies on the design and conduct of studies on radiation health effects, radioactive-waste manage- ment and environmental cleanup, and nuclear security and terrorism. The board also provides scientific support to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, Japan, a joint U.S.-Japanese scientific organization that investigates the health effects arising from exposures to ionizing radiation among World War II atomic-bombing survivors. Dr. Crowley’s professional interests and activities focus on the safety, security, and technical efficacy of nuclear and radiation-based technologies. He has directed or codirected some 20 National Research Council (NRC) studies, including Safety and Security of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage (2005); Going the Distance: The Safe Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste in the United States (2006); and Medical Iso- tope Production without Highly Enriched Uranium (2009). Before joining the NRC staff, Dr. Crowley held teaching/research positions at Miami University of Ohio, the University of Oklahoma, and the U.S. Geological Survey. He received his Ph.D. in geology from Princeton University. PETER D. BLAIR is executive director of the Division on Engineering and Physi- cal Sciences of the National Academies and is responsible for overall management of the America’s Energy Future portfolio of studies. At the time of his appoint- ment in January 2001 he was executive director of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society. From 1983 to 1996, he served in several capacities at the Con- gressional Office of Technology Assessment, concluding as assistant director of the agency and director of the Division of Industry, Commerce and International Security. Dr. Blair has served on the faculties of the University of Pennsylvania (1976–1996) and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (1997–2001). He was cofounder in 1978 and principal of Technecon Research, Inc., an engi- neering-economic consulting and power generation projects firm in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, acquired by the Reading Energy Corporation in 1985. Dr. Blair holds a B.S. in engineering from Swarthmore College (1973), an M.S.E. in systems engineering (1974) and M.S. (1975) and Ph.D. (1976) degrees in energy manage- ment and policy from the University of Pennsylvania. He is the author or coauthor of three books and more than 100 technical articles in the areas of energy and

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Appendix A  environmental policy, electric power systems, operations research, regional science, and economic systems. SARAH C. CASE joined the National Research Council in December 2007 and is currently a program officer in the Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board. In that capacity she has worked primarily with the study committee on America’s Energy Future, facilitating the committee’s work on nuclear energy and the electric trans- mission and distribution systems. Before arriving at the NRC, Dr. Case conducted research in condensed-matter physics, studying the collective behavior of ordinary materials such as fluids and granular material at the point of transition between states. Her research focused primarily on the physics of fluid topological transi- tions (such as droplet coalescence and drop snap-off). She has also conducted research in experimental high-energy particle physics, primarily in “beyond the Standard Model” particle searches and in neutrino physics. She was an NRC Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow in the fall of 2007. Dr. Case received an A.B. in physics from Columbia University and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from the University of Chicago. ALAN T. CRANE is a senior program officer at the National Research Coun- cil. He has directed projects that analyzed fuel-cell vehicle development, electric power systems, alternatives to the Indian Point nuclear power station, and fuel- economy standards for cars and light trucks. He has also contributed to other projects on energy R&D and on countering terrorism against energy systems and urban infrastructure. Prior to his current position, Mr. Crane was an independent consultant on energy, environmental, and technology issues for government and private-sector clients. He was also a senior associate at the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment, where he directed projects on energy policy and interna- tional technology transfer. During sabbaticals from OTA he served as director of energy and environmental studies at the European Institute of Technology, visiting researcher at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and visiting professor at Dart- mouth College. His earlier work included engineering and managerial positions in the nuclear power industry. Mr. Crane has a B.S. from Haverford College and an M.S.M.E. from New York University. gREg EyRINg received a B.S. in chemistry from Stanford University in 1976 and a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1981. After doing 3 years of postdoctoral research at Stanford University, he joined the

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0 America’s Energy Future Summary Edition congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), where he directed several studies related to advanced materials and environmental aspects of the use of materials. After the demise of OTA in 1995, Dr. Eyring worked as an independent consultant before joining the National Research Council in 2006. His work at the NRC has included studies on chemical weapons, explosives, and military- and intelligence-related technologies. K. JOHN HOLMES has served as a study director at the National Research Council for the past 10 years. In this position he has been responsible for directing committee studies on contentious environmental and energy issues, particularly those related to motor vehicles, energy, air quality, and the quantitative analysis of policy impacts. Dr. Holmes is currently a senior staff officer at the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, where he is responsible for the NRC Commit- tee on Fuel Economy Technologies for Light Duty Vehicles. Dr. Holmes received his B.S. from Indiana University, an M.S.E. from the University of Washington, and a Ph.D. from the Johns Hopkins University. His doctoral dissertation focused on integrated assessment modeling of climate change and other environmental sys- tem impacts. THOMAS R. MENzIES is a senior program officer in the Transportation Research Board’s (TRB) policy studies unit. In this capacity, he manages studies on transportation-related programs and policies called for by the U.S. Congress and sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and other federal agencies. Since joining TRB in 1987 he has staffed more than two dozen projects examining the economic, safety, security, environmental, and energy per- formance of the aviation, rail, maritime, transit, trucking, and automotive sectors. Reports from relevant studies of energy performance include Tires and Passenger Vehicle Fuel Economy, Toward a Sustainable Future: Addressing the Long-term Effects of Motor Vehicle Transportation on Climate and Ecology, and an ongoing assessment of policy options for reducing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from transportation. He has published numerous articles in technical journals and has made presentations on study results, and he serves on the editorial board of TRNews. He earned a bachelor’s degree in economics from Colby College and an M.A. in public policy and public finance from the University of Maryland. EVONNE P.y. TANg is a senior program officer at the National Research Coun- cil. She has served as study director for multiple projects, on subjects ranging

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Appendix A  from science policy to research and development, since she joined the National Academies in 2002. Dr. Tang’s areas of expertise include ecology, genomics, and biofuels. Among her recently completed projects are the studies Liquid Transpor- tation Fuels from Coal and Biomass (2009), Achievements of the National Plant Genome Initiative and New Horizons in Plant Biology (2008), Protecting Build- ing Occupants and Operations from Biological and Chemical Airborne Threats (2007), and Status of Pollinators in North America (2007). Dr. Tang received a B.Sc. from the University of Ottawa, an M.Sc. from McGill University, and a Ph.D. from Laval University, Canada. Her doctoral dissertation focused on the ecophysiology of cyanobacteria and the use of cyanobacteria in tertiary wastewa- ter-treatment systems. After completion of her doctorate, she received postdoctoral fellowships from the Smithsonian Institution, the National Research Council Can- ada, and the Quebec Ministry of Education. MADELINE g. WOODRuFF, a senior program officer at the National Research Council’s Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, is responsible for the AEF Panel on Energy Efficiency Technologies. Prior to joining the NRC she spent 8 years as a senior analyst and project manager at the International Energy Agency in Paris, France, focusing on evaluation of energy technology R&D policy and programs, both domestic and international, and assessment of the potential for energy technology to contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Earlier, Ms. Woodruff was a senior analyst at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, where she managed or contributed to projects on nuclear energy regulatory policy, storage of plutonium recovered from retired nuclear weapons, regulation of mixed radioactive and chemical wastes, industrial energy efficiency, and energy technol- ogy R&D. Ms. Woodruff received an M.S. in nuclear engineering and an M.S. in technology and policy from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where she was a National Academy of Sciences Graduate Fellow. JAMES J. zuCCHETTO is director of the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, National Research Council. Since joining the NRC in 1985, Dr. Zuc- chetto has been involved in a variety of multidisciplinary studies related to energy technologies, engineering, the environment, research and development programs, and public policy. In his work at the NRC, he has contributed to numerous stud- ies and reports with an important influence on federal programs and policies, including on technologies for improving the fuel economy of light-duty and heavy- duty vehicles and for producing liquid fuels from a variety of fossil and nonfos- sil resources; hydrogen production; fuel-cell vehicles; and electricity generation,

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 America’s Energy Future Summary Edition transmission and distribution, as well as related policy analyses and issues. Prior to joining the NRC, he was on the faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Regional Science, University of Pennsylvania; a guest researcher at the Institute of Marine Ecology and Zoologiska Institutionen, University of Stockholm; an associ- ate in engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida; and a member of the technical staff, Bell Telephone Laboratories. He serves on the editorial advisory board of the International Journal of Ecological Modelling and Systems Ecology and is a former member of the editorial advisory board of Ecological Economics. In addition to work and research on energy tech- nologies and associated environmental, economic, and policy implications since the early 1970s, he has also worked in the area of systems ecology and ecological modeling. He has published approximately 50 articles in refereed journals, books, and conference proceedings, two monographs, and one book. He has a Ph.D. in environmental engineering sciences from the University of Florida, an M.S.M.E. from New York University, and a B.S.M.E. from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn (Polytechnic University). Editorial Consultant STEVEN J. MARCuS, an independent editor specializing in science, technology, and health policy, edited the America’s Energy Future report. Prior to establishing his own practice in 2001, he was editor in chief of MIT’s Technology Review, edi- tor in chief of the National Academies’ Issues in Science and Technology, execu- tive editor of High Technology, science/medicine editor of the Minneapolis Star Tribune, and technology reporter for the New York Times. Prior to becoming a journalist, Dr. Marcus worked as a systems engineer for the MITRE Corporation and as an environmental engineering consultant. Under a Fulbright Lecturer grant, he taught courses on environmental issues at the University of Paris. He holds a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from the City College of New York and a Ph.D. in environmental sciences and engineering from Harvard University.