Index

A

Advanced materials, 29, 74, 87

Air-quality standards, 88

Air transportation

energy efficiency improvements, 45

freight, 86

passenger, 86 n.8

Algal biodiesel, 75, 89

Alternative transportation fuels.

See also Biofuels;

Cellulosic ethanol;

Coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuels;

Coal-to-liquid fuels;

Corn ethanol;

Light-duty vehicles

barriers to deployment, 93-94

biochemical conversion, 67, 90-91, 93

carbon capture and storage, 4, 5, 64, 65, 66, 72, 73, 78, 94

carbon price, 38 n.1, 93

CO2 emissions, 4, 62, 71-73

coal liquefaction, 91

compressed natural gas, 94

conversion technologies, 90-92;

see also Biochemical;

Thermochemical costs, 66-67, 92-93

deployment scenarios, 93-94

dimethyl ether, 94

findings, 3-4, 62-67, 73

hydrogen, 4, 5, 6, 30, 44, 45, 67, 73, 74, 75, 84, 85, 94

infrastructure for distribution, 90, 93

methanol, 72, 94

panel report, 31, 81

petroleum substitution potential, 73

RD&D, 74-75

synthetic (GTL) diesel fuel, 94

American Electric Power, 100

American Iron and Steel Institute, 87

Appliances and electronics

energy savings, 41

information availability, 87-88

load management technologies, 84

Australia, 20

B

Battery technologies

costs, 85

deployment timeframe, 116

for LDVs, 4, 5, 6, 76, 85

performance capabilities, 85

R&D opportunities, 6, 30, 76, 79, 85

for T&D system storage, 6, 51, 61, 78

Behavior. See Consumer behavior

Biobutanol, 89

Biochemical conversion of fuel

cellulosic ethanol, 67, 90-91, 93

corn ethanol, 90, 91

costs, 90, 92-93



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Index A methanol, 72, 94 panel report, 31, 81 petroleum substitution potential, 73 Advanced materials, 29, 74, 87 RD&D, 74-75 Air-quality standards, 88 synthetic (GTL) diesel fuel, 94 Air transportation American Electric Power, 100 energy efficiency improvements, 45 American Iron and Steel Institute, 87 freight, 86 Appliances and electronics passenger, 86 n.8 energy savings, 41 Algal biodiesel, 75, 89 information availability, 87-88 Alternative transportation fuels. See also Biofuels; load management technologies, 84 Cellulosic ethanol; Coal-and-biomass-to-liquid Australia, 20 fuels; Coal-to-liquid fuels; Corn ethanol; Light- duty vehicles barriers to deployment, 93-94 biochemical conversion, 67, 90-91, 93 B carbon capture and storage, 4, 5, 64, 65, 66, 72, 73, 78, 94 carbon price, 38 n.1, 93 Battery technologies CO2 emissions, 4, 62, 71-73 costs, 85 coal liquefaction, 91 deployment timeframe, 116 compressed natural gas, 94 for LDVs, 4, 5, 6, 76, 85 conversion technologies, 90-92; see also performance capabilities, 85 Biochemical; Thermochemical R&D opportunities, 6, 30, 76, 79, 85 costs, 66-67, 92-93 for T&D system storage, 6, 51, 61, 78 deployment scenarios, 93-94 Behavior. See Consumer behavior dimethyl ether, 94 Biobutanol, 89 findings, 3-4, 62-67, 73 Biochemical conversion of fuel hydrogen, 4, 5, 6, 30, 44, 45, 67, 73, 74, 75, 84, cellulosic ethanol, 67, 90-91, 93 85, 94 corn ethanol, 90, 91 infrastructure for distribution, 90, 93 costs, 90, 92-93 7

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7 Index and greenhouse gases, 90 sources, 97 RD&D, 90 supply of electricity, 36, 51 supply of fuel from, 90-91 technology description, 97 transport and distribution challenges, 90 wood-based, 97 Biodiesel, 37, 62 n.17, 75, 89 Biotechnology, 4 Biofuels. See also Biochemical conversion; Biomass; Brazil, 20 Biomass-to-liquid fuels; Cellulosic ethanol; Coal- Buildings sector. See also Appliances; Commercial; and-biomass-to-liquid fuels; Corn ethanol Residential advanced, 66 advanced technologies, 83-84 algal biodiesel, 75, 89 barriers to improving energy efficiency, 77 biobutanol, 89 capital investment needs, 83 from CO2 feedstocks, 74-75 combined heat and power production, 83 consumption, 21, 37 conservation supply curves, 40, 82, 83 hydrocarbon fuels from biomass, 3-4 consumption of energy, 2, 14, 83 potential of, 66, 73 cooling and heating systems, 14, 41, 47, 83 R&D, 74-75 cost-effectiveness of improvements, 41 Biomass cost of conserved energy, 45-46, 47, 48-49 carbon issues, 72 drivers for improving, 84 co-fed coal, see Coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuel electricity consumption, 41, 42, 47 consumption, 17, 18 energy codes, 38-39 n.1, 40, 50, 88 cost of energy from, 58 energy efficiency, 2, 38-39 n.1, 40-41, 42, 47-49, on CRP lands, 89 87-88 electricity generation, see Biopower findings, 2, 47-49 food/feed crop displacement, 89 integrated (whole-building) approaches, 84 greenhouse gas emissions, 69, 72 lighting, 47, 50, 83, 84 incentives for growers, 89-90 natural gas consumption, 14, 15, 17, 24, 37, 41, industrial use, 17 48-49 non-electricity applications, 32 payback period for technologies, 82 supply, 32, 37, 66, 77, 89-90 petroleum consumption, 17, 24 sustainable production, 89 potential energy savings, 47-49, 50, 83 Biomass-to-liquid fuels. See also Biochemical projected energy demand, 41, 42 conversion regulatory policies, 87 costs, 67, 91 retail price of energy, 47-48, 83 greenhouse gas emissions, 71, 91 windows, 84 supply of fuel from, 37 Bush (George H.W.), administration, 26 thermochemical conversion, 91 Bush (George W.), administration, 26 Biopower Business-as-usual reference case, xi, 36 build time, 128 alternative transportation fuels, 93-94 capacity, 128 CO2 emissions, 2, 11 carbon balance, 69 deployment of technologies, 93-94 cost estimates, 57, 58, 126 energy efficiency improvement, 2 environmental impacts, 101 energy supply and consumption, 12, 36 feedstock supply, 32 fossil fuels, 11 landfill gas fuel, 97 industrial sector, 2 municipal solid waste fuel, 89, 97 transportation sector, 2

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Index 7 C costs, 92-93, 125, 127 deployment, 92-93, 125, 127 economic competitiveness, 66, 67, 92-93 Canada feedstock, 4 natural gas exports, 15, 102-103 greenhouse gas emissions, 5, 66, 71-72 Cap and trade programs, 38 n.1 petroleum replacement potential, 3-4, 63, 66, 90, Carbon capture and storage (CCS). See also Geologic 91 storage of CO2 production capacity, 90-91 capture-ready plants, 3, 39, 51 RD&D, 6, 64, 74 CO2 compression, 69-70, 105, 106 n.13 supply potential, 63, 66, 129 costs, 52, 67, 91 Cement industry, 44, 86, 87 and costs of electricity, 16 Chemical manufacturing, 86 demonstration of commercial viability, 5, 6, 39, 51- China, 20, 77 n.19 52, 65, 66, 68, 70, 73, 74, 91, 92, 107, 108-109 Chlorofluorocarbons, 11 n.3 findings, 5, 39 Clean Air Act, 26, 78 and greenhouse gas emissions, 69, 72 Clean Air Interstate Rule, 40 importance, 30, 92 Climate change, 11 n.3, 25 R&D, 107-108 Clinton administration, 26 retrofitting plants for, 3, 5, 51, 53-54, 69-70, 72, Coal 104, 105 air-blown PC plants, 106, 121, 124, 126, 128 safety issues, 16 as alternative fuel source, 74, see also status, 16, 39 Coal-and-biomass-to-liquid strategies, 74 carbon capture and storage, 3, 39, 51, 53, 58, 68, thermochemical conversion of biofuels and, 74, 91- 69-70 92, 94 CO2 emissions, 16, 24, 68, 69-70 Carbon controls, 78, 38 n.1. See also Cap and trade; co-fed biomass and, 91 Carbon price consumption, 14, 17, 18, 21, 22, 36 Carbon dioxide emissions. See also Carbon capture costs, 16, 52, 57, 58 and storage; Geologic storage of CO2; electricity generation, 3, 13, 14, 16, 17, 23, 24, 36, Greenhouse gas emissions; individual energy 49, 51, 53, 57, 58, 68, 69, 71, 74 sources and sectors environmental impacts, 16, 52, 92 alternative transportation fuels, 62, 64, 66 findings, 3 annual U.S. emissions, 68 industry use, 14, 17, 24 cap and trade programs, 38 n.1 infrastructure constraints, 13, 16, 23 carbon prices, 28, 38 n.1, 52, 93 integrated gasification and combined cycle (IGCC) by energy source, 72 plants, 70, 74, 104, 106, 121, 124, 126, 128 negative, 69, 71, 72, 91 liquefaction, 91; see also Coal-to-biomass-to-liquid policies and regulations, 33, 52, fuels; Coal-to-liquid fuels timeframe for reducing, 68, 71 oxyfuel plants, 70, 74, 104 trends, 11 prices, 16, 25, 59 Carbon dioxide feedstock, 75 production (domestic), 66 Carbon dioxide injection for enhanced oil recovery, 91 pulverized coal (PC) plants, 106, 121, 124, 126, Carbon price/taxes, 28, 38 n.1, 52, 93, 105 128 Carter administration, 26 RD&D, 6, 64, 74 Cellulosic ethanol reserves and resources, 16, 89, 92 carbon capture and storage, 5, 65, 66 retirement of plants, 69, 105 conversion technologies, 3, 67, 89, 90-91, 93

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7 Index retrofitted/repowered plants with CCS, 53, 69-70, Consumption. See Energy consumption 71, 77 Context for the report supercritical PC, 105 aspects not assessed, 31-33 T&D system, 16 challenges to sustainable transformation, 25-27 ultrasupercritical PC, 70, 74, 104-105, 128 charge to the committee, 10, 30-33, 36 Coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuels cost estimates, 32-33 carbon capture and storage, 4, 65, 66, 73, 91-92, current U.S. energy system, 11-25 94 panel reports, 31 conversion technologies, 3-4, 74, 91-92 strategy of the committee, 30-33 costs, 67, 91, 92-93 technology role, 27-30 demonstrations, 66 timeframes, 30 deployment, 93-94 Cooling systems, 14, 41, 47, 83. See also Heating and environmental impacts, 4, 92 cooling systems feedstock requirements, 66, 92 Corn ethanol greenhouse gas emissions, 4, 66, 71-72, 91-92 CO2 emissions, 72 petroleum replacement potential, 4, 65, 66 consumption, 17 production capacity, 5, 91, 92 costs, 67 siting of plants, 92 plant build rates, 90-91, 127 supply, 32, 37, 63-64, 65 production capacity, 90-91, 129 Coal-to-liquid fuels social and environmental concerns, 63, 89 carbon capture and storage, 64, 65, 72, 73, 94 sustainability, 89 costs, 66, 67, 92-93 Cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency technologies, 2, greenhouse gas emissions, 64, 72 40-41, 49, 82 supply, 37, 63-64, 65 Costs. See also specific sectors, resources, and Combined-heat-and-power systems (cogeneration), 44, technologies 51, 86, 87, 88 before-tax discount rate, 126-127 Commercial buildings. See also Lighting conditional assumptions, 32-33 consumption of energy, 17, 22, 36-37 of conserved energy, 45-46, 47, 48-49 energy efficiency savings, 40-41, 47-49 debt/equity, 126-127 energy management and control systems, 83-84 externalities, 14 n.7, 29 low-energy buildings, 84 feedstock and food costs, 121, 124-125 Concentrating solar power financing period, 122, 126-127 cooling systems, 84 levelized cost of electricity, 55-60 costs, 58 life-cycle, 50, 56 dish-Stirling engine systems, 97 limitations, 121, 124-125 electricity generating capacity, 96 methodologies for estimating, 32-33, 55-56, greenhouse gas emissions, 69 120-131 high-temperature chemical processing, 97, 101 overnight costs, 122, 126-127 optical materials, 97 plant life, 121, 126-127 parabolic troughs, 97 plant maturity, 121, 124-125 power towers, 97 plant size, 121, 124-125 technology description, 97 reference scenario, 120 Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), 89 simultaneous expansion and modernization of Conservation supply curves, 40, 82, 83 T&D system, 61 Consumer behavior site-dependent impacts, 57 energy-efficient technologies, 49, 50, 79 source of, 120-121

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Index 7 source of supply estimates, 122, 126-127 Electricity consumption uncertainties in estimates, 56, 59 energy efficiency savings, 40-41 underlying assumptions, 32 by sector, 41, 42, 47 Critical technologies, 30 Electricity demand electrified vehicle fleet and, 4, 44-45 energy-efficiency technologies and, 32, 44-45 T&D system and, 27 D Electricity generation. See also Nuclear energy age of baseload plants, 23 air-blown PC plants, 106, 121, 124, 126, 128 Delivered electricity, 42, 43 baseload, 57, 58-59, 60 Demand. See Energy demand; Electricity demand biomass, 51, 57, 58 Demand-side management, 88 carbon capture and storage, 78, 107-108 smart meters, 9 n.1, 45, 60, 118 coal-fired plants, 3, 13, 14, 16, 17, 23, 24, 36, Demonstrations. See Research, development, and 49, 51-52, 53, 57, 58, 59, 68, 69, 71, 74, demonstrations 104-105 Deployment of new technologies, general. See also combined-heat and power plants, 51 specific technologies and energy sources competitiveness of technologies, 51, 59 accelerated, 6, 35, 37-38, 39, 76-79 consumption of liquid fuels, 37 barriers to, 60, 76-79, 87-88, 93-94 costs, 55-60, 105-107 consumer resistance to, 35, 50 fossil fuel, 51, 58, 104-107 coupling energy-supply and supporting fuel costs, 57, 58-59 technologies, 78 integrated gasification and combined cycle (IGCC) “crash” effort, 35 plants, 70, 74, 104, 106, 121, 124, 126, 128 economic effects on end-users, 35, 50 intermittent, 57, 58-59 industrial capacity and personnel for, 77-78 natural gas, 3, 13, 14, 15, 16, 23, 24, 36, 51, 55, options, 38-39 57-58, 59, 68-69, 105-106 parallel tracks, 30, 57 NGCC plants, 23, 57-59, 69, 70, 105-106, 126, portfolio approach, 68 128 readiness for, 38, 39 new plants, 42, 45, 105 siting concerns, 57, 60 oxyfuel plants, 70, 74, 104 supply factors, 77-78 petroleum, 51 timeframes for, 35 portfolio approach, 4-5, 51, 107-108 turnover rate of infrastructure and, 77 renewable sources, 13, 51, 52, 57, 58, 59 Diesel fuel retail price of electricity, 47-48, 49, 56, 100 biodiesel, 37, 62 n.17, 75, 89 siting of facilities, 57, 60 supply, 37 supply from new technologies or technology mixes, Dimethyl ether, 94 49, 51-60 water use, 60 wholesale power markets, 56-57, 59 Electricity sector E barriers to improvement, 77 demand side technologies, 45, 60 Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study/ energy efficiency improvements, 40-41 Joint Coordinated System Planning Study, 100 greenhouse gas emissions, 4, 5, 16, 24, 68-69, 70, Economic growth, 25 73 Economic recession, xii, 15, 77, 95

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7 Index Electricity transmission and distribution (T&D) historical, 19, 21 systems industry, 14, 15, 17, 22, 36-37, 44 accommodating all generation and storage options, international comparison, 11-12, 20 51, 60, 61 per capita, 19, 20 advanced equipment and components, 116 per dollar of GDP, 19, 20 barriers to deployment, 78, 117-118 projected, 2, 19, 21, 36-37 benefits of modernization, 3, 60-61, 118 total, 22 cascading failures and blackouts, 60 Energy costs. See Costs communications system, 116-117 Energy demand. See also Electricity demand costs of modernization, 58-59, 61 economic conditions and, 15, 25 custom power, 116 impacts of technology development, 32 customer motivation and involvement, 61 potential energy sources relative to, 13 decision-support tools, 117 projected, 41, 42 distribution system, 61 Energy-efficient technologies. See also Appliances; economic benefits, 115 Buildings; Industrial; Light-duty vehicles; electrified vehicle fleet and, 4 Lighting; Transportation environmental benefits, 116 advanced, 83-84 FACTS technology, 116 availability, 82 findings, 3, 60-61 barriers to deployment, 6, 76-77, 78, 87-88 grid visualization, 117 baseline/reference cases, 83 integrating intermittent/renewable resources capital investment needs, 83 integrated in, xiii, 3, 27, 34, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, combined heat and power production, 44, 51, 86, 98-99, 116, 118 87, 88 investment barriers, 78 conservation supply curves, 40, 82, 83 market accommodations, 61 consumer behavior, 49, 50, 79 problems, 13, 78 cost of conserved energy, 45-46, 47, 48-49 regional ownership and regulation, 78 cost-effectiveness, 2, 40-41, 49, 82 regulatory and legislative barriers, 78 and demand for electricity, 32, 44-45 reliability measures, 61 drivers of, 84, 88 security, 115 findings, 1-2, 3, 4, 40-49, 50 sensing and measurements, 116-117 informational and education needs, 87-88 smart meters, 9 n.1, 45, 60, 118 infrastructure considerations, 86, 88 storage, 6, 51, 61, 78 integrated approaches, 84, 85 technologies, 116-117 natural gas savings, 43, 45 n.8, 48-49 transmission system, 60, 61 panel report, 31, 81 Electronics. See Appliances and electronics potential savings in energy, 1-2, 25, 40-49, 50, 62, Endangered Species Act, 40 82, 83, 84, 88 Energy conservation, xiii, 33, 40 n.3, 61 price of energy and, 47-48, 82, 83, 84, 88 Energy consumption. See also Electricity consumption; public policies and programs, 82, 86, 88 R&D, 6, 74, 85 specific fuels buildings sector, 2, 14, 83 rates of return, 41, 43 n.6, 47, 49, 77, 78, 82, 83 business-as-usual reference case, 2, 21, 36-37 regulations and standards, 27, 28, 38-39 n.1, 40, comparison of sectors, 17, 22, 36-37 45, 46, 62, 78-79, 85, 87, 88 current, 2, 17 societal benefits, 40 energy efficiency technologies and, 2, 11-12 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, by fuel source, 17, 18, 21, 22, 36-37 27, 45, 46, 62, 131

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Index 77 Energy Information Administration (EIA) sulfur oxides, xi business-as-usual reference case, 2, 11, 12, 36, 45, water supply/pollution, 101 57, 82 Ethanol. See also Cellulosic ethanol; Corn ethanol energy consumption projections, 2, 40, 45 greenhouse gas emissions, 72 Energy intensity supply, 37 defined, 11 European Union, 11, 20. See also individual countries trends, 11 Exports of energy, trends, 20. See individual sources Energy Policy Act of 2005, 27, 109 n.14, 113 Energy savings energy efficiency improvements, 1-2, 25, 40-49, 50, 62, 82, 83, 84, 88 F methods and assumptions, 130-131 public policies and, 88 Federal Renewable Electricity Production Tax Credit, Energy security, 1, 10, 12-13, 25-26, 55, 89, 92, 103 95, 99, 101 Energy sources. See also Primary; Useful Feedstocks. See Biomass; Coal access issues, 12 Fischer-Tropsch process, 67, 72, 93 flows of energy, 12 Ford administration, 26 stored, 12 Fossil fuels. See also Coal; Natural gas; Oil; Petroleum ENERGY STAR® program, 88 carbon capture and storage, 2 Energy storage. See also Battery technologies CO2 emissions, 11, 16, 25 dispatchable, for T&D systems, 61, 78 consumption, 14 fuel cells, 4, 5, 6, 30, 44, 45, 67, 73, 74, 75, 84, dependence on, 14-15, 25 85, 94 economic importance, 14 LDVs, 4, 5, 6, 76, 85 electric power generation, 3, 16, 104-107 Energy supply. See also individual energy sources environmental and safety issues, 11, 16, 25-26, barriers to deployment of technologies, 77 108-109 business-as-usual reference case, 36-37 findings, 2 calculations, 126-129 prices, 2, 14, 28 by fuel source, 36-37 resources and reserves, 13 by production sector, 36-37 supply and demand, 25 projected, 36-37 for transportation, 108 Energy-supply and end-use technologies Freight transportation build time, 123, 128-129 air, 86 competitiveness, 33 potential energy efficiency improvements, 45 defined, 9 n.1 rail, 86 integrated assessment, 32 truck transport, 85-86 role in transforming energy system, 27-30, 32 Fuel-cell technologies, 4, 5, 6, 30, 44, 45, 67, 73, 74, Energy system. See U.S. energy system 75, 84, 85, 86, 94 Environmental impacts. See also Carbon dioxide; Fuels. See Alternative transportation fuels Greenhouse gas emissions aesthetics, 102 challenges in transforming energy systems, 25-26, 88 land-use impacts, 101-102 G nitrogen oxide emissions, xi, 11 n.3, 19 noise pollution, 102 Gasification technologies policies and legislation, 26, 88 co-fed coal and biomass, 3-4, 91

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78 Index integrated gasification combined cycle plants, 70, Hydropower 74, 104, 106, 121, 124, 126, 128 consumption, 13, 17, 18 Gasoline. See also Light-duty vehicles; Oil; Petroleum costs, 57, 97, 100 costs with and without carbon price, 93 electricity generating capacity, 13, 18, 51, 52, 95, Genetics, 74 98, 128 Genomics, 74 environmental impacts, 97 Geoengineering, 29, 75 greenhouse gas emissions, 69 Geologic storage of CO2. See also Carbon capture and marine and hydrokinetic, 97, 128 storage potential, 95, 98 coal-bed, 70, 107 technology, 97 oil and gas reservoirs, 70, 91, 107 regulation, 92 saline aquifers, 70, 107 Geothermal power I consumption, by sector, 17 costs, 57, 58 Imports of energy, trends, 20. See also individual electricity generating capacity, 6, 13, 17, 57, 58, sources 97 Independent power producers, 95, 128 enhanced geothermal systems, 6, 97 India, 20 hydrothermal, 97, 128 Industrial sector R&D opportunities, 6, 75, 97 advanced materials, 87 technology description, 97 barriers to improving, 88 Greenhouse gas emissions. See also Carbon dioxide; biomass use, 17 Methane; specific sectors, technologies, and cement, 44, 86, 87 energy sources chemical manufacturing, 86 defined, 11 n.3 coal use, 14, 17, 24 and global warming, xi, 11 n.3, 29, 40 combined heat and power, 44, 86, 87 management, 29; see also Carbon capture consumption of energy, 14, 15, 17, 22, 36-37, 44 portfolio approach to reducing, 68-73 crosscutting technologies, 87 timeframe for reducing, 68, 71, 73 fabrication processes and materials, 87 transportation sector, 4, 5, 16, 73, 84 iron and steel, 43-44, 86, 87 U.S. trends, 19 natural gas use, 14, 15, 17, 24, 37 on-demand manufacturing, 86 petroleum refining, 86, 87 petroleum use, 17, 24 H policy and regulatory issues, 38-39 n.1 potential for energy savings, 2, 43-44, 82, 86-87 Heating and cooling systems pulp and paper, 43-44, 86, 87 biomass, 32 reference case, 44, 86 cogeneration, 44, 51, 86, 87, 88 remanufacturing of used products, 87 Home electronics. See Appliances and electronics return on investments, 82 Homes. See Residential sensors and control systems, 87 Hydrocarbon fuels from biomass, 3-4 separation processes, 87 Hydrogen fuel thermochemical conversion, 74 LDVs, 4, 5, 6, 30, 44, 45, 67, 73, 74, 75, 84, 85, 94 Informational and education needs petroleum replacement potential, 94 energy efficiency, 87-88

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Index 7 Infrastructure issues, 31. See also Electricity battery technology, 4, 5, 6, 76, 85 transmission body designs, 84, 85 energy-efficient technologies, 86, 88 CAFE standards, 28, 45 n.7, 46, 85 International cooperation, 29 demand for electricity, 44-45 Investment in clean energy deployment scenarios, 85 asset renewal or replacement, 13, 78 diesel compression-ignition engines, 45, 84 barriers to deployment of technologies, 77, 78 electrification, 4, 44, 62, 67, 73 capital constraints, 95 engine improvements, 84 consumer resistance to, 49, 50, 79 environmental impacts of new technologies, cost-effectiveness, 40-41, 77 44, 73 energy efficiency technologies, 82, 83 EPA limit on truck weight, 46 incentives for, 78 fuel efficiency improvements, 3, 4, 40, 41, 44-46, nuclear plants, 70-71 67, 73 payback period, 82 gasoline hybrid-electric, 45, 85, 86 price of fuel and, xii, 82 gasoline spark-ignition engines, 45, 84 private-sector, 27, 77, 78 greenhouse gas emissions, 5, 16, 73, 85 public sector, 78 hydrogen fuel-cell, 4, 5, 6, 30, 44, 45, 67, 73, 74, renewable resources, 95 75, 84, 85, 94 research, development, and demonstrations, 39, nonpropulsion system improvements, 84, 85 74-76 petroleum consumption, 67, 89 returns on, 41, 43 n.6, 47, 49, 77, 78, 82, 83 plug-in hybrid-electric, 4, 45, 74, 78, 84, 85 risk perceptions, 71 potential for energy efficiency improvements, 44- tax credits, 38 n.1 46, 62, 84 T&D systems, 78 power and size offsets, 40, 45, 46, 84, 85 trends, 27 price of gasoline, 84 Iron and steel industry, 43-44, 86, 87 production capability, 88 R&D, 6, 74, 85 tires, 84 transmission improvements, 84, 85 J travel reductions, 46 Lighting compact fluorescent lamps, 50 Japan daylight, 84 energy consumption, 11, 20 energy savings, 47, 83 regulations and standards, 41 solid-state (light-emitting diodes), 83 Lime kilns, 87 L Liquefied natural gas, 15 Liquid transportation fuels. See Alternative Legislation. See also individual statutes transportation fuels; Biofuels; Cellulosic ethanol; and development of new energy supplies, 40 Coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuels; Coal-to-liquid energy, 27 fuels; Diesel; Gasoline; Petroleum environmental, 26-27, 40 piecemeal approach, 26 Light-duty vehicles. See also Alternative liquid fuels battery-electric, 4, 45, 74, 78, 84, 85

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80 Index M retrofitted plants with CCS, 70, 71 shales, 15, 103, 105-106 single-cycle plants, 23 Malaysia, 20 supply and demand, 103, 106 Manhattan Project, 29 tight gas sands, 15, 103 Methane transportation fuel, 37 coal-bed, 103 New Source Performance Standards, 78 emissions, 11, 19 Nitrogen oxide emissions, 11 n.3, 19 hydrates, 75, 94 Nixon administration, 26 Methanol, 94 Norway, 107 Methanol-to-gasoline technology, 67, 72 Nuclear energy Molecular biology, 74 aging/retirement of plants, 13, 23, 53-54, 112 Municipal solid waste, 89, 97 barriers to deployment, 113-114 capacity factor, 54 consumption, 17, 18, 21, 22 costs, 57, 58, 113 N demonstration needs and constraints, 55 downtime decreases, 110 National Environmental Policy Act, 26 economic barriers, 70-71, 113 National Science Foundation, 76 electricity costs, 2 Natural gas. See also Liquefied natural gas; Methane environmental impacts, 114-115 access issue, 12, 71, 103 federal incentives, 39 n.2, 55, 58, 59 age of power plants, 23 findings, 2, 3, 39, 70-71 buildings sector, 14, 15, 17, 24, 37, 43, 48-49 greenhouse gas emissions, 16, 69, 70-71 carbon capture and storage, 58, 69, 70, 71 improvements to existing plants, 52-53, 110 CO2 emissions, 3, 16, 24, 68, 69, 70, 71, 102 new plants, 3, 51, 53 combined cycle (NGCC) plants, 23, 57-59, 69, 70, operating license extensions, 53-55, 110, 112 105-106, 126, 128 potential for deployment, 3, 13, 70-71, 112-113 competitiveness, 105-106 power uprates, 52-53, 110 compressed, 94 proliferation risk, 111 consumption, 17, 18, 21, 22, 37 public concerns, 113-114 costs, 48-49 refueling outages, 110 economic importance, 15 regulatory and legislative issues, 113 electricity generation, 3, 13, 14, 15, 16, 23, 24, 36, safety and security, 115 51, 55, 57-58, 59, 68-69, 105-106 supply of electricity, 3, 14, 49, 51, 52-55, 114 energy efficiency savings, 43, 45 n.8, 48-49 technologies, 110-112; see also Nuclear reactors feedstock for fuel, 94 Nuclear fuel cycle. See also Uranium findings, 3 alternative, 111, 113 industrial use, 14, 15, 17, 24, 37 breeding, 111 import dependence (potential), 3, 15, 16, 25, 37, closed, 111 71, 103 disposal of spent fuel, 60 new plants, 70 mining and milling impacts, 60 pipelines, 109 separations technologies, 111 potential, 16 Nuclear fusion, 29 prices, 3, 15, 25, 48, 49, 57-58, 59, 71, 103 Nuclear reactors production (domestic), 15, 16, 37 alternative designs, 111 reserves and resources, 2, 3, 15, 37, 102-103

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Index 8 costs, 70-71 industrial sector, 17, 24 demonstration of commercial viability, 5, 6, 68, prices, 25 70-71 production rates (domestic), 3, 14, 62-63, 102 evolutionary designs, 2, 5, 6, 39, 49, 68, 70-71, refining, 86, 87 110, 112, 113, 115, 124 replacement or reduction, 3, 14, 62-67, 73 fast, 111 transportation fuel, 3, 14, 16, 17, 24, 62, 84, 89, R&D opportunities, 6 108 Nuclear waste management, 60 Plutonium, 111 high-level wastes, 115 Policies and programs. See also Legislation; interim storage, 115 Regulations and standards; individual statutes Yucca Mountain high-level-waste storage, 115 barriers to adoption of technologies, 6, 76-77, 78 carbon controls, 78, 38 n.1 costs of, 45 n.8 energy efficiency, 82, 86, 88 energy savings estimates, 88 O ENERGY STAR® program, 88 incentives and grants, 6, 38 n.1 Obama administration, 27, 41 n.4, 45 n.7, 62, 85 n.7 RD&D, 88 Oil. See also Gasoline; Petroleum state/utility, 88 access issue, 12 tax credits, 38 n.1, 51, 95, 99, 101 CO2 enhanced oil recovery, 91 Population demand, 15 growth, 11-12, 25, 83 liquid fuel consumption, 62-65 Potential energy sources political importance, 14-15 defined, 13 prices, xii, 15, 67 Power grid. See Electricity transmission and production (domestic), 14 n.8 distribution systems reserves and resources, 13, 102 Price of energy shales, 75, 102, 108, 109 and energy-efficient technology adoption, 47-48, 82, 83, 84, 88 Primary energy sources, 12, 21, 22, 33 Princeton Environmental Institute, 124, 125 P Production of energy, trends, 20. See also individual sources Passenger transportation Public engagement, 29-30 air, 86 n.8 Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act, 88 vehicular, see Light-duty vehicles Pulp and paper industry, 43-44, 86, 87 Petroleum. See also Fossil fuels; Oil PUREX, 111 buildings sector, 17, 24 CO2 emissions, 16, 24, 72 consumption, 17, 18, 21, 22, 24, 62, 89, 102 demand, 15 R dependence, xi, 25, 63, 67, 89 economic importance, 14 Reagan administration, 26 electricity generation, 36 Regulations and standards. See also Legislation; energy efficiency improvements and, 67 individual statutes import dependence, 3, 14, 16, 17, 24, 25, 26, 62, appliance efficiency standards, 88 84, 89, 93

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8 Index building energy codes, 38-39 n.1, 40, 50, 88 evolutionary nuclear reactor demonstrations, 5, 6, CAFE, 28, 45 n.7, 46, 85 68, 70-71, 74 energy efficiency, 27, 28, 38-39 n.1, 40, 45, 46, 62, federal support, 76 78-79, 85, 87, 88 geoengineering, 75 environmental, 26-27, 78, 88 geothermal power, 75 performance-oriented, 6, 78 investments in, 39, 74, 75-76 renewables portfolio standards, 28, 39 n.2, 51, LDV technologies, 6, 74, 75 95 national effort, 28 Remanufacturing of used products for resale, 87 natural gas from hydrates, 75 Renewable energy. See also Biopower; Geothermal; nuclear fuel cycle, 75 Hydropower; Solar; Wind oil shale extraction technologies, 75 20% electricity generation, 13, 95, 98-99 opportunities for, 6, 30, 73-76, 79, 85 competitiveness, 97-98 portfolio approach, 5-6, 73 consumption of energy from, 21, 22 radioactive waste management, 75 co-siting of different technologies, 98 solar photovoltaics, 75, 76 costs, 33, 51, 99-100 scale of demonstrations, 28 deployment barriers, 12, 97-98, 101 social science research, 75 development potential, 97-99 urgency of, 5, 30, 71 electricity generation capacity, 2, 31, 51, 94-96 wind energy, 75 environmental impacts, 101-102 Reserves. See also individual energy sources findings, 2 defined, 13 greenhouse gas emissions, 16, 101 Residential buildings. See also Appliances; Buildings; human and materials resource constraints, 101 Lighting integration in T&D systems, xiii, 3, 27, 34, 57, 58, consumption of energy, 17, 22, 36-37 59, 60, 61, 98, 99, 101, 116, 118 energy efficiency savings, 40-41, 47-49 land-use impacts, 101-102 low-energy and zero-net-energy new homes, 84 non-electricity (distributed), 99-100 rental units, 50, 87 policy setting, 101 solar power at point of use, 59, 83 R&D, 98 Resources, defined, 13. See also individual energy resource base, 95-96 sources supply of electricity, 13, 51, 52 technology descriptions, 96-97 Research, development, and demonstrations (RD&D) advanced materials, 76 S alternative liquid fuels, 74-75 basic research, 75-76 Secondary energy source. See Electricity generation battery technologies, 6, 30, 76, 79, 85 Sensor development, 87 biofuels, 74-75, 90 Separation processes and technologies biosciences, 74 industry energy efficiency measures, 87, 111 CCS demonstrations, 5, 6, 39, 51-52, 65, 66, 68, PUREX, 111 70, 73, 74, 91, 92, 107, 108-109 Silicon, 96 cellulosic ethanol demonstrations, 6, 64, 74, 90 Smart meters, 9 n.1, 45, 60, 118 climate-related, 75 Solar power, general CO2 recycling, 75 consumption, by sector, 17 coal technologies, 6, 64, 74 costs, 57, 58, 96 energy efficiency, 6, 74, 85 growth, 95

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Index 8 resource base, 96 findings, 3, 4, 44-45 Solar power, photovoltaic (PV) greenhouse gas emissions, 4, 5, 16, 73, 84, 108 competitiveness, 99-100 infrastructure considerations, 86 costs, 58, 99-100, 101 intelligent systems, 86 greenhouse gas emissions, 69 liquid fuel consumption, 36-37, 62-65 integration in power grid, 3 petroleum dependence, 3, 14, 16, 17, 24, 62, 84, point-of-use (residential) installations, 59, 96 89, 108 potential of, 13 portfolio approach, 4, 5, 68, 71 R&D opportunities, 6, 59 potential for energy savings, 44-46, 62, 82, 84 silicon flat-plate arrays, 96 public policies, 86 technology description, 96-97 regulations, 38-39 n.1 thin-film technologies, 96-97 system-level improvements, 86 Solar power, thermal nonelectric. See also Concentrating solar power South Korea, 20 Supply of energy. See Energy supply U Uranium mining and milling, 60 T resources and reserves, 13, 115 U.S. Department of Energy Taxes 20% wind electricity generation scenario, 13, 95, barriers to technology deployment, 88 98-99 carbon, 38 n.1 Office of Science, 76 credits, 38 n.1, 51, 95, 99, 101 U.S. energy system. See also individual resources Technology. See Critical technologies; Energy- aging of, 13 supply and end-use technologies; Research, critical characteristics, 11-13 development, and demonstrations; specific current profile, 11-25 regional considerations, 31-32 technologies Thailand, 20 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Thermochemical conversion vehicle size and weight limits, 46 biomass-to-liquid fuel, 91 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 113, 114 n.18 carbon capture and storage, 74, 91-92 Useful energy sources, defined, 12 coal-to-liquid fuel, 91, 92 co-fed biomass and coal, 3-4, 91-92 cost analysis, 91 Fischer-Tropsch process, 67, 72, 93 w greenhouse gas emissions, 91-92 methanol-to-gasoline process, 67, 72, 93 Windows, 84 RD&D, 74 Wind power supply of fuel from, 92 20% penetration scenarios, 13, 95, 98-99, 100 Transportation sector. See also Air transportation; capacity, 98-99 Alternative transportation fuels; Freight consumption, by sector, 17 transportation; Passenger transportation costs, 57, 58, 96, 99, 100, 101, 121, 126 energy efficiency, 2, 3, 4, 38-39 n.1, 40, 41, 43, 44- deployment challenges, 60, 99, 101 46, 62, 82, 84-86, 88

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8 Index electricity generation capacity, 17, 27, 36, 51, 57, offshore, 36, 58, 100, 126 95, 128 onshore, 36, 57, 58, 99, 100, 126 environmental impacts, 101 potential, 96, 99 financing, 95 public policies, 95, 99, 101 and greenhouse gas emissions, 69 resource base, 96, 128 integration in power grid, 3, 34, 57, 60, 81, 96, 99, siting, 60, 101 100, 101 storage and load management, 75, 99 manufacturing, materials, and labor requirements, technology description, 96 98 turbines, 95, 96, 100