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## School Meals: Building Blocks for Healthy Children (2010) Food and Nutrition Board (FNB)

### Citation Manager

. "Appendix L: Baseline Menus." School Meals: Building Blocks for Healthy Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2010.

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School Meals: Building Blocks for Healthy Children

TABLE L-2 As Selected Assumptionsa Used in School Meals Menu Analysis Program Modified Baseline Menus, Middle School Breakfast

 Food Group As Offered Meal Requirements As Selected Assumptions for Nutrient and Cost Comparisons Serving Size Items per Day Take-up Rate Source/Rationale Fluid Milk 1 c 1 92% Based on take-up rate in baseline menu; distribution = Low-fat Milk = 30% Skim Milk = 10% Skim Flavored Milk = 52% Meat/Meat Alternate 1 oz eq 0–2 68% or more SNDA-III data adjusted to reflect OVS rule; higher if take-up rate was higher in baseline menu for same or similar item. Fruit ½ c 2 70% Take-up rate is overall percentage for two servings. Assumption is that students take an average of 1.4 servings of fruit per reimbursable breakfast. In SNDA-III, middle school children who were offered two fruit choices at breakfast took an average of 0.9 fruit servings. The committee increased this rate by 50 percent to account for the fact that (a) two servings of fruit will be a required part of the pattern and (b) children will be required to select at least on fruit serving. Distribution across fruit options based on take-up rates in baseline menu and, as needed, SNDA-III data. Grain 1 oz eq 1–2 100% Based on SNDA-III data, baseline menu, and OVS rule; many grains are packaged with meat/meat alternates. NOTES: c = cup; OVS = offer versus serve; oz eq = ounce equivalent; SNDA-III = third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment study. aAssumed OVS rule: May decline one item; must include at least one fruit item.
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 Front Matter (R1-R14) Summary (1-18) 1 Introduction and Background (19-32) 2 Foundation for Revising Nutrition Standards and Meal Requirements (33-46) 3 Schoolchildren's Food and Nutrient Intakes and Related Health Concerns (47-68) 4 Process for Developing the Nutrient Targets (69-90) 5 Process for Developing the Meal Requirements (91-106) 6 Iterations - Achieving the Best Balance of Nutrition, Student Acceptance, Practicality, and Cost (107-114) 7 Recommendations for Nutrient Targets and Meal Requirements for School Meals (115-130) 8 Food Cost Implications and Market Effects (131-154) 9 Projected Impact of the Recommended Nutrient Targets and Meal Requirements (155-178) 10 Implementation, Evaluation, and Research (179-208) 11 References (209-220) Appendix A: Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Glossary (221-228) Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members (229-236) Appendix C: Critical Issues for Consideration by the Committee on Nutrition Standards for National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs, as Submitted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (237-244) Appendix D: January 2009 Workshop Agenda and Summary of Public Comments (245-254) Appendix E: Standards for the Current Food- and Nutrient-Based Menu Planning Approaches (255-258) Appendix F: Data Used to Calculate Estimated Energy Requirements (259-262) Appendix G: Data Tables Containing Examples of New SNDA-III Analyses (263-268) Appendix H: Uses of MyPyramid Food Groups and the MyPyramid Spreadsheet (269-284) Appendix I: Dietary Intake Data and Calculation of the Target Median Intake for Iron (285-292) Appendix J: Target Median Intake (TMI) Tables (293-296) Appendix K: Use of the School Meals Menu Analysis Program (297-304) Appendix L: Baseline Menus (305-330) Appendix M: Sample Menus (331-362) Appendix N: Evidence Considered Related to the Definition for Whole Grain-Rich Foods (363-366) Appendix O: Comparison of Recommended Nutrient Targets to Various Nutrition Standards for School-Aged Children (367-372) Appendix P: Comparison of *Dietary Guidelines for Americans* with Recommended Meal Requirements (373-378) Appendix Q: Regulations Related to the Sodium Content of Foods Labeled "Healthy" (379-380)