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School Meals: Building Blocks for Healthy Children Appendix P Comparison of Dietary Guidelines for Americans with Recommended Meal Requirements LIST OF TABLES Table P-1 Summary of 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and Recommendations for School Meals that Address Increasing Conformity of Children’s Diets to the Guidelines
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School Meals: Building Blocks for Healthy Children TABLE P-1 Summary of 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and Recommendations for School Meals that Address Increasing Conformity of Children’s Diets to the Guidelines Guidelinea (specific recommendations for children and adolescents are also noted) Recommendations that Address Increasing Alignment with Guidelineb Adequate Nutrients within Calorie Needs Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages within and among the basic food groups while choosing foods that limit the intake of saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcohol. Meet recommended intakes within energy needs by adopting a balanced eating pattern, such as the USDA Food Guide or the DASH Eating Plan. Milk limited to plain and flavored fat-free and low-fat milk (no more than 1% milk fat). Increased fruits at breakfast and vegetables at lunch. Dark green and orange vegetables and legumes on menu each week; starchy vegetables served less often. More whole grain-rich food products, fewer refined grain products. Nearly all entrées, cheese, and grain products low in saturated fat. Lower sodium content of meals. Trans fats limited to as near zero as possible by requiring that processed foods have a zero value on the label. Minimum and maximum energy (calorie) standards for school meals. Menu pattern based largely on the USDA food guide (MyPyramid). Weight Management To maintain body weight in a healthy range, balance calories from foods and beverages with calories expended. Both minimum and maximum calorie levels are specified for school meals, based on best evidence regarding energy needs for children. School meal programs are not intended for the treatment of established overweight or obesity; rather, they are to provide foods and nutrients to support a healthy, active lifestyle. Overweight children. Reduce the rate of body weight gain while allowing growth and development. Consult a healthcare provider before placing a child on a weight-reduction diet. Physical Activity Children and adolescents. Engage in at least 60 minutes of physical activity on most, preferably all, days of the week. Outside the scope of this committee’s charge, the value of physical activity in the school setting is recognized, particularly prior to lunch.
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School Meals: Building Blocks for Healthy Children Guidelinea (specific recommendations for children and adolescents are also noted) Recommendations that Address Increasing Alignment with Guidelineb Food Groups to Encourage Consume a sufficient amount of fruits and vegetables while staying within energy needs. Two cups of fruit and 2½ cups of vegetables per day are recommended for a reference 2,000-calorie intake, with higher or lower amounts depending on the calorie level. Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables each day. In particular, select from all five vegetable subgroups (dark green, orange, legumes, starchy vegetables, and other vegetables) several times a week. Consume 3 or more ounce-equivalents of whole-grain products per day, with the rest of the recommended grains coming from enriched or whole-grain products. In general, at least half the grains should come from whole grains. Consume 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products. One cup fruit (two servings) for breakfast and ½ to 1 cup fruit at lunch (the higher amount for high school). At least ¾ cup vegetables at lunch. Vegetables for school lunch to include at least ½ cup of dark green, yellow/orange, and legumes over the school week. Starchy vegetables limited to 1 cup per school week. 7–10 servings grain products (depending on age-grade level) at breakfast per week and 9–13 servings/week at lunch (depending on age-grade level), at least half of which must be whole grain-rich (see Box 7-1). One cup milk at school breakfast and 1 cup at lunch, all of which must be plain or flavored nonfat or plain low fat. Additional low-fat or fat-free yogurt or reduced-fat, low-fat, or fat-free cheese may be used as an alternate for meat or beans in menu planning. Recommendations contribute to meeting the Dietary Guidelines for whole grain products and for milk for children. Children and adolescents. Consume whole-grain products often; at least half the grains should be whole grains. Children ages 2–8 years should consume 2 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products. Children 9 years of age and older should consume 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products.
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School Meals: Building Blocks for Healthy Children Guidelinea (specific recommendations for children and adolescents are also noted) Recommendations that Address Increasing Alignment with Guidelineb Fats Consume less than 10 percent of calories from saturated fatty acids and less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol, and keep trans fatty acid consumption as low as possible. Keep total fat intake between 20 and 35 percent of calories, with most fats coming from sources of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, such as fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. When selecting and preparing meat, poultry, dry beans, and milk or milk products, make choices that are lean, low-fat, or fat-free. Limit intake of fats and oils high in saturated and/or trans fatty acids, and choose products low in such fats and oils. Saturated fat limited to < 10% of calories for breakfast and lunch; trans fats limited by including only processed products labeled with zero trans fat. Emphasis on low-fat, fat-free, and lean choices for menu planning; restriction of milk and yogurt to nonfat or 1% fat varieties. Maximum levels of calories and saturated fat help keep total fat content below 35% of calories. The inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils is encouraged within calorie limits. Recommendations are consistent with Dietary Guidelines for children aged 4 to 18 years. No identifiable trans fat. Children and adolescents. Keep total fat intake between 25 and 35 percent of calories for children and adolescents 4–18 years of age, with most fats coming from sources of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, such as fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Carbohydrates Choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, and whole grains often. Choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added sugars or caloric sweeteners. Reduce the incidence of dental caries by practicing good oral hygiene and consuming sugar- and starch-containing foods and beverages less frequently. Recommended menus have increased fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. The menu pattern and the maximum calorie level minimize the use of added sugars. Applicable primarily to snacking rather than to school meals. Sodium and Potassium Consume less than 2,300 mg (approximately 1 tsp of salt) of sodium per day. Choose and prepare foods with little salt. At the same time, consume potassium-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables. Sodium standards are set at recommended levels based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for the age-grade group; recognition is given that implementation of this standard will be gradual and over a relatively long term. Fruits and vegetables are increased in the recommended standards for menu planning; sodium is addressed with gradual but steady reduction to recommended levels. Alcoholic Beverages Not applicable for children.
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School Meals: Building Blocks for Healthy Children Guidelinea (specific recommendations for children and adolescents are also noted) Recommendations that Address Increasing Alignment with Guidelineb Food Safety Already addressed in school food service standards; not within the scope of this committee’s charge. Additional Key Recommendations for Specific Groups: Infants and young children, pregnant women, older adults, and those who are immunocompromised. None of these products is recommended. Food list in Table J-2 specifies that beans sprouts are to be cooked or canned only. Do not eat or drink raw (unpasteurized) milk or any products made from unpasteurized milk, raw or partially cooked eggs or foods containing raw eggs, raw or undercooked meat and poultry, raw or undercooked fish or shellfish, unpasteurized juices, and raw sprouts. aFrom the Executive Summary of the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (HHS/USDA, 2005). bQuantitative recommendations are to be met on average over 5-day menu plans.
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