Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 41
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary 1 Migration, Mobility, and Health OVERVIEW Opening presentations by Mark Miller of the University of Delaware and Brian Gushulak of the Canadian Immigration Department Health Branch set the context for this workshop by exploring the history and ongoing political and public health significance of human migration and mobility. Their contributions to this chapter establish a firm foundation for those that follow, providing both a wealth of detail and an overarching view of the changing picture of human migration through the ages, and particularly during the recent decades. Miller’s essay reviews human migratory history, focusing on the contemporary “Age of Migration” that began around 1970. This era “has witnessed major developments in human mobility affecting all areas of the world,” Miller writes. “Understanding this still evolving global migratory context bears importantly upon comprehension of contemporary microbial threats.” Conversely, he notes the importance of health issues to the study of migration and security, particularly in recent years. Miller examines the geopolitical origins of the present Age of Migration and examines its defining features. These he characterizes as the globalization, acceleration, differentiation, politicization, feminization, and proliferation of migration in the traditional sense (the one-way movement of people from one homeland to another); the advent of formal mechanisms supporting “circular” migrations such as guestworker programs; and the growth of international tourism. Reflecting on the future of migration and development, and recognizing that “the chief threats to U.S. security since the 1970s arose from failed states and the abysmal living conditions of average people in much of the world,” Miller advocates a
OCR for page 42
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary stronger commitment on the part of the United States to development in Africa, the Middle East, and other developing countries, including increased admissions of permanent residents from these regions. In his subsequent contribution, Gushulak, along with his colleague Douglas MacPherson, of McMaster University and Migration Health Consultants, Inc., presents a comprehensive history of migration-associated disease and disease control policies. The authors characterize “modern migration”—the mechanism that drives Miller’s “Age of Migration”—in terms of its departure from traditional migratory patterns, and explore the challenges it presents for global health, and particularly for the control of infectious diseases. In order to “shift the paradigm” of disease control away from policies focused on geopolitical borders and individual infectious diseases, Gushulak and MacPherson introduce the concept of “population mobility” to replace traditional considerations of migration. “Considering mobility as a global health determinant provides a model upon which we can integrate disease management policies, processes for prevention, knowledge of disparate prevalence environments, and a rigorous health threat to risk assessment ability,” the authors write, and they suggest several approaches to the control of mobility-related disease to support this model. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE1 Mark J. Miller, Ph.D.2 University of Delaware Public health has been importantly influenced by human mobility patterns since time immemorial. A rich, but frequently overlooked, tradition of scholarship attests to the significance of understanding human mobility for comprehension of events involving plagues and spatial diffusion of illnesses (Diamond, 1997; McNeill, 1977). Many students of world politics and international relations have distinguished themselves by their neglect of health questions in explanations of wars and conquests (Koslowski, 2000). Nevertheless, no effort will be made here to reprise that literature. Rather, the focus will be upon sketching what Stephen Castles3 and I call The Age of Migration, the contemporary migratory epoch that 1 This essay builds on a paper prepared for the International Organization for Migration/Center for Migration Studies, Conference on International Migration and Development: Continuing the Dialogue—Legal and Policy Perspectives convened in New York City January 17-18, 2008. That paper was subsequently published in J. Chamie and L. Dall’Oglio, eds. 2008. International Migration and Development. Geneva: ILO and New York: CMS. Pp. 71-78. 2 Emma Smith Morris Professor. 3 Professor of Migration and Refugee Studies, and Director of the International Migration Institute at the University of Oxford.
OCR for page 43
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary began circa 1970 which has witnessed major developments in human mobility affecting all areas of the world. Understanding this still evolving global migratory context bears importantly upon comprehension of contemporary microbial threats. Health issues comprise a not insignificant dimension of the still emerging field of study of migration and security, a scholarly focus of considerable historical pedigree that reemerged after the Cold War and especially after 9/11 (Castles and Miller, 2009). Migrations Past: International Migration in the Modern Age To paraphrase Kemal Karpat,4 rarely does migration not figure importantly in the history of humankind. Recent anthropological evidence concerning the late Iron Age in Europe suggests that distinctive societies were much more interconnected and fluid than once thought (Wells, 2001). The prosperity and goods of ancient Greece and Rome fostered trade and myriad other interactions just as the military might of Greece and Rome posed a perceived grave threat to tribes and peoples on the periphery, forcing them to adapt, change, and define their identities. The extensive Viking migrations of the eighth to eleventh centuries gave rise to plunder and violence. But those migrations also involved trade and commerce. Medieval migration of Jews in Europe often was linked to rulers’ efforts to spur economic development and to generate greater tax revenues. Much the same could be said about medieval German migrations eastward (Miller, 2008). The term international migration, which the United Nations (UN) defines as occurring when a citizen or national of one state moves to another state for a period of at least one year, presupposes the existence of an international system of states. Many students of international relations trace the emergence of the contemporary international or Westphalian system to seventeenth-century Europe and the end of the Thirty Years War5 brought about by the treaties of Westphalia. This embryonic nation-state system then diffused to the rest of the world through processes of colonization and imperialism followed by decolonization and the embrace of the sovereign national state system born of Europe after World War II. Voyages of discovery, conquest, and trade by Europeans marked the advent of the Modern Age. European domination of the New World ensued as many indigenous people succumbed to European-borne diseases, although European populations also were adversely affected by diseases contracted in non-European areas for which Europeans possessed insufficient or little immunity. In general, with the major exception of the 400-year-long African slave trade, which involved over 15 million Africans, population transfers initially were 4 Distinguished Professor of History, Department of History, University of Wisconsin, Madison. 5 1618-1648.
OCR for page 44
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary quite limited (Curtin, 1997). The cost of maritime travel was prohibitive except for the wealthy and, in an age of Mercantilism, European rulers viewed their subjects as valued possessions, especially for military conscription. The anti-migration norm began to erode only after 1800. A number of developments set the stage for the first era of mass migration, which mainly involved Europeans. The French Revolution gave birth to a new norm, a human right to emigrate. Technological innovations and other factors began to make transatlantic travel economically possible for larger segments of the European population. Many of the former colonies comprising the newly founded American Republic welcomed and encouraged settlement by Europeans. Population growth, particularly in Great Britain and Ireland, which can partially be attributed to improvements in public health, particularly in cities, also constituted a factor. The growth of the Irish population figured centrally. Ireland had been incorporated into Great Britain in 1801, resulting in growing migration of Irish to England in particular. The poverty of many of the Irish migrants and their Roman Catholicism caused alarm. Soon local governments discovered it was less expensive to help transfer the Irish to Canada and the United States than to provide for them in situ. By the 1820s, the mercantilist anti-emigration norm had eroded (Zolberg, 2006). Between 1820 and 1939, roughly 60 million Europeans immigrated to the New World, which included Argentina and other areas in Latin America, Australia, and New Zealand as well as the United States and Canada (Hatton and Williamson, 1998, 2005). However, the composition of the migration flows changed over time, especially after abolishment of serfdom in the Czarist Empire. By the late-nineteenth century, many areas in western and northern Europe had become zones of immigration, particularly France which, in the interwar period, had become the world’s premier land of immigration. In the United States by the 1880s and 1890s, concerns over the effects of immigration had increased. The first federal commission to study immigration, thereby inaugurating migration studies in the United States, suggested reductions in immigration, recommendations that began to be translated into law by 1917. The Quota Acts of 1921 and 19246 severely curtailed European migration to the United States. Other New World immigration lands emulated the United States, thereby bringing the first period of mass migration to a virtual end. After the Great Depression and the long night of World War II, a number of areas reemerged as significant lands of immigration or emigration. The United States admitted several groups of “displaced persons” and continued to admit Mexican temporary workers, which had resumed under a 1942 bilateral accord 6 These laws instituted the National Origins system of visa allocation that, as subsequently revised, remained in effect until 1965. The system favored visa applicants of northern European background as opposed to applicants from southern and eastern Europe. See Daniels (2004).
OCR for page 45
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary with Mexico.7 A major reform of U.S. immigration law in 19528 somewhat reopened the “Golden Door” which had largely been closed in the 1920s. The resumption of immigration policy was accentuated by the 1965 amendments to the 1952 law, which came into effect in 1968 (Daniels, 2004). Hatton and Williamson (2005) have identified five developments that precipitated the Age of Migration by 1970. Latin America changed from being a net importer of international migrants to a net exporter. The bulk of Latin American emigrants went to the United States as Latin American economic growth lagged behind that of the United States. Later, and especially after the Cold War, significant flows of Latin Americans would also go to Europe, especially to the Iberian Peninsula and Italy. Western Europe itself also became a major zone of immigration, especially after a large faction of post-World War II guestworkers settled, contrary to expectations, and were joined by family members. The oil-producing areas of the Middle East and North Africa also became major zones of immigration. Unlike during the era of mass European emigration to the New World, areas of Asia and Africa also became significant zones of emigration to other areas of the world, but especially to Western Europe and parts of the New World. Finally, somewhat later, the areas of Eastern Europe, long frozen by Soviet domination, itself an echo of the mercantilist antimigration norm, began to thaw. Ostpolitik9 and détente10 began to open the door to emigration. The collapse of Communist governments led to large-scale emigration followed by migration transition; that is, Central and European states simultaneously became lands of emigration and immigration especially after the European Union (EU) enlargements of 2004 and 2007, which brought 12 additional states into the European regional integration framework. The Age of Migration Stephen Castles and I maintain that the current era is defined by six general tendencies: 7 The agreement instituted what is termed the second bracero period in U.S. immigration history. Bracero means strong-armed one in Spanish and refers to Mexican workers admitted to the United States to perform temporary services of labor, mainly in agriculture. From 1942 to 1964, there were approximately five million Mexican workers admitted under the accord and subsequent U.S.-Mexican arrangements. 8 The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) of 1952 as amended remains the basis of U.S. immigration law today. Its major provisions included retention of the National Origins system of visa allocation and the Texas Proviso, which exempted U.S. employers from prosecution for hiring of aliens ineligible to work in the United States. It passed over President Truman’s veto. 9 German term meaning “eastern policy.” It generally refers to Germany’s normalization of relations with the Eastern bloc countries, including the German Democratic Republic in the early 1970s. 10 The relaxation of strained relations, particularly relating to the United States and the Soviet Union.
OCR for page 46
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary The globalization of migration: the tendency for more and more countries to be crucially affected by migratory movements at the same time (Miller, 2008). The acceleration of migration: international migration is increasing in all the world’s regions. While the percentage of international migrants in the world’s population remains roughly constant at between 2 and 3 percent, the world’s population continues to grow and will do so for several decades into the future, before peaking at about nine billion persons. Most future growth will occur in Africa and Asia. Nevertheless, growth of international migration is not inexorable. Repatriations, for instance, have significantly reduced some refugee populations (Miller, 2008). The differentiation of migration: most countries, states, and governments around the world face increasingly complex challenges in regulating international migration as they encounter, and sometimes precipitate, diverse inflows of migrants (Miller, 2008). Immigration countries tend to receive migrants from a larger number of source countries, so that most immigration lands have entrants from a broad spectrum of social, economic, and cultural backgrounds. The politicization of migration: international migration-related issues are becoming increasingly salient in domestic politics, bilateral and regional relations, and at the global level as witnessed by the creation of the Global Commission on International Migration (GCIM) and the convening of a high-level conference on migration and development at the UN in 2006. After consultation with then UN Secretary-General Kofi Anan in 2003, a number of UN member states funded the GCIM to conduct research, promote dialogue, and make recommendations about policies concerning international migration.11 It mainly stressed the potential benefits of international migration for development. In 2003, the UN General Assembly also decided to hold a high-level dialogue on international migration and development in 2006. The Secretary-General’s report on this meeting recommended a forum for UN member states to discuss migration and development issues further. However, the forum was to be purely advisory and was not intended to facilitate negotiations. The first Global Forum on Migration and Development was hosted by the Belgian government in July 2007, with a second in Manila in October 2008. The feminization of migration: women have become more salient participants in international migration. Many international flows are comprised mainly of women, such as domestic workers in the Middle East. And women are disproportionally victims of human trafficking (Miller, 2008). The proliferation of migration transition: more and more states have experienced migration transition; that is, traditional lands of emigration 11 The 2005 report of the Geneva-based commission can be accessed at www.gcim.org.
OCR for page 47
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary have become lands of immigration. States as diverse as Thailand, Turkey, Morocco, Greece, Italy, Spain, the Republic of South Korea, and Mexico have experienced transition during the Age of Migration (Miller, 2008). Table 1-1 summarizes the evolution of global migration between 1960 and 2005. There is mounting evidence that the worldwide financial and economic crisis of 2008-2009 has disproportionately adversely affected international migrants as has been the pattern in earlier economic crises such as in the mid-1970s.12 Other measures of human mobility likewise attest to the growing significance of international migration. Table 1-2 lists the top 10 countries with the highest numbers of international migrants in 1990 and 2005. Spain viewed itself as a land of emigration and as a transit zone as late as 1990. Virtually all of its nearly five million migrants in 2005 had arrived illegally, were legalized, or arrived through family reunification measures. Table 1-3 indicates that international tourism is surging despite the War on Terrorism. Refugee and asylum-seeker flows, widespread human trafficking and smuggling, short-term highly skilled labor flows, student study abroad, and other forms of international mobility suggest that few human beings today are unaffected by international migration. In 2009, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) estimated that approximately five million people cross international borders each year to take up residency in a developed country. Thoughts About the Future of Migration and Development13 Usually understanding the past serves as the best guide to understanding the future. International migration played a central role in the shaping of the modern, Westphalian world in which we still live. It is likely to continue forging and reforging states and societies in the future. International migration can foster development in both receiving and sending areas, as attested to by the U.S.-Swedish migratory relationship before 1914.14 High hopes were attached to the promise of international migration generating sustained socioeconomic and political development in the Asian and African hinterlands of West Europe in the 1960s and 1970s, but those hopes largely proved misplaced. Nevertheless, a new optimism has arisen over prospects for migration and development through well-managed bilateral and regional policies. This optimism 12 Postings on the effects of the ongoing crisis for international migrants can be found at www.age-of-migration.com. 13 The following text comes from Miller (2008). 14 Hatton and Williamson (2005) observe that Sweden largely closed its development gap with Great Britain and other more advanced European states between 1860 and 1914 when about one-fifth of all Swedes emigrated to the New World and principally to the upper midwest of the United States.
OCR for page 48
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary TABLE 1-1 Number of International Migrants by Region, 1960-2005 (in millions) Region 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2005 World 76 81 99 155 177 191 More developed regions 32 38 48 82 105 115 Less developed regions 43 43 52 73 72 75 Africa 9 10 14 16 17 17 Asia 29 28 32 50 50 53 Europe 14 19 22 49 58 64 Latin America & Caribbean 6 6 6 7 6 7 Northern America 13 13 18 28 40 45 Oceania 2 3 4 5 5 5 NOTE: The UN defines migrants as persons who have lived outside their country of birth for 12 months or more. SOURCE: UNDESA (2006). TABLE 1-2 The 10 Countries with the Highest Number of International Migrants (in millions) Rank 1990 2005 1 United States of America 23.3 United States of America 38.4 2 Russian Federation 11.5 Russian Federation 12.1 3 India 7.4 India 10.1 4 Ukraine 7.1 Ukraine 6.8 5 Pakistan 6.6 France 6.5 6 Germany 5.9 Saudi Arabia 6.4 7 France 5.9 Canada 6.1 8 Saudi Arabia 4.7 India 5.7 9 Canada 4.3 United Kingdom 5.4 10 Australia 4.0 Spain 4.8 SOURCE: Based on data in UNDESA (2006) and reprinted from Koslowski (2008) with permission from the Center for Migration Studies. is linked to more precise understanding of the vast volume of migrant remittances to homelands. A number of scholars and policy makers have advocated temporary foreign worker admissions policies in OECD democracies as part of a circular migration strategy to promote mutually beneficial development in sending and receiving states. A certain skepticism about such advocacy appears in order. The historical track record of temporary foreign worker admissions policies in democratic settings can be termed checkered at best. Guestworker, seasonal
OCR for page 49
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary TABLE 1-3 International Tourist Arrivals (in millions, ordered in 2006 ranking) Rank 1995 2000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 World 535.0 682.0 702.0 691.0 761.0 803.0 846.0 1 France 60.0 77.2 n/a 75.0 75.1 75.9 79.1 2 Spain 34.9 47.9 n/a 50.8 52.4 55.9 58.5 3 US 43.5 51.2 43.6 41.2 46.1 49.2 51.1 4 China 20.0 31.2 36.8 33.0 41.8 46.8 49.6 5 Italy 31.1 41.2 n/a 39.6 37.1 36.5 41.1 6 UK 23.5 25.2 n/a 24.7 27.7 28.0 30.7 7 Germany 14.8 19.0 n/a 18.4 20.1 21.5 23.6 8 Mexico 20.2 20.6 19.7 18.7 20.6 21.9 21.4 9 Austria 17.2 18.0 n/a 19.1 19.4 20.0 20.3 10 Russia n/a n/a n/a 20.4 19.9 19.9 20.2 11 Turkey 7.1 9.6 n/a 13.3 16.8 20.3 n/a SOURCE: Based on data in UNWTO (2005, 2006, 2007) and reprinted from Koslowski (2008) with permission from the Center for Migration Studies. worker, and bracero-style policies15 had problems and unintended consequences for quite well understood reasons. The Swiss reformed their seasonal worker policy in 1964 to allow those workers who worked five consecutive seasons to adjust to resident status under diplomatic pressure from Italy. The volume of seasonal foreign worker admissions also became controversial, leading to the divisive anti-Ueberfremdung16 campaigns of the 1970s which gave way to similarly unsuccessful referenda campaigns to abolish seasonal foreign worker policies as incompatible with human dignity in the 1990s. Swiss seasonal worker policy was not mismanaged. And as late as the 1973 to 1975 period, many seasonal worker permits were not renewed due to the recession, thereby enabling Switzerland to shift some of the costs of the recession to Italy. Similarly, German guestworker policies generally were well administered. But there was considerable political sympathy for legally admitted foreign 15 The lexicon of international migration specialists is replete with terms derived from non-English languages. Guestworker derives from the German Gastarbeiter, a word coined after World War II to replace Fremdarbeiter, foreign worker, as many foreign workers had died and suffered deprivations under Nazi rule. Seasonal worker derives from the French saisonnier and the German Saisonarbeiter. It refers to foreign workers who are admitted for periods of less than one year and who are required to repatriate at the end of that circumscribed period. Bracero means strong-armed one in Spanish and, in the context of U.S.-Mexico migratory relations, refers to Mexican workers admitted to perform temporary services of labor in the United States from 1917 to 1921 and from 1942 to 1964. Tellingly the once obscure vocabulary of international migration specialists has become the lexicon of diplomacy in the Age of Migration. 16 A term coined in Swiss German prior to World War I referring to the perceived threat of an excessive presence of foreigners.
OCR for page 50
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary workers by the 1970s. German courts blocked conservative efforts to enforce rotation after 1973 as incompatible with the Federal Republic’s legal engagements and responsibilities. This constituted an enormous victory for German postwar democracy that is too little appreciated. Bracero-policy history between Mexico and the United States does not appear to have yielded much evidence of fostering sustainable development in Mexico. U.S. recruitment of temporary Mexican foreign workers dates back to before World War I. Such recruitment helped set in motion large-scale unauthorized migration to the United States. Significantly more unauthorized Mexican workers were returned to Mexico than legally recruited during the 1942 to 1964 period. The United States unilaterally terminated the policy in a period of growing consciousness and concern about civil rights and the effects temporary foreign worker admissions had upon American farm workers. The evolution of French seasonal foreign worker admissions after World War II somewhat resembled events in Switzerland. Admissions of seasonal workers mainly for agricultural employment crested at about 250,000 per year in 1968 but were steadily phased out afterward. Significant numbers of seasonal workers became so-called faux saissoniers (or false seasonal workers) and overstayed their visas. Many applied for the recurrent legalizations between 1972 and the 1980s. Seasonal foreign worker admissions continue today but in very small numbers. Since 1990, a new generation of temporary foreign worker admission policies have emerged in Europe, especially in Southern Europe. The new policies are more narrow-gauged than policies during the guestworker era. The key issue is: Will their outcomes resemble those of the guestworker era? Advocates of circular migration policies take an optimistic view. Spain’s recent bilateral initiatives toward Black African states in Western Africa perhaps best exemplify the optimistic perspective. In return for cooperation with Spain and the EU on management of international migration, including prevention of illegal migration and human trafficking, as well as readmission of citizens illegally entering the European space, Spain will provide for job training and then admit trained and prepared foreign workers for time-bound employment in sectors lacking adequate labor supply such as agriculture. At first glance, such policies may appear constructive, even progressive. But almost by definition, the legal status of temporary foreign workers is contingent. Usually the foreign workers are tied, as it were, to a particular employer or industry. Of course, there is no incontrovertible way to measure need for additional foreign workers in a given industry, but especially in agriculture. Perceptions of need represent outcomes of political and legal battles usually pitting employers against unions. Usually, employers have their way even with governments of the left, which has been the case in Spain since 2004. It is important to point out that there are viable policy alternatives to the circular migration model. Spain could also admit more persons from West Africa with permanent alien resident status. Those Africans admitted would be free to
OCR for page 51
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary work throughout Spain. Nothing would constrain these workers to become EU citizens but it would be a possibility. Such legally admitted permanent resident aliens would be free to travel back and forth to their homelands. But many certainly would opt for naturalization. Herein lies the major advantage of increased admission of permanent resident aliens. Spain and Spaniards would have to accept the likely reality of settlement, giving Spanish society and government a strong incentive to foster immigrant integration. Historically, supposedly temporary foreign worker policies have resulted in significant settlement. But states and societies were unprepared for such unexpected outcomes leading to integration deficits and long-term integration issues. Preliminary analysis of Spain’s temporary foreign worker admissions, the so-called contingents, suggests that the historic pattern of unexpected policy outcomes will continue. Several contingents served as ways to legalize aliens in irregular status rather than to recruit foreign workers from abroad. Perceived unfairness in the administration of the contingents has roiled Spain’s relations with Morocco and several other homelands whose governments feel that more of their citizens should be legally admitted under bilateral agreements. Spanish unions and employers often disagree on how large the authorized contingent should be, reminiscent of the annual “headaches” that Swiss cantonal and federal officials spoke of in the 1970s and 1980s. Further enlargement or deepening of the EU and of other regional integration frameworks worldwide also merits consideration. Canada, the United States, and Mexico could emulate the history of regional integration in Europe. The key problem lies in the dissimilarity between the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the EU. NAFTA does not have a political project, unlike the European Community (EC) and now the EU. The Security and Prosperity Partnership (SPP)17 agreement announced by the three NAFTA heads of state in 2005 may suggest a move in that direction. However, within each region and globally one can readily discern a need for greater cooperation between more developed and lesser developed states to promote greater socioeconomic development. The history of European structural funds designed to promote a more even playing ground within the European space deserves careful scrutiny by the NAFTA partners. Unfortunately, most OECD member states have ducked negotiations over international migration and development issues. The pattern was set at the 1986 OECD-sponsored conference on the future of international migration. The U.S. delegation was instructed to avoid anything resembling North/South dialogue at 17 The SPP pledged the three states to work more closely and cooperatively on border, international migration, trade, and international security issues, particularly prevention of terrorist attacks.
OCR for page 77
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary without integrating within health and between other sectors of global society including health systems and services, occupational and labor health, security, economics and trade, agriculture and food management, and the environment. A process of creating more effective tools with the capacity to meet as yet undefined or emerging threats has become a cornerstone of international public health preparedness and response. Extending the process into the sphere of migration health is strongly supported by empirical evidence, recurrent international experience, and projections of the importance of population growth and mobility for the future of global health. New Approaches for Migration and Disease Control It is apparent that human migration will continue to be an important component of global infectious disease distribution. Population migration, disparate health system environments, and gaps in disease prevalence will both continue and probably grow as components of international disease spread over the near and medium term. As migration expands, the need to plan and prepare to deal with the associated infectious and noninfectious disease consequences of population mobility will become interests of more nations and health authorities. Reflecting that growing interest, the health of migrants was the subject of recent EU discussions in Portugal and a resolution at the WHO World Health Assembly in 2008 (WHO, 2008). The convergence of the increasing need to address the issues and the expanding awareness of the importance of health related to global migration provide an opportunity to modernize and revise policies and programs that are no longer effective. Those revisions will require and benefit from the following undertakings: An integrated approach to migration health threat to risk assessment, analysis, and interpretation. Global health policies will need to reflect the dynamics, diversity, and disparities that are associated with the demography of modern migration and population mobility. Threat to risk assessment practices need to be more complex and inclusive of outcome determinants rather than being based on administrative migrant class or disease lists. This risk management approach to meeting the disease challenges of migration will better direct resources where benefit can be expected and have the potential to reduce unnecessary practices in low-risk situations. This meets the intent of the International Health Regulations while adhering to standard population and public health principles. The United States has recently begun moves in this direction. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for the immigration medical examinations of foreign nationals have been amended to incorporate more flexible, risk-based approaches based on epidemiological and
OCR for page 78
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary other factors (CDC, 2008c). These changes provide increased capacity to immigration medical screening to be aligned with situations constituting a public health emergency of international concern that require notification to WHO according to the International Health Regulations. Functional approach to borders and boundaries. The potential for international spread of infectious diseases in association with migration remains a component of a world that contains health disparities and is ever more linked through mobile populations. Political boundaries are increasingly less effective components of control programs and policies. Any new or modern approaches to migration health and infectious disease control will need to address that reality. Migration and population mobility globalize risks that have in the past frequently remained isolated. As high-speed travel provides the opportunity for larger numbers of people to move between health disparities, the concept of the global village increasingly extends to the health care sector. While serious acute events of international public health significance are rare, sustained high levels of migration do affect the epidemiology of several infections in those nations transiting or receiving migrants. This has effects on the clinical awareness of health service providers and the need to consider rarely encountered diseases. It also expands the demands for diagnostic and management capacities that historically have been limited in distribution or location. The globalization of risk resulting from the fading role of the national boundary will mean that the education and training of health care providers will need to focus more attention on the global aspects of migration health (Boulware et al., 2007). Health services and public health systems must support investigative capacities extending further into the health care delivery sector to support clinical services and international public health. Modeling migration health on other coordinated international actions. Individual national programs, particularly when they are directed toward threats and risks that originate beyond their areas of jurisdiction, may have some role in dealing with the secondary effects of those risks. In terms of primary prevention, these approaches will be predictably ineffective. Coordinated international efforts are now essential in any attempt to control diseases of global public health significance. Local and national activities must continue but as components of integrated multilateral mitigation strategy. Migration health control activities could easily follow that pattern. National immigration and citizenship legislative and regulatory requirements make it unlikely that nations that require immigration health
OCR for page 79
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary interventions will reduce or eliminate those requirements. Those policies and programs could be easily integrated into global strategies supporting improved migration-associated disease control (Cattacin and Chimienti, 2007). Immigration health screening, for example, when it is undertaken by those nations who require it for national legislative purposes, could be integrated into other global health activities. Currently, in excess of two million individuals undergo routine immigration medical evaluation annually for resettlement. While limited to specific infections and certain migrants, the information is presently used only for national immigration requirements. Supporting global tuberculosis activities is an obvious example; the majority of nations who utilize immigration health screening have elements of tuberculosis screening in their programs. The aggregate use of this and similar data could be used in conjunction with other global public health activities. Other potential activities include international collaborative longitudinal studies of migrant health outcomes. Such studies using standardized methodology and definitions could significantly improve knowledge regarding the outcome of chronic or latent infections in migrants. Conclusions Designed to prevent the introduction of a limited list of diseases of historical public health significance that arose beyond national boundaries, most immigration health activities play at best a minimal role in international disease control activities in the modern context. While required by some immigrant-receiving countries’ national legislation, they are often based on the historical quarantine-derived strategies of exclusion and isolation, principles that for the most part only represent population-based public health approaches in very limited circumstances. The world public health community remains challenged by a variety of disease threats, several of which are intimately associated with population mobility. Recent awareness of the implications of local disease events for global health has prompted the revision and reconsideration of some of the basic historical principles behind organized disease control (Cetron and Simone, 2004). Some of the migration-related aspects of that revised regulatory methodology originate from the same historical approaches to disease control and are subject to many of the same weaknesses that prompted the revision of the International Health Regulations in 2005. Migration in its modern mobility-derived context plays an increasingly important role in the global epidemiology of infectious diseases and that role will continue as long as disease disparities exist and populations link high-prevalence to low-prevalence regions through mobility.
OCR for page 80
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary Considering population mobility as a determinant of global health has implications for the systems required for prevention, mitigation, and control of serious events of global public health significance. Addressing the health implications of population mobility will also assist global public health activities through the reduction of population-based health disparities in prevalence. Reducing those primary prevalence differences decreases the likelihood that movement of people between those environments will link the differences. MILLER REFERENCES Barnett, T. P. 2004. The Pentagon’s new map: war and peace in the twenty-first century. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons. Castles, S., and M. J. Miller. 2009. The age of migration, 4th edition. New York: Guilford. Cooper, R. 2003. The breaking of nations. New York: Grove Press. Curtin, P. 1997. Africa and global patterns of migration. In Global history and migrations, edited by W. Gangwu. Boulder, CO: Westview. Daniels, R. 2004. Guarding the golden door. New York: Hill and Wang. Diamond, J. 1997. Guns, germs and steel, the fates of human societies. New York: W. W. Norton. Hatton, T. J., and J. G. Williamson. 1998. The age of mass migration: causes and economic effects. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ———. 2005. Global migration and the world economy. Boston: MIT Press. Independent Commission on International Development Issues. 1983. Common crisis north-south cooperation for world recovery. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Koslowski, R. 2000. Migrants and citizens. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ———. 2008. Global mobility and the quest for a global migration regime. In International migration and development: continuing the dialogue: legal and policy perspectives, edited by J. Chamie and L. Dall’Oglio. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Migration. McNeill, W. H. 1977. Plagues and people. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books. Miller, M. J. 2008. Migration and development: past, present, and future. Prepared for International Organization for Migration/Center for Migration Studies, Conference on International Migration and Development: Continuing the Dialogue—Legal and Policy Perspectives, Millennium UN Plaza Hotel, New York City, January 17-18, http://www.udel.edu/poscir/faculty/MMiller/MigrationDevelopmentPastPresentFuture.htm (accessed October 19, 2009). UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs). 2006. Trends in total migrant stock: the 2005 revision. New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. UNWTO (United Nations World Tourism Organization). 2005. Tourism market trends. UNWTO. ———. 2006. Tourism market trends. UNWTO. ———. 2007. Tourism market trends. UNWTO. Wells, P. S. 2001. Beyond Celts, Germans, and Scythians. London: Duckworth. Zolberg, A. 2006. A nation by design: immigration policy in the fashioning of America. Cambridge, MA and New York: Harvard University Press and Russell Sage Foundation. GUSHULAK AND MACPHERSON REFERENCES Airports Council International. 2009. Statistics: top 30 world airports [by international passengers]. ACI Information Brief July 2008, http://www.aci.aero (accessed January 23, 2009). Ampel, N. M. 1991. Plagues—what’s past is present: thoughts on the origin and history of new infectious diseases. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 13(4):658-665.
OCR for page 81
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary Angell, S. Y., and M. S. Cetron. 2005. Health disparities among travelers visiting friends and relatives abroad. Annals of Internal Medicine 142(1):67-72. Australian Department of Immigration and Citizenship. 2008. Health Requirement for Permanent Entry to Australia, Form 1071i. Design date 01/08, http://www.immi.gov.au/allforms/pdf/1071i.pdf (accessed March 13, 2009). Bade, K. J. 2003. Europe: a continent of immigration at the end of the twentieth century. In Migration in European history. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. Baldwin, P. 1999. Contagion and the state in Europe, 1830-1930. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Barnett, E. D., and P. F. Walker. 2008. Role of immigrants and migrants in emerging infectious diseases. Medical Clinics of North America 92(6):1447-1458. Barry, E. 2007 (November 17). A taste of baboon and monkey meat, and maybe of prison, too. New York Times. Barry, J. M. 2009 (June 23). Pandemic reality check. What can be done—and what can’t be done to protect against H1N1. The Washington Post. Behrens, R. H., C. H. Hatz, B. D. Gushulak, and D. W. MacPherson. 2007. Illness in travelers visiting friends and relatives: what can be concluded? Clinical Infectious Diseases 44(5):761-762. Bitar, D., A. Goubar, and J. C. Desenclos. 2009. International travels and fever screening during epidemics: a literature review on the effectiveness and potential use of non-contact infrared thermometers. Eurosurveillance 14(6), http://www.eurosurveillance.org/images/dynamic/EE/V14N06/art19115.pdf (accessed February 15, 2009). Boulware, D. R., W. M. Stauffer, B. R. Hendel-Paterson, J. L. Rocha, R. C. Seet, A. P. Summer, L. S. Nield, K. Supparatpinyo, R. Chaiwarith, and P. F. Walker. 2007. Maltreatment of Strongyloides infection: case series and worldwide physicians-in-training survey. American Journal of Medicine 120(6):545-551. Brahmbhatt, M. 2005. Avian and human pandemic influenza—economic and social impacts. Speech at WHO Headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland, November 7-9. Browne, S. G. 1975. Some aspects of the history of leprosy: the leprosie of yesterday. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 68(8):485-493. Brownstein, J. S., C. C. Freifeld, and L. C. Madoff. 2009. Digital disease detection—harnessing the web for public health surveillance. New England Journal of Medicine 360(21):2153-2155, 2157. Cartwright, F. F. 1972. Disease and history: the influence of disease in shaping the great events of history. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell. Cattacin, S., and M. Chimienti. 2007. From control policies to health policies as a tool for inclusion. International Journal of Public Health 52(2):73-74. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 1999. Health status of and intervention for U.S.-bound Kosovar refugees—Fort Dix, New Jersey, May-July 1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 48(33):729-732. ———. 2006. Mumps outbreak at a summer camp—New York, 2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 55(7):175-177. ———. 2008a. Technical instructions for panel physicians, http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dq/panel.htm (accessed February 20, 2009). ———. 2008b. Update: measles—United States, January-July 2008. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 57(33):893-896. ———. 2008c. Addendum to the technical instructions for medical examination of aliens: updated screening for communicable diseases of public health significance, http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dq/pdf/ifr_100608/ti_addendum.pdf (accessed March 5, 2009). ———. 2008d. Recommendations for identification and public health management of persons with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Recommendations and Reports 57(RR-8):1-20.
OCR for page 82
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary ———. 2009a. Multistate outbreak of Salmonella infections associated with peanut butter and peanut butter-containing products—United States, 2008-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 58(4):85-90. ———. 2009b. Plan to combat extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: recommendations of the Federal Tuberculosis Task Force. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Recommendations and Reports 58(RR-3):1-43. Cetron, M., and P. Simone. 2004. Battling 21st-century scourges with a 14th-century toolbox. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10(11):2053-2054. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. 2003. Designated medical practitioners handbook, http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/pdf/pub/dmp-handbook.pdf (accessed January 14, 2009). Cliff, A., and P. Haggett. 2004. Time, travel and infection. British Medical Bulletin 69:87-99. Cook, J. A. 2008. Eliminating blinding trachoma. New England Journal of Medicine 358:1777-1779. Copeland, R. S. 1922. Import diseases as they affect the work of the New York City Health Department. American Journal of Public Health 12(3):202-204. Cunha, B. A. 2004. Historical aspects of infectious diseases, part I. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 18(1):XI-XV. Curtin, P. D. 1989. Death by migration: Europe’s encounter with the tropical world in the 19th century. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. DHS (U.S. Department of Homeland Security). 2003. U.S.-visit implementation at air ports of entry, http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/usvisit/US-VISIT_EA-Air-1003.pdf (accessed January 12, 2009). D’Ortenzio, E., N. Godineau, A. Fontanet, S. Houze, O. Bouchaud, S. Matheron, and J. Le Bras. 2008. Prolonged Plasmodium falciparum infection in immigrants, Paris. Emerging Infectious Diseases 14(2):323-326. Dwork, D. 1999. Health conditions of immigrant Jews on the lower east side of New York: 1880-1914. Medical History 25(1):1-40. Edmond, R. 2006. Leprosy and empire: a medical and cultural history. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Elefsiniotis, I. S., I. Glynou, I. Zorou, I. Magaziotou, H. Brokalaki, E. Apostolopoulou, E. Vezali, H. Kada, and G. Saroglou. 2009. Surveillance for hepatitis B virus infection in pregnant women in Greece shows high rates of chronic infection among immigrants and low vaccination-induced protection rates: preliminary results of a single center study. Eurosurveillance 14(9), http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=19132 (accessed March 13, 2009). Enserink, M. 2007. Infectious diseases. Chikungunya: no longer a third world disease. Science 318(5858):1860-1861. Epstein, J. M., D. M. Goedecke, F. Yu, R. J. Morris, D. K. Wagener, and G. B. Bobashev. 2007. Controlling pandemic flu: the value of international air travel restrictions. PLoS ONE 2(5):e401. Fairchild, A. L. 2004. Policies of inclusion: immigrants, disease, dependency, and American immigration policy at the dawn and dusk of the 20th century. American Journal of Public Health 94(4):528–539. Falzon, D., and F. Aït-Belghiti. 2007. What is tuberculosis surveillance in the European Union telling us? Clinical Infectious Diseases 44(10):1261-1267. Findlay, G. M. 1946. The internal combustion engine and the spread of disease. British Medical Journal 2(4486):979-982. Gartside, V. O. B. 1949. A danger to public health. British Medical Journal 1(4611):911. Gellert, G. A. 1993. International migration and control of communicable diseases. Social Science and Medicine 37(12):1489-1499. Gibney, M. J., and R. Hansen. 2005. Immigration and asylum: from 1900 to the present. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Ltd. Gill, G., S. Burrell, and J. Brown. 2001. Fear and frustration—the Liverpool cholera riots of 1832. Lancet 358(9277):233-237.
OCR for page 83
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary Goodman, N. M. 1952. International health organizations and their work. Philadelphia, PA: The Blakiston Company. Gottschalk, R., J. Dreesman, K. Leitmeyer, and G. Krause. 2009. Infectious disease emergencies: responsibility of municipal, state and federal health protection authorities with reference to the international health regulations. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 52(2):183-192. Gupta, S., and F. L. Altice. 2009. Hepatitis B virus infection in U.S. correctional facilities: a review of diagnosis, management, and public health implications. Journal of Urban Health 86(2):263-279. Gushulak, B. D., and D. W. MacPherson. 2000. Population mobility and infectious diseases: the diminishing impact of classical infectious diseases and new approaches for the 21st century. Clinical Infectious Diseases 31(3):776-780. ———. 2004. Population mobility and health: an overview of the relationships between movement and population health. Journal of Travel Medicine 11(3):171–178. ———. 2006. Migration medicine and health: principles and practice. Hamilton, Canada: BC Decker. The Hague Process on Migration and Refugees and UNESCO. 2008. People on the move: handbook of selected terms and concepts, version 1.0, http://www.thehagueprocess.org/upload/pdf/PDFHandbookWEBSITE.pdf (accessed March 10, 2009). Halstead, S. B. 2007. Dengue. Lancet 370(9599):1644-1652. Harper, K. N., P. S. Ocampo, B. M. Steiner, R. W. George, M. S. Silverman, S. Bolotin, A. Pillay, N. J. Saunders, and G. J. Armelagos. 2008. On the origin of the treponematoses: a phylogenetic approach. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2(1):e148. Hayes, E. B., and D. J. Gubler. 2006. West Nile virus: epidemiology and clinical features of an emerging epidemic in the United States. Annual Review of Medicine 57:181-194. Herlihy, D. 1997. The Black Death and the transformation of the west. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Heywood, P., J. Cutler, K. Burrows, C. Komorowski, B. Marshall, and H. L. Wang. 2007. A community outbreak of travel-acquired hepatitis A transmitted by an infected food handler. Canadian Communicable Disease Report 33(11):16-22. Hillebrand, E. 2007. Too many or too few? Demographic growth and international migration. Compass 2020. Berlin: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. Hinman, A. R., W. A. Orenstein, and M. J. Papania. 2004. Evolution of measles elimination strategies in the United States. Journal of Infectious Diseases 189(Suppl 1):S17-S22. Hotez, P. J. 2008. Neglected infections of poverty in the United States of America. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2(6):e256. Howard-Jones, N. 1975. The scientific background of the International Sanitary Conferences 1851-1938. Geneva: WHO, http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/1975/14549_eng.pdf (accessed July 1, 2009). IATA (International Air Transport Association). 2007. Total passenger traffic results, http://www.iata.org/ps/publications/2007-results.htm (accessed January 22, 2009). ———. 2009. History–part 3, http://www.iata.org/about/history_3.htm (accessed January 22, 2009). ILO (International Labour Office). 2009. International labour migration and development: the ILO perspective, http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/migrant/download/mig_brief_development.pdf (accessed March 3, 2009). Immigration New Zealand. 2005. Medical and chest x-ray certificate, form 1007, http://www.immigration.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/DE431E92-0ADE-4B5F-81F9-18DF08E5B2EA/0/1007.pdf (accessed March 1, 2009). Imperato, P. J., and G. H. Imperato. 2008. The medical exclusion of an immigrant to the United States of America in the early twentieth century. The case of Cristina Imparato. Journal of Community Health 33(4):225-240.
OCR for page 84
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary International Organization for Migration. 2008. The world migration report 2008. Geneva, Switzerland. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1992. Emerging infections: microbial threats to health in the United States. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Khan, K., J. Arino, W. Hu, P. Raposo, J. Sears, F. Calderon, C. Heidebrecht, M. Macdonald, J. Liauw, A. Chan, and M. Gardham. 2009. Spread of a novel influenza A (H1N1) vrus via global airline transportation. New England Journal of Medicine 361(2):212-214. Kicman-Gawłowska, A. 2008. The prophylaxis of communicable diseases in points of entry under the International Health Regulations (2005). Przeglad Epidemiologiczy 62(4):751-758. Kim, S. R., M. Kudo, O. Hino, K. H. Han, Y. H. Chung, H. S. Lee, and the Organizing Committee of Japan-Korea Liver Symposium. 2008. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in Japan and Korea: a review. Oncology 75(Suppl 1):13-16. Leder, K., S. Tong, L. Weld, K. C. Kain, A. Wilder-Smith, F. von Sonnenburg, J. Black, G. V. Brown, and J. Torresi. 2006. Illness in travelers visiting friends and relatives: a review of the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Clinical Infectious Diseases 43(9):1185-1193. Lemaitre, G. 2005. The comparability of international migration statistics problems and prospects. OECD Statistics Brief Vol. 9, http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/60/44/36064929.pdf (accessed July 29, 2008). Lucaccini, L. F. 1996. The public health service on Angel Island. Public Health Reports 111(1): 92–94. Mackenbach, J. P. 2009. Politics is nothing but medicine at a larger scale: reflections on public health’s biggest idea. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 63(3):181-184. MacPherson, D. W., and B. D. Gushulak. 2001. Human mobility and population health. New approaches in a globalizing world. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 44(3):390-401. MacPherson, D. W., B. D. Gushulak, and L. Macdonald. 2007. Health and foreign policy: influences of migration and population mobility. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 85(3):200-206. McKinnon, M. L., and L. C. Remund Smith. 1962. Quarantine inspection of international air travelers. Public Health Reports 77(1):65-69. Milei, J., R. A. Guerri-Guttenberg, D. R. Grana, and R. Storino. 2009. Prognostic impact of Chagas disease in the United States. American Heart Journal 157(1):22-29. Miller, M. A., C. Viboud, M. Balinska, and L. Simonsen. 2009. The signature features of influenza pandemics—implications for policy. New England Journal of Medicine 360(25):2595-2598. Miller, T. S., and R. Smith-Savage. 2006. Medieval leprosy reconsidered. International Social Science Review 81(1-2):16-28. Montizambert, F. 1893. The Canadian quarantine system. Public Health Papers and Reports 19:92-103. Moore, A. C., L. I. Lutwick, P. M. Schantz, J. B. Pilcher, M. Wilson, A. W. Hightower, E. K. Chapnick, E. I. Abter, J. R. Grossman, J. A. Fried, D. A. Ware, X. Haichou, S. S. Hyon, R. L. Barbour, R. Antar, and A. Hakim. 1995. Seroprevalence of cysticercosis in an Orthodox Jewish community. America Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 53(5):439-442. Morens, D. M., G. K. Folkers, and A. S. Fauci. 2008. Emerging infections: a perpetual challenge. Lancet Infectious Diseases 8(11):710-719. New York Times. 1960. Air travel gains over sea voyages: twice as many fly between U.S. and Europe as go by ship in first half of ’60. August 28. P. S16. NIC (U.S. National Intelligence Council). 2008. Strategic implications of global health. Document ICA 2008-10D, http://www.odni.gov/nic/PDF_GIF_otherprod/ICA_Global_Health_2008.pdf (accessed March 3, 2009). Ohno, T., M. Sugimoto, A. Nagashima, H. Ogiwara, R. K. Vilaichone, V. Mahachai, D. Y. Graham, and Y. Yamaoka. 2009. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori hopQ genotype and clinical outcome in Asian and Western populations. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 24(3):462-468.
OCR for page 85
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary Palumbo, E., G. Scotto, D. C. Cibelli, G. Faleo, A. Saracin, and G. Angarano. 2008. Immigration and hepatitis B virus: epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 14(4):784-790. Parascandola, J. 1998. Doctors at the gate: PHS at Ellis Island. Public Health Reports 113:83-86. Payne, L., and D. Coulombier. 2009. Hepatitis A in the European Union: responding to challenges related to new epidemiological patterns. Eurosurveillance 14(3), http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=19101 (accessed March 3, 2009). Population Reference Bureau. 2008a. 2008 World population data sheet, http://www.prb.org/pdf08/08WPDS_Eng.pdf (accessed January 19, 2009). ———. 2008b. Population growth, http://www.prb.org/Educators/TeachersGuides/HumanPopulation/PopulationGrowth.aspx (accessed January 21, 2009). Primo-Carpenter, J., and M. McGinnis. 2009. Matrix of drug quality reports in USAID-assisted countries. Rockville, MD: U.S. Pharmacopeia Drug Quality and Information Program, http://www.usp.org/pdf/EN/dqi/ghcDrugQualityMatrix.pdf (accessed June 8, 2009). Reynolds, D. 2001. One world divisible: a global history since 1945. New York: W. W. Norton. Robson, D., N. J. Beeching, and G. V. Gill. 2009. Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome in British veterans. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 103(2):145-148. Salvana, E. M., and C. H. King. 2008. Schistosomiasis in travelers and immigrants. Current Infectious Disease Reports 10(1):42-49. Samaan, G., M. Patel, J. Spencer, and L. Roberts. 2004. Border screening for SARS in Australia: what has been learnt? Medical Journal of Australia 180(5):220-223. Schantz, P. M., A. C. Moore, J. L. Muñoz, B. J. Hartman, J. A. Schaefer, A. M. Aron, D. Persaud, E. Sarti, M. Wilson, and A. Flisser. 1992. Neurocysticercosis in an Orthodox Jewish community in New York City. New England Journal of Medicine 327(10):692-695. Schwartzman, K., O. Oxlade, R. G. Barr, F. Grimard, I. Acosta, J. Baez, E. Ferreira, R. E. Melgen, W. Morose, A. C. Salgado, V. Jacquet, S. Maloney, K. Laserson, A. P. Mendez, and D. Menzies. 2005. Domestic returns from investment in the control of tuberculosis in other countries. New England Journal of Medicine 353(10):1008-1020. Sheth, A. N., P. Wiersma, D. Atrubin, V. Dubey, D. Zink, G. Skinner, F. Doerr, P. Juliao, G. Gonzalez, C. Burnett, C. Drenzek, C. Shuler, J. Austin, A. Ellis, S. Maslanka, and J. Sobel. 2008. International outbreak of severe botulism with prolonged toxemia caused by commercial carrot juice. Clinical Infectious Diseases 47(10):1245-1251. Simon, F., H. Savini, and P. Parola. 2008. Chikungunya: a paradigm of emergence and globalization of vector-borne diseases. Medical Clinics of North America. 92(6):1323-1343. Soper, F. L., and D. B. Wilson. 1943. Anopheles gambiae in Brazil: 1930 to 1940. New York: Rockefeller Foundation. SOS International. 2009. Pandemic preparedness—airport screening, http://www.internationalsos.com/PandemicPreparedness/SubCatLevel.aspx?li=5&languageID=ENG&subCatID=87 (accessed July 1, 2009). St. John, R. K., A. King, D. de Jong, M. Bodie-Collins, S. G. Squires, and T. W. Tam. 2005. Border screening for SARS. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11(1):6-10. Stark, D., S. van Hal, R. Lee, D. Marriott, and J. Harkness. 2008. Leishmaniasis, an emerging imported infection: report of 20 cases from Australia. Journal of Travel Medicine 15(5):351-354. Stauffer, W. M., M. Weinberg, R. D. Newman, L. M. Causer, M. J. Hamel, L. Slutsker, and M. S. Cetron. 2008. Pre-departure and post-arrival management of P. falciparum malaria in refugees relocating from sub-Saharan Africa to the United States. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 79(2):141-146. Stern, A. M., and H. Markel. 1999. All quiet on the third coast: medical inspections of immigrants in Michigan. Public Health Reports 114(2):178-182.
OCR for page 86
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary Suhrke, A., and F. Klink. 1987. Contrasting patterns of Asian refugee movements: the Vietnamese and Afghan syndromes. In Pacific bridges: the new immigration from Asia and the Pacific Islands, edited by J. T. Fawcett and B. V. Carino. Staten Island, NY: Center for Migration Studies. Pp. 85-102. Svoboda, T., B. Henry, L. Shulman, E. Kennedy, E. Rea, W. Ng, T. Wallington, B. Yaffe, E. Gournis, E. Vicencio, S. Basrur, and R. H. Glazier. 2004. Public health measures to control the spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome during the outbreak in Toronto. New England Journal of Medicine 350(23):2352-2361. Tatem, A. J., D. J. Rogers, and S. I. Hay. 2006. Global transport networks and infectious disease spread. Advances in Parasitology 62:297-347. Trifonov, V., H. Khiabanian, and R. Rabadan. 2009. Geographic dependence, surveillance, and origins of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus. New England Journal of Medicine 361(2):115-119. UK Department of Health. 2007. Pandemic flu: a national framework for responding to an influenza pandemic. The Department, London, http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_080734 (accessed March 3, 2009). Umemura, T., T. Ichijo, K. Yoshizawa, E. Tanaka, and K. Kiyosawa. 2009. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in Japan. Journal of Gastroenterology 44(Suppl 19):102-107. UN (United Nations). 1998. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Statistics Division. Recommendations on statistics of international migration. Revision 1. Statistical Papers Series M, No. 58, Rev. 1. New York: The Organization, http://unstats.un.org/unsd/publication/SeriesM/SeriesM_58rev1E.pdf (accessed, November 10, 2008). ———. 2009a. Growth in United Nations membership, 1945-present, http://www.un.org/members/growth.shtml (accessed January 14, 2009). ———. 2009b. List of member states, http://www.un.org/members/list.shtml (accessed March 8, 2009). UNWTO (United Nations World Tourism Organization). 2009. International tourism challenged by deteriorating global economy. World Tourism Barometer 7(1), http://unwto.org/facts/eng/pdf/barometer/UNWTO_Barom09_1_en_excerpt.pdf (accessed February 15, 2009). Wachtel, M. R., J. L. McEvoy, Y. Luo, A. M. Williams-Campbell, and M. B. Solomon. 2003. Cross-contamination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with Escherichia coli O157:H7 via contaminated ground beef. Journal of Food Protection 66(7):1176-1183. Waldvogel, F. A. 2004. Infectious diseases in the 21st century: old challenges and new opportunities. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 8(1):5-12. Welshman, J., and A. Bashford. 2006. Tuberculosis, migration, and medical examination: lessons from history. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 60:282-284. WHO (World Health Organization). 2006. WHO pandemic influenza draft protocol for rapid response and containment. Updated draft May 30, 2006, http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/guidelines/protocolfinal30_05_06a.pdf (accessed March 4, 2009). ———. 2008. Health of migrants, 61st WHA, WHA61.17. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, http://www.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/A61/A61_R17-en.pdf (accessed November 2, 2008). ———. 2009a. Is it safe to travel?, http://www.who.int/csr/disease/swineflu/frequently_asked_questions/travel/en/index.html (accessed July 1, 2009). ———. 2009b. Influenza A(H1N1)—update 7, http://www.who.int/csr/don/2009_05_01/en/index.html (accessed July 1, 2009) ———. 2009c. World now at the start of 2009 influenza pandemic, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2009/h1n1_pandemic_phase6_20090611/en/index.html (accessed July 1, 2009). ———. 2009d. Epidemic and pandemic alert and response, http://www.who.int/csr/en/ (accessed February 20, 2009). ———. 2009e. Epidemic and pandemic alert and response. Global Outbreak and Response Network, http://www.who.int/csr/outbreaknetwork/en/ (accessed February 20, 2009).
OCR for page 87
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World: Workshop Summary Wolfe, N. D., P. Daszak, A. M. Kilpatrick, and D. S. Burke. 2005. Bushmeat hunting, deforestation, and prediction of zoonotic disease emergence. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11(12):1822-1827. World Bank. 2008. Chapter 5. Factor mobility and migration. In World development report 2009 “reshaping economic geography.” Washington, DC: World Bank, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDR2009/Resources/4231006-1225840759068/WDR09_11_Ch05web.pdf (accessed March 1, 2009). World Resources Institute. 2009. Earth trends—the environmental information portal. Population, Health, and Human Well-being. Country Profiles, http://earthtrends.wri.org/country_profiles/index.php?theme=4 (accessed February 16, 2009). Yankus, W. 2006. Counterfeit drugs: coming to a pharmacy near you. American Council on Science and Health, http://www.acsh.org/publications/pubID.1384/pub_detail.asp (accessed June 8, 2009). Yew, E. 1980. Medical inspection of immigrants at Ellis Island, 1891-1924. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 56(5):488-510. Zlotnik, H. 2003. The global dimensions of female migration. Migration Policy Institute, http://www.migrationinformation.org/feature/display.cfm?ID=109 (accessed March 2, 2009).