EXPLORING THE INTERSECTION OF SCIENCE EDUCATION AND 21ST CENTURY SKILLS

A Workshop Summary

Margaret Hilton, Rapporteur

Board on Science Education

Center for Education

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
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Margaret Hilton, Rapporteur Board on Science Education Center for Education Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Govern- ing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineer- ing, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropri- ate balance. This study was supported by Award No. N01-OD-4-2139 TO#199 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institutes of Health Office of Science Education and an award between the National Academy of Sciences and the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. The following members of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills contributed to the award: Apple, Inc.; Intel, Inc.; National Education Association; Pearson PLC; and SAP (no longer a member). Additional funding was provided by a contract between the National Academy of Sciences and Ford Motor Company Fund, a member of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-14518-3 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-14518-X Additional copies of this report are available from National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2010 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2010). Exploring the Intersection of Science Education and 21st Century Skills: A Workshop Summary. Margaret Hilton, Rapporteur. Board on Science Education, Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad- emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding en- gineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer- ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is presi- dent of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Coun- cil is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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PLANNINg COMMITTEE ON ExPLORINg THE INTERSECTION OF SCIENCE EDuCATION AND THE DEvELOPMENT OF 21ST CENTuRy SkILLS Arthur Eisenkraft (Chair), Graduate College of Education, University of Massachusetts, Boston William Bonvillian, Washington, DC Office, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Marcia C. Linn, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Berkeley Christine Massey, Institute for Research in Cognitive Science, University of Pennsylvania Carlo Parravano, Merck Institute for Science Education, Rahway, New Jersey William Sandoval, Division of Psychological Studies, University of California, Los Angeles Margaret Hilton, Study Director Patricia Harvey, Senior Project Assistant 

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Acknowledgments This report is a summary of a workshop on science education and development of 21st century skills convened by the National Research Council (NRC) Board on Science Education. The workshop would not have become a reality without the generous support of the National Insti- tutes of Health Office of Science Education and the following members of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills: Apple, Inc.; Ford Motor Company Fund; Intel, Inc.; National Education Association; Pearson PLC; and SAP (no longer a member of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills). We thank our colleagues who served on the planning committee, each of whom brought deep and varied expertise to the process of planning the workshop. Their diverse expertise in science teacher education, curriculum development, the role of technology in science learning, child and adoles- cent development, and cognitive science added greatly to the success of the endeavor. Although the planning committee played an important role in designing the workshop, the members did not participate in writing this report. We are especially grateful to the experts who quickly responded to our request for background papers: Eric Anderman, Ohio State University, and Gale Sinatra, University of Nevada at Las Vegas; Rodger Bybee, Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (retired); Douglas Clark, Arizona State Univer- sity (now at Vanderbilt University); Janet Kolodner, Georgia Institute of Technology; Joseph Kracjik, University of Michigan–Ann Arbor; Maria Araceli Ruiz-Primo, University of Colorado; Christian Schunn, University of Pittsburgh; and Mark Windschitl, University of Washington–Seattle. We also thank the many experts, including sponsors, who participated ii

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iii INTERSECTION OF SCIENCE EDUCATION AND 21ST CENTURY SKILLS as presenters, panelists, and discussants: Elizabeth Carvellas, NRC Teacher Advisory Council; Emily DeRocco, The Manufacturing Institute; Bruce Fuchs, National Institutes of Health Office of Science Education; Janis Houston, Personnel Decision Research Institutes–Minneapolis; Kenneth Kay, Partnership for 21st Century Skills; and Susan Koba, science consul- tant, Omaha. This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by indi- viduals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and respon- siveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Susan Albertine, LEAP States Ini- tiatives, Association of American Colleges and Universities; Julie Bianchini, Department of Education, University of California, Santa Barbara; Norman G. Lederman, Department of Mathematics and Science Education, Illinois Institute of Technology; and Marcia C. Linn, Graduate School of Educa- tion, University of California, Berkeley. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Jan Hustler, Partnership for Student Success in Science, San Jose State University. Appointed by the National Re- search Council, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Re- sponsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the author and the institution. We are grateful for the leadership and support of Michael Feuer, ex- ecutive director of the NRC Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, and Heidi Schweingruber, acting director of the Board on Science Education. We also thank Patricia Harvey, senior project assistant, for her valuable contributions to the design and implementation of the workshop agenda and the writing of this report, as well as for her flawless logistical support throughout the project. Arthur Eisenkraft, Chair Margaret Hilton, Study Director Planning Committee on Exploring the Intersection of Science Education and the Development of 21st Century Skills

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Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Intersections of Science Standards and 21st Century Skills 16 3 Adolescents’ Developing Capacity for 21st Century Skills 30 4 Promising Curriculum Models I 40 5 Promising Curriculum Models II 51 6 Science Teacher Readiness for Developing 21st Century Skills 61 7 Assessment of 21st Century Skills 70 8 Synthesis and Reflections 85 References 106 Appendixes A Workshop Agenda and Participants 119 B Biographical Sketches of Steering Committee Members, Presenters, Panelists, and Staff 126 ix

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