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FIGURE 15.1 Various geoengineering options, including both solar radiation management and carbon dioxide removal. Dashed boxes represent carbon reservoirs (e.g., soil, ocean); black arrowheads represent shortwave radiation and are associated with solar radiation management; white and gray arrowheads pointing down correspond to a variety of natural and engineered processes, respectively, for removing CO2 from the atmosphere; the thicker, gray arrowhead pointing up represents enhanced ocean upwelling, which could conceivably help to remove CO2 from the atmosphere by enhancing biological activity at the oceans surface; and the thinner gray arrowheads correspond to increased cloud condensation nuclei sources. SOURCE: Lenton and Vaughn (2009).

FIGURE 15.1 Various geoengineering options, including both solar radiation management and carbon dioxide removal. Dashed boxes represent carbon reservoirs (e.g., soil, ocean); black arrowheads represent shortwave radiation and are associated with solar radiation management; white and gray arrowheads pointing down correspond to a variety of natural and engineered processes, respectively, for removing CO2 from the atmosphere; the thicker, gray arrowhead pointing up represents enhanced ocean upwelling, which could conceivably help to remove CO2 from the atmosphere by enhancing biological activity at the ocean’s surface; and the thinner gray arrowheads correspond to increased cloud condensation nuclei sources. SOURCE: Lenton and Vaughn (2009).



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