portunity to educate pregnant women about the importance of HBsAg testing, interpretation of the results, and the importance of newborn hepatitis B vaccination. The women should be given culturally and linguistically appropriate educational information about the importance of administration of the birth dose of the hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin within 12 hours of birth if needed, completion of the hepatitis B vaccine series by the age of 6 months, and postvaccination testing. There is a need to develop a novel program to educate pregnant women in perinatal-care facilities about hepatitis B to prevent perinatal transmission, to refer women who are chronically infected for medical care, and to refer family and household contacts for testing, vaccination, and care if needed.
Altekruse, S. F., K. A. McGlynn, and M. E. Reichman. 2009. Hepatocellular carcinoma incidence, mortality, and survival trends in the United States from 1975 to 2005. Journal of Clinical Oncology 27(9):1485-1491.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. 2007. ACOG practice bulletin no. 86: Viral hepatitis in pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology 110(4):941-956.
———. 2008. Hepatitis B virus in pregnancy. http://www.acog.org/publications/patient_education/bp093.cfm (accessed August 21, 2009).
———. 2009. Protecting yourself against hepatitis B. http://www.acog.org/publications/patient_education/bp125.cfm (accessed October 24, 2009).
Ascione, A., T. Tartaglione, and G. G. Di Costanzo. 2007. Natural history of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Digestive and Liver Disease 39(Suppl 1):S4-S7.
Asian Liver Center. 2009. Information resources. http://liver.stanford.edu/Public/index.html (accessed August 21, 2009).
Boaz, K., A. E. Fiore, S. J. Schrag, B. Gonik, and J. Schulkin. 2003. Screening and counseling practices reported by obstetrician-gynecologists for patients with hepatitis C virus infection. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology 11(1):39-44.
Bluthenthal, R. N., A. H. Kral, L. Gee, E. A. Erringer, and B. R. Edlin. 2000. The effect of syringe exchange use on high-risk injection drug users: A cohort study. AIDS 14(5):605-611.
Boutwell, A. E., S. A. Allen, and J. D. Rich. 2005. Opportunities to address the hepatitis C epidemic in the correctional setting. Clinical Infectious Diseases 40(s5):S367-S372.
Brown, L., K. Macintyre, and L. Trujillo. 2003. Interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma: What have we learned? AIDS Education and Prevention 15(1):49-69.
CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 1991. Hepatitis B virus: A comprehensive strategy for eliminating transmission in the United States through universal childhood vaccination: recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee. Mobility and Mortality Weekly Report 40(No. RR-13):1-25.
———. 1998. Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Morbidity and Morality Weekly: Recommendations and Reports 47(RR-19):1-39.
———. 2003a. Advancing HIV prevention: New strategies for a changing epidemic—United States, 2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 52(15):329-332.