Abbreviations

AEF America’s Energy Future

Ag silver

APEEP Air Pollution Emission Experiments and Policy

As arsenic

AWEA American Wind Energy Association

BBL barrel

BD2- biodiesel 20% blend

BOS balance of system

Btu British thermal unit

CAFE corporate average fuel economy

CAIR Clean Air Interstate Rule

CAMR Clear Air Mercury Rule

CARB California Air Resources Board

CCB coal combustion by-product

CCR coal combustion residue

CCS carbon capture and storage

Cd cadmium

CdTe cadmium-telluride

CFR Code of Federal Regulations

CG compressed gasoline

CH4 methane

CHP combined heat and power

CMAQ Community Multiscale Air Quality model



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Abbreviations AEF America’s Energy Future Ag silver APEEP Air Pollution Emission Experiments and Policy As arsenic AWEA American Wind Energy Association BBL barrel BD2- biodiesel 20% blend BOS balance of system Btu British thermal unit CAFE corporate average fuel economy CAIR Clean Air Interstate Rule CAMR Clear Air Mercury Rule CARB California Air Resources Board CCB coal combustion by-product CCR coal combustion residue CCS carbon capture and storage Cd cadmium CdTe cadmium-telluride CFR Code of Federal Regulations CG compressed gasoline CH4 methane CHP combined heat and power CMAQ Community Multiscale Air Quality model 400

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401 ABBREVIATIONS CNG compressed natural gas CO carbon monoxide Co cobalt CO2 carbon dioxide CO2-eq carbon dioxide equivalent Cr chromium CRP Conservation Reserve Program CRS Congressional Research Service Cu copper DICE Dynamic Integrated Model of Climate and the Economy DOE U.S. Department of Energy DOT U.S. Department of Transportation E10 ethanol 10% blend E85 ethanol 85% blend EGR enhanced gas recovery EGU electricity-generating unit EIA Energy Information Administration EISA Energy Independence and Security Act EOR enhance oil recovery EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ERR estimated recoverable reserves EtOH ethanol FBC fluidized bed combustion FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FGD flue gas desulfurization FPEIS Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement FUND Climate Framework for Uncertainty, Negotiation, and Distribution GCM global climate model GDP gross domestic product gge gasoline gallon equivalent GHG greenhouse gas GWP global-warming potential GREET Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation GTCC greater than Class C GW gigawatt GWh gigawatt hour

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402 HIDDEN COSTS OF ENERGY HAP hazardous air pollutant HDDV heavy-duty diesel vehicle HDGV heavy-duty gasoline vehicle HDV heavy-duty vehicle HDDV heavy-duty diesel vehicle HDGV heavy-duty gasoline vehicle HEV hybrid electricity vehicle HFCV hydogren fuel-cell vehicle Hg mercury HLRW high-level radioactive wastes IAM integrated assessment model IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IRIS Integrated Risk Information System kW kilowatt kWh kilowatt hour LCA life-cycle assessment LCIA life-cycle impact assessment LDV light-duty vehicle LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design LLRW low-level radioactive wastes LNG liquified natural gas LWR light water reactors MCF thousand cubic feet MMBtu million British thermal units Mn manganese Mo molybdenum MOVES Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator MSRP manufacturer’s suggested retail price MTM/VF mountain top mining/valley fill MW megawatt MWh megawatt hour N 2O nitrous oxide NEI National Emissions Inventory NEMS National Energy Modeling System NEPA National Environmental Policy Act NERC North American Electric Reliability Corporation NG natural gas NGV natural gas vehicle

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403 ABBREVIATIONS NH3 ammonia NHI Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative Ni nickle NO2 nitrogen dioxide NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOx nitrogen oxides NRC National Research Council NWPA Nuclear Waste Policy Act OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development OMB Office of Management and Budget OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries ORNL Oakridge National Laboratory PADD Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts PAGE Policy Analysis of the Greenhouse Effect Pb lead PC pulverized coal PM10 particulate matter less than or equal to10 micron in aerody- namic diameter (coarse particulate matter) PM2.5 particulate matter equal to or small than 2.5 micron aerody- namic diameter (fine particulate matter) PRB Powder River Basin PV photovoltaic QALY quality-adjusted life year quads quadrillion British thermal units R&D research and development RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act RFF Resources for the Future RFG reformulated gasoline RICE Regional Integrated Model of Climate and the Economy SAB Science Advisory Board Se selenium SF6 sulfur hexafluoride SI spark-ignition SIDI spark-ignition, direct-injection SO2 sulfur dioxide SOx sulfur oxides SPR strategic petroleum reserve SRR source-receptor relationships

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404 HIDDEN COSTS OF ENERGY SUV sports utility vehicle THC thermohaline circulation Tl thallium TWh terawatt hour USD U.S. dollars VHTR very-high-temperature reactor VMT vehicle miles traveled VOC volatile organic compound VSL value of a statistical life WDL workdays lost Zn zinc