the interface between chronic infectious diseases and CVD risk are briefly discussed later in this chapter. Broad systemic drivers that contribute to the global burden of CVD, such as urbanization and globalization, are referred to in this chapter where they relate to trends in CVD burden and to the classically defined individual risk factors. These are then discussed in more detail in Chapter 3, which focuses on the relationship between CVD and development. Together, these two chapters describe the drivers and trends in CVD worldwide, providing a compelling rationale for the need to act. The remainder of the report proceeds to discuss approaches to influence these factors in order to reduce the burden of disease.