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TABLE 4-6 Sodium Content of Grain Products

Grain Product

RACC (g)

Average Sodium Content (mg/RACC)

Average Sodium Content (mg/100 g)

White rice

140

1.4

1.0

Macaroni

140

0.8

0.6

Ramen noodles

140

465

332

Corn flakes

30

267

889

Crisped rice cereal

30

286

954

Granola cereal

30

65

215

Whole wheat bread

50

256

511

Bagel

55

270

490

White roll

50

262

523

Iced yellow cake

80

247

309

Cake doughnut

55

230

419

Sugar cookie

30

104

346

Butter cracker

30

240

799

NOTE: g = gram; mg = milligram; RACC = reference amount customarily consumed.

SOURCES: 21 CFR 101.12; FDA, 2007.

quality of frozen baked goods. Another sodium-containing additive is sodium metabisulfite. This acts as a dough-softening agent that can increase the extensibility of dough or be used to speed up dough development when high-speed mixing methods are not desirable (e.g., when fruit is incorporated into the dough and would be damaged by high-speed mixing) (Cauvain, 2003).

Salt also helps to control the growth of molds and the Bacillus species of bacteria, thus extending the shelf life of baked goods (Betts et al., 2007). The Bacillus species is capable of forming rope-like structures, off-flavors, and discoloration, especially in baked goods high in sugar or fats (Doyle et al., 2001). However, sugars, not salt, are the primary means of controlling water activity in many baked products; therefore many of the food preservation concerns with bakery products are not dependent on control by salt (Smith et al., 2004).

Muscle Foods

Fresh Meats

Unprocessed cuts of meat have some naturally occurring sodium, but are generally considered low in sodium. However, as described earlier, in recent years, fresh meat products increasingly have been injected with salt-and phosphate-containing brines, increasing the sodium content of fresh products.



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