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(3.3) Congress should act to remove the exemption of nutrition labeling for food products intended solely for use in restaurant/foodservice operations.

(3.4) Food retailers, governments, businesses, institutions, and other large-scale organizations that purchase or distribute food should establish sodium specifications for the foods they purchase and the food operations they oversee.

(3.5) Restaurant/foodservice leaders in collaboration with other key stakeholders, including federal, state, and local health authorities, should develop, pilot, and implement innovative initiatives targeted to restaurant/foodservice operations to facilitate and sustain sodium reduction in menu items.


In tandem with recommendations to reduce the sodium content of the food supply, government agencies, public health and consumer organizations, health professionals, the health insurance industry, the food industry, and public-private partnerships should conduct augmenting activities to support consumers in reducing sodium intake.

(4.1) The Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) should act in cooperation with other government and non-government groups to design and implement a comprehensive, nationwide campaign to reduce sodium intake and act to set a time line for achieving the sodium intake goals established by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

(4.2) Government agencies, public health and consumer organizations, health professionals, the food industry, and public-private partnerships should continue or expand efforts to support consumers in making behavior changes to reduce sodium intake in a manner consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.


Federal agencies should ensure and enhance monitoring and surveillance relative to sodium intake measurement, salt taste preference, and sodium content of foods, and should ensure sustained and timely release of data in user-friendly formats.

Ensuring Monitoring

(5.1) Congress, HHS/CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), and USDA authorities should ensure adequate funding for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), including related and supporting databases or surveys.

Expanding and Enhancing Monitoring

(5.2) CDC should collect 24-hour urine samples during NHANES or as a separate nationally representative “sentinel site”-type activity.

(5.3) CDC should, as a component of NHANES or another appropriate nationally representative survey, begin work immediately with the National

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