(Van der Veer, 1985). Other confections that may include salt for flavoring purposes are caramels, taffy, and nut-containing candy.
Water is relatively low in sodium, but sodium levels vary by water source and with the use of water-softening systems (Bradshaw and Powell, 2002; Pehrsson et al., 2008). Tea and coffee are also very low in sodium, although the level may increase slightly with the addition of milk and cream.
Sodium-containing preservatives are sometimes added to carbonated beverages and fruit drinks (Doyle et al., 2001). Even though these beverages contain sodium, the levels are generally low compared to those of many other solid food items.
The vegetable juice category of beverages is one in which sodium levels are traditionally quite high. Taste and flavor improvements are the reasons for addition of salt to tomato, carrot, and vegetable blend drinks. The sodium content of selected beverages is shown in Table 4-14.
Salt is often present in sports drinks for the stated purpose of rehydrating the body during or after physical activity, although the medical justification for the sodium contained in these drinks under the conditions consumed (e.g., high school sports activities) is not clearly demonstrated (Jeukendrup et al., 2009; Shirreffs et al., 2007). While no data on the sodium content of sports drinks was available from the Total Diet Study, data from USDA’s National Nutrient Database3 suggest that such drinks contain 100 mg or less per 8 oz. (240 mL) serving. It is reported that the sodium in these products is not added for taste or preservative effects (Man, 2007).