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Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States
FIGURE 5-1 Percentage contribution of dietary sources to total intake of sodium for persons 2 or more years of age.
NOTES: Mean intake, 1 day, weighted 24-hour dietary recall data (n = 16,822); sodium intake from food is reported as a 1-day mean rather than usual intake to be consistent with the data available for other dietary sources.
aIncludes salt added in cooking and food preparation.
bSalt added by the consumer at the table.
SOURCE: NHANES 2003–2006.
through childhood and early adulthood, peaks at age 19–30 years, and then declines (Appendix F, Table F-1). On average, other dietary sources beyond foods provide an additional 207 mg/d of sodium, resulting in a mean total sodium intake of 3,614 mg for the population ages 2 years and older. More detailed information on mean intake and percentile distribution for usual intake is presented in Appendix F, Tables F-1 and F-2, respectively.
Additional analyses reveal that the proportion of the population meeting the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation of < 2,300 mg/d for sodium is only 10 percent (standard error [SE] = 0.5 percent); when only food sources are considered, 15 percent (SE = 0.6 percent) of the U.S. population ages 2 years and older meets the recommendation. Older women (71 years and older) are the most likely to meet the recommendation, but still only 36 percent (SE = 3 percent) consume < 2,300 mg/d.
Foods contribute the vast majority of dietary sodium, estimated at 3,407 mg/d for persons 2 or more years of age for 2003–2006 (Appendix F, Table F-1). As shown in Figure 5-1, sources other than food contribute less than 6 percent of dietary sodium. For this reason, intake from food is discussed first.