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Special At-Risk Subpopulations Identified by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans

The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend an intake of no more than 1,500 mg/d of sodium for individuals with hypertension as well as for African Americans and middle- and older-aged adults (USDA/HHS, 2005). The NHANES 2003–2006 reports intake information on the basis of race/ethnicity and age. However, the survey classifies an individual as hypertensive if (1) measurement of systolic blood pressure is greater than or equal to 140 mm Hg, or (2) diastolic blood pressure is greater than or equal to 90 mm Hg, or (3) the person is being treated with a prescription medication (NHLBI, 2003). Therefore, the interpretation of intake values associated with this group is problematic given that it includes persons who may or may not have known they were hypertensive as well as persons receiving specific medications for hypertension.

In any case, as shown in Figure 5-7, nearly all persons in these at-risk population subgroups exceed 1,500 mg/d of sodium. More specific information on non-Hispanic African Americans and middle-aged and older subpopulations is presented earlier in this chapter. In the case of adults with hypertension, information on sodium intake percentile distributions by age and gender from NHANES 2003–2006 can be found in Appendix F (Table F-7). Usual mean intake for persons ages 19–30 years, 31–50 years,

FIGURE 5-7 Percentage of at-risk populations with mean usual sodium intake from foods exceeding 1,500 mg/d.

FIGURE 5-7 Percentage of at-risk populations with mean usual sodium intake from foods exceeding 1,500 mg/d.

NOTE: y = years.

SOURCE: NHANES 2003–2006.



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