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TABLE 5-5 Mean 1-Day Sodium Intake (mg/d; SE) from Foodsa by Age and Gender

 

NHANES I 1971–1974

NHANES II 1976–1980

NHANES III 1988–1994

NHANES 1999–2000

NHANES 2003–2006b,c

Both Sexes

 

 

 

 

 

1–2 years

1,631 (38)

1,828 (31)

1,983 (29)

2,148 (69)

1,929 (26)

3–5 years

1,925 (32)

2,173 (27)

2,594 (47)

2,527 (84)

2,483 (34)

6–11 years

2,393 (38)

2,716 (34)

3,164 (67)

3,255 (125)

3,119 (30)

Males

 

 

 

 

 

12–15 years

2,923 (75)

3,405 (85)

4,240 (158)

3,858 (171)

3,947 (69)

16–19 years

3,219 (97)

4,030 (92)

4,904 (138)

4,415 (206)

4,367 (67)

20–39 years

3,043 (64)

3,760 (59)

4,680 (68)

4,334 (103)

4,558 (58)

40–59 years

2,681(57)

3,413 (79)

4,177 (88)

4,132 (112)

4,119 (52)

60–74 years

2,318 (46)

2,934 (34)

3,513 (82)

3,557 (110)

3,487 (52)

20–74c years

2,780 (40)

3,486 (45)

4,288 (53)

4,127 (74)

4,300 (34)

Females

 

 

 

 

 

12–15 years

2,094 (49)

2,567 (49)

3,200 (127)

3,034 (123)

2,952 (45)

16–19 years

1,812 (60)

2,336 (58)

3,160 (91)

3,048 (95)

2,995 (45)

20–39 years

1,883 (26)

2,383 (40)

3,167 (53)

3,161 (75)

3,136 (35)

40–59 years

1,754 (25)

2,256 (37)

2,852 (52)

2,978 (87)

2,932 (38)

60–74 years

1,529 (34)

2,053 (29)

2,543 (53)

2,633 (79)

2,628 (38)

20–74c years

1,774 (17)

2,278 (27)

2,939 (34)

3,002 (62)

3,003 (22)

NOTE: d = day; mg = milligram; NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; SE = standard error.

aIncludes salt used in cooking and food preparation, but not salt added to food at the table.

bEstimated on basis of 1-day intake in order to be consistent with earlier surveys.

cAge-adjusted to the 2000 Census.

SOURCES: Briefel and Johnson (2004) for 1971–2000 data (reproduced with permission of Annual Reviews, Inc. from “Secular trends in dietary intake in the United States,” Vol 24; permission conveyed through Copyright Clearance Center, Inc.); NHANES for 2003–2006 data.

NHANES beginning in 1971–1974 (see Table 5-6). More detailed information can be found on NHANES 2003–2006 in Appendix F (Table F-4).

The differences in sodium intake that are observed among children and adult men and women disappear to a large degree when expressed as measures of sodium intake density. This suggests that on a calorie-per-calorie basis, age and gender subgroups within the U.S. population are taking in equivalent amounts of sodium and larger intake among men, for example, when compared to women is primarily a function of consuming more food, not different foods. Further, the difference in measures of sodium intake density for virtually all population groups between 1971–1974 and 2003–2006 also suggest that foods, as consumed, may have had an increase in the amount of sodium on a per 1,000 calories basis during this time period. As



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