NOTE: kcal = calorie; mg = milligram; NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
aIncludes salt used in cooking and food preparation, but not salt added to food at the table; 1-day mean intake calculated using the population proportion method; weighted data from NHANES.
bAnalyzed using 1-day mean intake data from NHANES 2003–2006 to be consistent with previous analyses.
cAge-adjusted to the 2000 Census.
SOURCES: Briefel and Johnson (2004) for 1971–2000 data; NHANES for 2003–2006 data.
compared to a sodium intake density of < 1,150 mg per 1,000 calories per day needed to achieve a Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommended daily intake of < 2,300 mg sodium, and assuming a 2,000-calorie reference diet, all groups had intakes that exceeded guideline levels, even during the earlier periods when sodium intake density appeared lower than in more recent years.
In sum, despite the confounding that may occur relative to the observed upward trend in sodium intake since 1971–1974 due to increases in calorie intake and methodological differences among surveys, it is very likely that true increases in sodium intake from foods have occurred. Consistencies across population subgroups in NHANES over five national surveys, consistencies with smaller studies and clinical trials that included urinary sodium