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Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States Appendix A Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Glossary 24-hour recall A method of dietary assessment in which an individual is asked to remember everything eaten during the previous 24 hours. ACE Angiotensin-converting enzyme ADA American Dietetic Association Adequate Intake (AI) The recommended average daily intake level of a nutrient based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of intakes that are assumed to be adequate for a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people; used when the RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) cannot be determined. Advertising A paid public presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by a sponsor that is intended to bring a product to the attention of consumers through a variety of media channels, such as broadcast and cable television, radio, print, billboards, the Internet, or personal contact. AHA American Heart Association AICR American Institute for Cancer Research Aldosterone A hormone made by the outer portion (cortex) of the adrenal gland that regulates the balance of salt and water in the body. AMA American Medical Association Amino acid An organic compound containing an amino group and a carboxyl group that links with other amino acids to form proteins. Anion A negatively charged ion. ANPR Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking APHA American Public Health Association
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Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States ARB Angiotensin receptor blocker Aroma See Flavor. Aspartame A low-calorie non-nutritive sweetener made of aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It should not be consumed by individuals with phenylketonuria and is unstable for cooking because its flavor changes when heated. Atherosclerosis Clogging, narrowing, and hardening of the body’s large arteries and medium-sized blood vessels; can lead to stroke, heart attack, eye problems, and kidney problems. Away-from-home foods Foods categorized according to where they are obtained, such as restaurants and other places with wait service; quick-serve restaurants, and self-service or take-out eateries; schools, including child care centers, after-school programs, and summer camp; and other outlets, including vending machines, community feeding programs, and eating at someone else’s home. Bars Establishments variously known as bars, taverns, nightclubs, or drinking places that are primarily engaged in preparing and serving alcoholic beverages for immediate consumption. Body mass index (BMI) An indirect measure of body fat calculated as the ratio of a person’s body weight in kilograms to the square of a person’s height in meters: BMI (kg/m2) = weight (kilograms)/height (meters)2 or BMI (lb/in2) = weight (pounds)/height (inches)2 × 703. Cafeteria An establishment in which patrons select from food and drink items on display in a continuous line or from buffet stations (also includes grill-buffets and buffets). Calorie A kilocalorie (kcal) is defined as the amount of heat required to change the temperature of 1 gram of water from 14.5°C (degrees Celsius) to 15.5°C. In this report, calorie is used synomously with kilocalorie as a unit of measure for energy obtained from foods and beverages. CARDIA Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Cardiovascular disease (CVD) Any abnormal condition characterized by dysfunction of the heart and blood vessels; includes atherosclerosis (especially coronary heart disease), cerebrovascular disease, and hypertension. Casual dining full-service restaurant Establishment providing waiter or waitress service, where the order is taken while the patron is seated; patrons pay after they eat; average per-person dinner checks are in the $10–$25 range. Cation A positively charged ion. CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States Cerebrovascular disease Damage to blood vessels in the brain that occurs when vessels burst and bleed or become clogged with fatty deposits. When blood flow is interrupted, brain cells die or are damaged, resulting in a stroke. Chemesthesis Sensations that arise when chemical compounds activate receptor mechanisms for other senses, usually those involved in pain, touch, and thermal perception in the eye, nose, mouth, and throat. Cholesterol A waxy, fat-like substance that occurs naturally in all parts of the body; high levels of cholesterol in the blood can increase the risk of heart disease. Congestive heart failure Inability to pump enough blood to avoid congestion in the tissues. CSPI Center for Science in the Public Interest CVD Cardiovascular disease Daily Value (DV) A term on food labels based on the RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance) designed to help consumers use food label information to plan a healthful diet. DV declarations within the Nutrition Facts panel play an important role in informing consumers about the nutritional content of the packaged foods they purchase by placing the food’s nutritional contribution within the context of a total daily diet, the general target toward which consumers should strive. DASH Diet Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension: a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products and reduced in saturated fat, total fat, and cholesterol. DGAC Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Diastolic blood pressure The minimum pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest. Dietary Guidelines for Americans A federal summary of dietary guidance for the American public based on current scientific evidence and medical knowledge. The guidelines are issued jointly by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and are revised every 5 years. Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) A set of four distinct nutrient-based reference values that replaced the former Recommended Dietary Allowance in the United States. These include Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). Disappearance data Data that refer to food and nutrients that disappear from the marketplace. The term refers to food and nutrient availability for a population that is calculated from national or regional statistics by the inventory-style method.
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Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States Dose-response assessment Determination of the relationship between nutrient intake (dose) and some criterion of either adequacy or adverse effect. ENaC Epithelial sodium channel, ion channel, or pore hypothesized to play a role in salt taste perception. Epithelium Membranous tissue covering internal organs and other internal surfaces of the body. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) The average daily nutrient intake level that is estimated to meet the requirements of half of the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group. Family dining full-service restaurant Establishment providing waiter or waitress service, where the order is taken while the patron is seated; patrons pay after they eat; average per-person dinner checks of $10 or less. FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Fermentation A common process for preserving foods in which fresh foods are transformed to foods that can be preserved for longer periods of time than their fresh counterparts due to the actions of particular types of microbes. Fine dining full-service restaurant Establishment providing waiter or waitress service, where the order is taken while the patron is seated; patrons pay after they eat; average per-person dinner checks of $25 or higher. FITS Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study Flavor The sensory impression of a food or other substance, determined by the chemical senses of taste and smell; or a substance added to food to give it a particular taste. Folate A B vitamin that helps the body make healthy new cells; foods containing folic acid include leafy green vegetables, fruits, dried beans, peas, and nuts. Food industry In this report, the term encompasses both processed food manufacturers and restaurant and/or foodservice operations. Food manufacturing An industry that transforms livestock and agricultural products into products for intermediate or final consumption. Food processors Businesses that conduct food manufacturing. Foodservice The dispensing of prepared meals and snacks intended for on-premise or immediate consumption, including “take-out foods” that are consumed in the home or at another location outside of the establishment and “fresh, prepared, deli foods” purchased from retailers. Foodservice contractors Establishments primarily engaged in providing food services at institutional, governmental, commercial, or industrial locations belonging to others, based on contractual arrangements with
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Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States these organizations for a specified period of time; management staff is always provided by the foodservice contractors (also referred to as managed services and onsite foodservice). FSA Food Standards Agency (United Kingdom) FSAI Food Safety Authority of Ireland Full-service restaurant Waiter or waitress service is provided and the order is taken while the patron is seated; patrons pay after they eat. GDA Guideline Daily Amount Glucose tolerance The body’s ability to break down (metabolize) blood sugar. Glutamic acid An amino acid occurring in proteins; used in monosodium glutamate to enhance the flavor of meats. GMA Grocery Manufacturers Association GRAS Generally recognized as safe HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Hyperkalemia Serum potassium concentration > 5.0 mEq/L or mmol/L. Hypertension/Hypertensive Systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg. Hypokalemia Serum potassium concentration < 3.5 mEq/L or mmol/L. IFIC International Food Information Council Incidence The occurrence of new cases of disease that develop in a candidate population over a specified time period. INTERSALT The largest study, and among the most often referenced in the literature, relating electrolyte intake to blood pressure. Analyzed a single 24-hour urine collection from subjects in 32 countries during 1985–1987. Approximately 200 men and women ages 20–59 years were recruited at each center. Iodized salt Table salt with iodine added. IOM Institute of Medicine Ion A particle that is electrically charged (positively or negatively). Left ventricular hypertrophy Enlargement of the muscle tissue that makes up the wall of the heart’s main pumping chamber (left ventricle); develops in response to some factor, such as high blood pressure, that requires the left ventricle to work harder. Level playing field As used in this report, a coordinated lowering of salt in foods by all manufacturers and restaurant/foodservice operations. Limited-service restaurant Patrons generally order at a cash register or select items from a food bar and pay before they eat (also quick-service restaurant).
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Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States Lipid A naturally occurring molecule, such as fat, wax, sterol, fat-soluble vitamin, monoglyceride, diglyceride, phospholipid, or others; the main biological functions of lipids include energy storage, as structural components of cell membranes, and as important signaling molecules. Mobile food services Establishments primarily engaged in preparing and serving meals and snacks for immediate consumption from motorized vehicles or non-motorized carts. MSG Monosodium glutamate, a well-known flavoring compound that imparts to food a savory taste (called “umami”) as well as a salt taste. NCHS National Center for Health Statistics NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. NHLBI National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute NIH National Institutes of Health NLEA Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 NRA National Restaurant Association NRC National Research Council NSRI National Salt Reduction Initiative Nutrition Facts panel Standardized detailed nutritional information about the contents and serving sizes of nearly all packaged foods sold in the marketplace. The panel was designed to provide nutrition information to consumers and was mandated by the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) of 1990. Olfactory Of or relating to the sense of smell. Pathogenesis The step-by-step development of a disease, and the chain of events leading to that disease, resulting from a series of changes in the structure and/or function of a cell, tissue, or organ caused by a microbial, chemical, or physical agent. Pellagra A disease that occurs when a person does not get enough niacin or tryptophan. Potassium The major cation of intracellular fluid that, along with sodium, is involved in maintaining a normal water balance, osmotic equilibrium, and the acid-base balance; also important in the regulation of neuromuscular activity and cell growth. Potassium chloride (KCl) Can serve as a salt substitute, but can impart a bitter taste to foods. Prevalence A measure of the frequency of existing disease, defined as the proportion of the total population that is diseased.
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Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States Processed food While the definition of processing may include minimal manipulations such as cutting meat or slicing fresh produce, in this report the term “processed food” is used for more complex products, such as baked goods, canned soups, and frozen meals. Proteinuria A condition in which urine contains an abnormal amount of protein (also called albuminuria or urine albumin). Quick-casual restaurant An attractive and comfortable establishment serving freshly prepared, wholesome, authentic food in a reasonably fast service format; checks average in the $7–$9 range. Quick-service (fast food) restaurant Establishment primarily engaged in providing food service where patrons generally order or select items and pay before eating; food and drink may be consumed on premises, taken out, or delivered; also includes snack and non-alcoholic beverage bars; checks average in the $3–$6 range. RACC Reference amount customarily consumed Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) The average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97–98 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group. Saccharin A sweet, white, powdered, synthetic product derived from coal tar, 300–500 times sweeter than sugar, that is used as a non-nutritive (artificial) sweetener. SACN Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (United Kingdom) Salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) A food seasoning and preservative that is obtained from sea water or rock deposits as a crystalline solid; over-consumption of salt increases the risk of health problems, including high blood pressure. One gram of sodium chloride contains 393 mg sodium; this report estimates 6 g of sodium chloride to contain 2,400 mg sodium. Salt disappearance See Disappearance data. Salt sensitivity The extent of blood pressure change in response to a reduction of salt intake; the term “salt-sensitive blood pressure” applies to individuals or subgroups who experience the greatest reduction in blood pressure from a given reduction in salt intake. Salt taste preference The preference for foods to which salt has been added. Saturated fat Fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acid radicals (i.e., they have no double bonds between the carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain and are fully saturated with hydrogen
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Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States atoms). Dairy products, animal fats, coconut oil, cottonseed oil, palm kernel oil, and chocolate can contain high amounts of saturated fats. SCOGS Select Committee on GRAS Substances SD Standard deviation SE Standard error Sea salt Unrefined salt obtained through the evaporation of sea water. Sensory receptor A sensory nerve ending that recognizes a stimulus in the internal or external environment of an organism. Slotting fee A one-time payment made by food processors to retailers in return for placement of a new product on store shelves. Snack and non-alcoholic beverage bars Establishments that generally promote and sell a unique snack, such as ice cream, frozen yogurt, cookies, popcorn, or a non-alcoholic beverage, such as coffee, juice, or soda. SNAP Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program SNDA School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Social caterer An industry segment primarily engaged in providing single-event-based food services, generally at an off-premises site. Sodium (Na+) The major cation of extracellular fluid that is involved in the regulation of its volume and plasma volume; also aids in nerve impulse conduction and muscle contraction control. Sodium benzoate A white, odorless, granular or crystalline powder, used as an antifungal agent. Sodium bicarbonate Compound used as a gastric and systemic antacid. Sodium chloride See Salt. Spironolactone A medication used to treat certain patients with hyperal-dosteronism (production of too much aldosterone by the body); low potassium levels; high blood pressure; and edema caused by various conditions, including heart, liver, or kidney disease. Stroke An interruption of the blood supply to any part of the brain. Systolic blood pressure The maximum pressure exerted when the heart contracts. Tastant Taste compound. Taste The sense that distinguishes the sweet, sour, salty, and bitter qualities of dissolved substances in contact with taste buds on the tongue. Taste bud A specialized structure made up of taste receptor cells and supporting cells; the smallest functional unit of the sensing portion of the gustatory system. TDS Total Diet Study Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) The highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse effects may increase.
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Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States Umami A pleasant savory taste imparted by glutamate and ribonucleotides that occur naturally in many foods including meat, fish, vegetables, and dairy products. UPC Universal Product Code Urea Product of the urea cycle containing two nitrogen atoms and carbon dioxide; it is the chief form in which nitrogenous end products are excreted. USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture Usual intake The long-run average intake of food, nutrients, or a specific nutrient for an individual. WASH World Action on Salt and Health Water activity A dimensionless quantity used to represent the energy status of the water in a system. WCRF World Cancer Research Fund WHO World Health Organization WIC The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children
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