Cover Image


View/Hide Left Panel

ARB Angiotensin receptor blocker

Aroma See Flavor.

Aspartame A low-calorie non-nutritive sweetener made of aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It should not be consumed by individuals with phenylketonuria and is unstable for cooking because its flavor changes when heated.

Atherosclerosis Clogging, narrowing, and hardening of the body’s large arteries and medium-sized blood vessels; can lead to stroke, heart attack, eye problems, and kidney problems.

Away-from-home foods Foods categorized according to where they are obtained, such as restaurants and other places with wait service; quick-serve restaurants, and self-service or take-out eateries; schools, including child care centers, after-school programs, and summer camp; and other outlets, including vending machines, community feeding programs, and eating at someone else’s home.

Bars Establishments variously known as bars, taverns, nightclubs, or drinking places that are primarily engaged in preparing and serving alcoholic beverages for immediate consumption.

Body mass index (BMI) An indirect measure of body fat calculated as the ratio of a person’s body weight in kilograms to the square of a person’s height in meters: BMI (kg/m2) = weight (kilograms)/height (meters)2 or BMI (lb/in2) = weight (pounds)/height (inches)2 × 703.

Cafeteria An establishment in which patrons select from food and drink items on display in a continuous line or from buffet stations (also includes grill-buffets and buffets).

Calorie A kilocalorie (kcal) is defined as the amount of heat required to change the temperature of 1 gram of water from 14.5°C (degrees Celsius) to 15.5°C. In this report, calorie is used synomously with kilocalorie as a unit of measure for energy obtained from foods and beverages.

CARDIA Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) Any abnormal condition characterized by dysfunction of the heart and blood vessels; includes atherosclerosis (especially coronary heart disease), cerebrovascular disease, and hypertension.

Casual dining full-service restaurant Establishment providing waiter or waitress service, where the order is taken while the patron is seated; patrons pay after they eat; average per-person dinner checks are in the $10–$25 range.

Cation A positively charged ion.

CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement