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Dose-response assessment Determination of the relationship between nutrient intake (dose) and some criterion of either adequacy or adverse effect.

ENaC Epithelial sodium channel, ion channel, or pore hypothesized to play a role in salt taste perception.

Epithelium Membranous tissue covering internal organs and other internal surfaces of the body.

Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) The average daily nutrient intake level that is estimated to meet the requirements of half of the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group.

Family dining full-service restaurant Establishment providing waiter or waitress service, where the order is taken while the patron is seated; patrons pay after they eat; average per-person dinner checks of $10 or less.

FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Fermentation A common process for preserving foods in which fresh foods are transformed to foods that can be preserved for longer periods of time than their fresh counterparts due to the actions of particular types of microbes.

Fine dining full-service restaurant Establishment providing waiter or waitress service, where the order is taken while the patron is seated; patrons pay after they eat; average per-person dinner checks of $25 or higher.

FITS Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study

Flavor The sensory impression of a food or other substance, determined by the chemical senses of taste and smell; or a substance added to food to give it a particular taste.

Folate A B vitamin that helps the body make healthy new cells; foods containing folic acid include leafy green vegetables, fruits, dried beans, peas, and nuts.

Food industry In this report, the term encompasses both processed food manufacturers and restaurant and/or foodservice operations.

Food manufacturing An industry that transforms livestock and agricultural products into products for intermediate or final consumption.

Food processors Businesses that conduct food manufacturing.

Foodservice The dispensing of prepared meals and snacks intended for on-premise or immediate consumption, including “take-out foods” that are consumed in the home or at another location outside of the establishment and “fresh, prepared, deli foods” purchased from retailers.

Foodservice contractors Establishments primarily engaged in providing food services at institutional, governmental, commercial, or industrial locations belonging to others, based on contractual arrangements with



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