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Appendix D
Salt Substitutes and Enhancers

TABLE D-1 Selected Examples of Proposed Salt Substitutes

Substitute

Applications

Comments

Potassium chloride (KCl)

Many foods, including cheeses,a breads,b and meats;c may be mixed with NaCl in up to a 50:50 ratioc

Bitter to many people;c many patents to reduce KCl bitterness exist;d because potassium intake of the U.S. population is low, increased intake of potassium may benefit somee but could harm certain subpopulations (e.g., those with certain medical conditions or taking certain medications)f

Lithium chloride (LiCl)

None: toxic although almost perfectly salty

 

Calcium chloride (CaCl2), magnesium chloride (MgCl2), and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4)

Few foods

Somewhat salty but with many off-tastes;g bitter tastes of MgSO4 are usually perceived only at high levels;h CaCl2 can cause irritations on the tongueh

Sea salt

Many foods, also used in salt shakers

Usually contains substantial amounts of sodium chloride; benefits of use in reducing sodium consumption are unclear

Salts with altered crystal structure

Some foods

Porous and star-shaped structures, created by manipulating the salt drying process, allow greater salty taste with smaller amounts of salt;i particularly useful in applications where salt is used on the surface of food productsj

aGuinee and O’Kennedy, 2007.

bCauvain, 2007.

cDesmond, 2007

dPorzio, 2007.

eAnthony, 2007.

fDietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, 2005.

gMurphy et al., 1981.

hKilcast and den Ridder, 2007.

iDesmond, 2006.

jPszczola, 2007.



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OCR for page 405
Appendix D Salt Substitutes and Enhancers TABLE D-1 Selected Examples of Proposed Salt Substitutes Substitute Applications Comments Bitter to many people;c many patents to reduce Potassium Many foods, including cheeses,a KCl bitterness exist;d because potassium intake chloride (KCl) breads,b and meats;c of the U.S. population is low, increased intake of potassium may benefit somee but could may be mixed with NaCl in up to a harm certain subpopulations (e.g., those with 50:50 ratioc certain medical conditions or taking certain medications)f Lithium chloride None: toxic although (LiCl) almost perfectly salty Somewhat salty but with many off-tastes;g bitter Calcium Few foods chloride (CaCl2), tastes of MgSO4 are usually perceived only at high levels;h CaCl2 can cause irritations on the magnesium tongueh chloride (MgCl2), and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) Sea salt Many foods, also Usually contains substantial amounts of sodium used in salt shakers chloride; benefits of use in reducing sodium consumption are unclear Salts with altered Some foods Porous and star-shaped structures, created by crystal structure manipulating the salt drying process, allow greater salty taste with smaller amounts of salt;i particularly useful in applications where salt is used on the surface of food productsj a Guinee f Dietary and O’Kennedy, 2007. Guidelines Advisory Committee, 2005. b Cauvain, g Murphy 2007. et al., 1981. c Desmond, 2007 h Kilcast and den Ridder, 2007. d Porzio, 2007. i Desmond, 2006. e Anthony, 2007. j Pszczola, 2007. 0

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0 APPENDIX D TABLE D-2 Selected Examples of Proposed Salt Enhancers Ingredient Applications Comments Monosodium glutamate (MSG) Many foods; can No pleasant taste in itself, but replace some salta and other glutamates enhances salty tastes; imparts the taste of umami; MSG contains sodium; other glutamate salts such as monopotassium glutamate or calcium diglutamate may further reduce sodium; synergizes with 5′-ribonucleotides;b may replace bitter blockingc and oral thickeningd characteristics; often contained in hydrolyzed vegetable protein and yeast extractsa Yeast extracts and hydrolyzed Some foods Often contains MSG, but is seen vegetable protein as a “natural” alternative to MSG use; meaty and brothy tastes limit potential usesd,e Nucleotides including inosine- Some foods Imparts the taste of umami; found to 5′-monophosphate (IMP) and act synergistically with glutamates to guanosine-5′-monophosphate enhance salty tastes in some foodsd,f Amino acids, especially arginine Not known L-Arginine is reported to enhance and related compounds the saltiness of foods with low to moderate levels of salt; practical uses are not clearg Dairy concentrates Many foods Reported to allow moderate sodium reductions in a variety of productse,h Lactates (potassium lactate, Few foods May enhance the saltiness of NaCl, calcium lactate, and sodium but not widely used; calcium lactate can impart a sour tasteb lactate) Herbs and spices Many foods Herbs and spices provide other flavoring characteristics and may, for some people, help alleviate blandness following salt removale,i,j Compounds that reduce Many foods Designed to mask bitterness of bitterness including adenosine- potassium chloride or reduce 5′-monophosphate, DHB bitterness from other food (2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid), components that are usually masked lactose, sodium gluconate, and by salt; allow partial reduction of total sodium contentb,e,k,l mixtures for use in combination with potassium chloride

OCR for page 405
0 APPENDIX D TABLE D-2 Continued Ingredient Applications Comments Mixtures of NaCl substitutes Many foods Proprietary mixtures are produced and enhancers by many companies; mixtures consist of a number of ingredients such as non-sodium salts, yeast extracts, potassium chloride, sodium, and sodium gluconatee,m,n,o a Yamaguchi, 1987. b Kilcast and den Ridder, 2007. c Keast et al., 2004. d Brandsma, 2006. e Pszczola, 2007. f Ajinomoto Food Ingredients LLC, 2008. g Breslin and Beauchamp, 1995. h Armor Proteines, 2007. i Kilcast, 2007. j Ainsworth and Plunkett, 2007. k Ndabikunze and Lahtinen, 1989. l Desmond, 2007. m DSM Food Specialties, 2004. n Pszczola, 2006. o Jungbunzlauer, 2007. REFERENCES Ainsworth, P., and A. Plunkett. 2007. Reducing salt in snack products. In Reducing salt in foods: Practical strategies, edited by D. Kilcast and F. Angus. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead. Pp. 296-315. Ajinomoto Food Ingredients LLC. 2008. Ajinomoto monoammonium glutamate (MAG) and monopotassium glutamate (MPG). http://www.ajiusafood.com/5MAG/main.asp (ac- cessed 2008). Anthony, M. 2007. Season with (only) a grain of salt. http://www.foodprocessing.com/ articles/2007/204.html (accessed September 2008). Armor Proteines. 2007. Lactosalt Optitaste. http://www.armor-proteines.com/ENG/lactosalt _UK.pdf (accessed 2008). Brandsma, I. 2006. Reducing sodium: A European perspective. Food Technology 60(3): 24-29. Breslin, P. A. S., and G. K. Beauchamp. 1995. Suppression of bitterness by sodium: Variation among bitter taste stimuli. Chemical Senses 20(6):609-623. Cauvain, S. P. 2007. Reduced salt in bread and other baked products. In Reducing salt in foods: Practical strategies, edited by D. Kilcast and F. Angus. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead. Pp. 283-295. Desmond, E. 2006. Reducing salt: A challenge for the meat industry. Meat Science 74(1): 188-196. Desmond, E. 2007. Reducing salt in meat and poultry products. In Reducing salt in foods: Practical strategies, edited by D. Kilcast and F. Angus. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead. Pp. 233-255.

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0 APPENDIX D Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. 2005. Report of the Dietary Guidelines Adisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 00. A Report to the Secretary of Health and Human Serices and the Secretary of Agriculture. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. DSM Food Specialties. 2004. Maxarite—product properties. http://www.dsm.com/le/en_US/ maxarite/html/properties.htm (accessed December 12, 2008). Guinee, T. P., and B. T. O’Kennedy. 2007. Reducing salt in cheese and dairy spreads. In Re- ducing salt in foods: Practical strategies, edited by D. Kilcast and F. Angus. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead. Pp. 316-357. Jungbunzlauer AG. 2007. Subsalt: Jungbunzlauer’s way to reduce sodium. Switzerland: Jungbunzlauer AG. Keast, R. S. J., T. M. Canty, and P. A. S. Breslin. 2004. The influence of sodium salts on binary mixtures of bitter-tasting compounds. Chemical Senses 29(5):431-439. Kilcast, D. 2007. Cutting sodium. Prepared Foods, January:1-5. Kilcast, D., and C. den Ridder. 2007. Sensory issues in reducing salt in food products. In Re- ducing salt in foods: Practical strategies, edited by D. Kilcast and F. Angus. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead. Pp. 201-220. Murphy, C., A. V. Cardello, and J. G. Brand. 1981. Tastes of fifteen halide salts following water and NaCl: Anion and cation effects. Physiology and Behaior 26(6):1083-1095. Ndabikunze, B. K., and S. Lahtinen. 1989. Substitution of sodium chloride by Morton lite salt or mineral salt in mayonnaise. International Journal of Food Science and Technol- ogy 24(4):367-371. Porzio, M. 2007. Flavor delivery and product development. Food Technology, January: 22-29. Pszczola, D. 2006. Exploring new ‘tastes’ in textures. Food Technology, January: 44-55. Pszczola, D. 2007. Savoring the possibilities. Food Technology 61(4):55-66. Yamaguchi, S. 1987. Fundamental properties of umami in human taste sensation. In Umami: A basic taste, edited by Y. Kawamura and M. R. Kare. New York: Marcel Dekker.