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Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States Appendix D Salt Substitutes and Enhancers TABLE D-1 Selected Examples of Proposed Salt Substitutes Substitute Applications Comments Potassium chloride (KCl) Many foods, including cheeses,a breads,b and meats;c may be mixed with NaCl in up to a 50:50 ratioc Bitter to many people;c many patents to reduce KCl bitterness exist;d because potassium intake of the U.S. population is low, increased intake of potassium may benefit somee but could harm certain subpopulations (e.g., those with certain medical conditions or taking certain medications)f Lithium chloride (LiCl) None: toxic although almost perfectly salty Calcium chloride (CaCl2), magnesium chloride (MgCl2), and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) Few foods Somewhat salty but with many off-tastes;g bitter tastes of MgSO4 are usually perceived only at high levels;h CaCl2 can cause irritations on the tongueh Sea salt Many foods, also used in salt shakers Usually contains substantial amounts of sodium chloride; benefits of use in reducing sodium consumption are unclear Salts with altered crystal structure Some foods Porous and star-shaped structures, created by manipulating the salt drying process, allow greater salty taste with smaller amounts of salt;i particularly useful in applications where salt is used on the surface of food productsj aGuinee and O’Kennedy, 2007. bCauvain, 2007. cDesmond, 2007 dPorzio, 2007. eAnthony, 2007. fDietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, 2005. gMurphy et al., 1981. hKilcast and den Ridder, 2007. iDesmond, 2006. jPszczola, 2007.
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Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States TABLE D-2 Selected Examples of Proposed Salt Enhancers Ingredient Applications Comments Monosodium glutamate (MSG) and other glutamates Many foods; can replace some salta No pleasant taste in itself, but enhances salty tastes; imparts the taste of umami; MSG contains sodium; other glutamate salts such as monopotassium glutamate or calcium diglutamate may further reduce sodium; synergizes with 5′-ribonucleotides;b may replace bitter blockingc and oral thickeningd characteristics; often contained in hydrolyzed vegetable protein and yeast extractsa Yeast extracts and hydrolyzed vegetable protein Some foods Often contains MSG, but is seen as a “natural” alternative to MSG use; meaty and brothy tastes limit potential usesd,e Nucleotides including inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP) and guanosine-5′-monophosphate Some foods Imparts the taste of umami; found to act synergistically with glutamates to enhance salty tastes in some foodsd,f Amino acids, especially arginine and related compounds Not known L-Arginine is reported to enhance the saltiness of foods with low to moderate levels of salt; practical uses are not clearg Dairy concentrates Many foods Reported to allow moderate sodium reductions in a variety of productse,h Lactates (potassium lactate, calcium lactate, and sodium lactate) Few foods May enhance the saltiness of NaCl, but not widely used; calcium lactate can impart a sour tasteb Herbs and spices Many foods Herbs and spices provide other flavoring characteristics and may, for some people, help alleviate blandness following salt removale,i,j Compounds that reduce bitterness including adenosine-5′-monophosphate, DHB (2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid), lactose, sodium gluconate, and mixtures for use in combination with potassium chloride Many foods Designed to mask bitterness of potassium chloride or reduce bitterness from other food components that are usually masked by salt; allow partial reduction of total sodium contentb,e,k,l
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Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States Ingredient Applications Comments Mixtures of NaCl substitutes and enhancers Many foods Proprietary mixtures are produced by many companies; mixtures consist of a number of ingredients such as non-sodium salts, yeast extracts, potassium chloride, sodium, and sodium gluconatee,m,n,o aYamaguchi, 1987. bKilcast and den Ridder, 2007. cKeast et al., 2004. dBrandsma, 2006. ePszczola, 2007. fAjinomoto Food Ingredients LLC, 2008. gBreslin and Beauchamp, 1995. hArmor Proteines, 2007. iKilcast, 2007. jAinsworth and Plunkett, 2007. kNdabikunze and Lahtinen, 1989. lDesmond, 2007. mDSM Food Specialties, 2004. nPszczola, 2006. oJungbunzlauer, 2007. REFERENCES Ainsworth, P., and A. Plunkett. 2007. Reducing salt in snack products. In Reducing salt in foods: Practical strategies, edited by D. Kilcast and F. Angus. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead. Pp. 296-315. Ajinomoto Food Ingredients LLC. 2008. Ajinomoto monoammonium glutamate (MAG) and monopotassium glutamate (MPG). http://www.ajiusafood.com/5MAG/main.asp (accessed 2008). Anthony, M. 2007. Season with (only) a grain of salt. http://www.foodprocessing.com/articles/2007/204.html (accessed September 2008). Armor Proteines. 2007. Lactosalt Optitaste. http://www.armor-proteines.com/ENG/lactosalt_UK.pdf (accessed 2008). Brandsma, I. 2006. Reducing sodium: A European perspective. Food Technology 60(3): 24-29. Breslin, P. A. S., and G. K. Beauchamp. 1995. Suppression of bitterness by sodium: Variation among bitter taste stimuli. Chemical Senses 20(6):609-623. Cauvain, S. P. 2007. Reduced salt in bread and other baked products. In Reducing salt in foods: Practical strategies, edited by D. Kilcast and F. Angus. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead. Pp. 283-295. Desmond, E. 2006. Reducing salt: A challenge for the meat industry. Meat Science 74(1): 188-196. Desmond, E. 2007. Reducing salt in meat and poultry products. In Reducing salt in foods: Practical strategies, edited by D. Kilcast and F. Angus. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead. Pp. 233-255.
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Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. 2005. Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005. A Report to the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. DSM Food Specialties. 2004. Maxarite—product properties. http://www.dsm.com/le/en_US/maxarite/html/properties.htm (accessed December 12, 2008). Guinee, T. P., and B. T. O’Kennedy. 2007. Reducing salt in cheese and dairy spreads. In Reducing salt in foods: Practical strategies, edited by D. Kilcast and F. Angus. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead. Pp. 316-357. Jungbunzlauer AG. 2007. Sub4salt: Jungbunzlauer’s way to reduce sodium. Switzerland: Jungbunzlauer AG. Keast, R. S. J., T. M. Canty, and P. A. S. Breslin. 2004. The influence of sodium salts on binary mixtures of bitter-tasting compounds. Chemical Senses 29(5):431-439. Kilcast, D. 2007. Cutting sodium. Prepared Foods, January:1-5. Kilcast, D., and C. den Ridder. 2007. Sensory issues in reducing salt in food products. In Reducing salt in foods: Practical strategies, edited by D. Kilcast and F. Angus. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead. Pp. 201-220. Murphy, C., A. V. Cardello, and J. G. Brand. 1981. Tastes of fifteen halide salts following water and NaCl: Anion and cation effects. Physiology and Behavior 26(6):1083-1095. Ndabikunze, B. K., and S. Lahtinen. 1989. Substitution of sodium chloride by Morton lite salt or mineral salt in mayonnaise. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 24(4):367-371. Porzio, M. 2007. Flavor delivery and product development. Food Technology, January: 22-29. Pszczola, D. 2006. Exploring new ‘tastes’ in textures. Food Technology, January: 44-55. Pszczola, D. 2007. Savoring the possibilities. Food Technology 61(4):55-66. Yamaguchi, S. 1987. Fundamental properties of umami in human taste sensation. In Umami: A basic taste, edited by Y. Kawamura and M. R. Kare. New York: Marcel Dekker.