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TABLE D-2 Selected Examples of Proposed Salt Enhancers

Ingredient

Applications

Comments

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) and other glutamates

Many foods; can replace some salta

No pleasant taste in itself, but enhances salty tastes; imparts the taste of umami; MSG contains sodium; other glutamate salts such as monopotassium glutamate or calcium diglutamate may further reduce sodium; synergizes with 5′-ribonucleotides;b may replace bitter blockingc and oral thickeningd characteristics; often contained in hydrolyzed vegetable protein and yeast extractsa

Yeast extracts and hydrolyzed vegetable protein

Some foods

Often contains MSG, but is seen as a “natural” alternative to MSG use; meaty and brothy tastes limit potential usesd,e

Nucleotides including inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP) and guanosine-5′-monophosphate

Some foods

Imparts the taste of umami; found to act synergistically with glutamates to enhance salty tastes in some foodsd,f

Amino acids, especially arginine and related compounds

Not known

L-Arginine is reported to enhance the saltiness of foods with low to moderate levels of salt; practical uses are not clearg

Dairy concentrates

Many foods

Reported to allow moderate sodium reductions in a variety of productse,h

Lactates (potassium lactate, calcium lactate, and sodium lactate)

Few foods

May enhance the saltiness of NaCl, but not widely used; calcium lactate can impart a sour tasteb

Herbs and spices

Many foods

Herbs and spices provide other flavoring characteristics and may, for some people, help alleviate blandness following salt removale,i,j

Compounds that reduce bitterness including adenosine-5′-monophosphate, DHB (2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid), lactose, sodium gluconate, and mixtures for use in combination with potassium chloride

Many foods

Designed to mask bitterness of potassium chloride or reduce bitterness from other food components that are usually masked by salt; allow partial reduction of total sodium contentb,e,k,l



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