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school meals, 186

sodium intake relationship, 6, 21, 45-46, 47, 49-50, 59, 128-129, 130, 137-140, 141-142, 143, 145, 266, 307-308, 309, 314, 315

surveys of intakes, 411

Campbell Soup Company, 34, 168, 170, 171, 237

Canada

food industry characteristics, 155, 156, 157, 158

hyperkalemia, 279

intakes of sodium, 358

sodium reduction initiatives, 241, 243, 358-359

Canadian Community Health Survey, 358, 359

Canadian Heart Foundation, 135

Cancer, 30, 53, 340, 351

Carbohydrates, 108, 223, 224, 232, 271, 459, 460, 462, 463, 464, 465

CARDIA study, 136-137

Carrageenan, 109

Categories of foods.

See also specific categories

characterizing sodium contributions by, 140-147, 414-415

FDA standardization of, 299, 445, 446

functions of sodium additives by, 103-115

intakes of sodium by, 122, 140-141, 142-143, 414-415, 434-437

label claims by, 50-51

GRAS status modification framework, 298-301

menu items, 448-449

new product introductions by, 159

portion sizes differences by, 48

preservative uses of sodium by, 105, 106, 110, 112, 114

target salt reductions by, 242, 370-403, 446

UK framework, 241, 245, 298, 299, 370-403, 444-445, 446, 448-449

USDA standardization of for packaged foods, 445

Center for Science in the Public Interest, 34, 169

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 18, 119

Division of Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, 267

public education, 267, 268, 295, 340

recommended strategies for, 11-12, 278, 294-295

sodium reduction activities, 336

State Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Program, 267, 293

summary of past activities and recommendations of, 32-33, 336, 340

surveys, see National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Cereal. See Breakfast cereals;

Grains and grain products

Characterizing sodium in food supply

contributions by food category, 140-147, 414-415

disappearance data, 55-56, 145-146

identifying food sources, 140-145

market basket study, 146-147;

see also Total Diet Study

national food composition databases, 137, 145, 147, 148, 295-296, 409, 412

prepared at home vs. away from home, 141-145

Chartwells School Dining Services, 182

Child and Adult Care Food Program, 185

Children and youth.

See also Adolescents;

Infants

advertising targeted at, 268

AI, 120, 126

blood pressure levels, 21, 23, 60, 78

fast food consumption, 197

genesis of hypertension, 23

intakes and intake density of sodium, 5, 6, 58, 59, 123, 125, 126, 129, 130, 138, 358, 418-425, 430-431

international trends, 358

interventions targeting, 35, 186-187, 200, 268, 344

preference for salt, 24, 78-79, 81

public health concerns about, 127

recommendations for, 349

reporting intakes of, 121-122, 130

restaurant menu items, 182

school breakfast and lunch programs, 47, 184-187, 344

sodium-to-calorie intake, 130

sources of sodium, 103, 418-421

UL, 127, 358

WIC program, 34, 131, 184, 185, 188, 252, 290, 345, 413, 430



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