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Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation of < 2,300 mg/d of sodium.

Prevalence of Hypertension

A solid body of diverse evidence has documented that, on average, as sodium intake rises, so does blood pressure. Furthermore, trials in children, non-hypertensive adults, and hypertensive adults have documented that sodium reduction lowers blood pressure. Although elevated blood pressure and hypertension are also related to other risk factors, reducing daily sodium intake is associated with significant reductions in population-based blood pressure values and prevalence of stroke mortality (DGAC, 2005).

What have been the time trends in prevalence of hypertension among U.S. adults over the past several decades? National trends in the prevalence of hypertension of men and women 20 years of age and older from three different time periods are shown in Figure 2-15.

Hypertension was defined as an elevated blood pressure (systolic pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg or diastolic pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg) and/or use of antihypertensive medications at the time of the individual’s examination in

FIGURE 2-15 Trends in elevated blood pressure/hypertension from NHANES for persons 20 years of age.

FIGURE 2-15 Trends in elevated blood pressure/hypertension from NHANES for persons ≥ 20 years of age.

NOTES: Hypertension, as defined by the data source, is an elevated blood pressure (systolic pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg or diastolic pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg) and/or use of anti-hypertensive medications; data age-adjusted to 2000 population.

SOURCE: NCHS, 2009.



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