D
Information Sources for Locating Evidence

The following tables provide a listing of selected information sources for locating evidence relevant to obesity prevention.

TABLE D-1 Scientific Literature Databases

Information Sourcea

Description

Academic Search Premier

The world’s largest academic multidisciplinary database; coverage spans virtually every area of academic study and includes information dating as far back as 1975.

Agricola

Administered by the National Agricultural Library, indexes more than 2,000 serial titles, as well as books, pamphlets, conference proceedings, research reports, government documents, monographs, theses, patents, software, audiovisual content, and microforms pertaining to all aspects of agriculture, including biotechnology, ecology, entomology, and food and nutrition.

BIOSIS

Coverage includes traditional areas of biology, such as botany, zoology, and microbiology, as well as related fields such as biomedicine, agriculture, pharmacology, and ecology. Interdisciplinary fields such as medicine, biochemistry, biophysics, bioengineering, and biotechnology are also included, as are content summaries, book and meeting abstracts, papers, and posters.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Includes the full text of the regularly updated systematic reviews of the effects of health care prepared by the Cochrane Collaboration. Two types of reviews are presented: complete reviews (regularly updated Cochrane Reviews, prepared and maintained by Collaborative Review Groups) and protocols (protocols for reviews currently being prepared [all include an expected date of completion]; protocols are the background, objectives, and methods of reviews in preparation.)

Cochrane Public Health Review Group

Purpose is to produce systematic reviews of population-level interventions, contribute to methodological developments for research synthesis of public health research, transfer knowledge and exchange initiatives, and develop strategies for building primary research and rigorous evaluations of population-level interventions (policy, programs, legislation, community interventions), including maintaining a specialized studies register.



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D Information Sources for Locating Evidence T he following tables provide a listing of selected information sources for locating evidence relevant to obesity prevention. TABLE D-1 Scientific Literature Databases Information Sourcea Description Academic The world’s largest academic multidisciplinary database; coverage spans virtually every area of academic Search Premier study and includes information dating as far back as 1975. Agricola Administered by the National Agricultural Library, indexes more than 2,000 serial titles, as well as books, pamphlets, conference proceedings, research reports, government documents, monographs, theses, patents, software, audiovisual content, and microforms pertaining to all aspects of agriculture, including biotechnology, ecology, entomology, and food and nutrition. BIOSIS Coverage includes traditional areas of biology, such as botany, zoology, and microbiology, as well as related fields such as biomedicine, agriculture, pharmacology, and ecology. Interdisciplinary fields such as medicine, biochemistry, biophysics, bioengineering, and biotechnology are also included, as are content summaries, book and meeting abstracts, papers, and posters. Cochrane Includes the full text of the regularly updated systematic reviews of the effects of health care prepared by Database of the Cochrane Collaboration. Two types of reviews are presented: complete reviews (regularly updated Systematic Cochrane Reviews, prepared and maintained by Collaborative Review Groups) and protocols (protocols Reviews for reviews currently being prepared [all include an expected date of completion]; protocols are the background, objectives, and methods of reviews in preparation.) Cochrane Purpose is to produce systematic reviews of population-level interventions, contribute to methodological Public Health developments for research synthesis of public health research, transfer knowledge and exchange initiatives, Review Group and develop strategies for building primary research and rigorous evaluations of population-level interventions (policy, programs, legislation, community interventions), including maintaining a specialized studies register. continued 

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TABLE D-1 Continued Information Sourcea Description Cumulative The most comprehensive resource for nursing and allied health literature; its other indexes include health Index to care books, conference proceedings, standards of professional practice, and audiovisual material. Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) Exerpta Major biomedical and pharmaceutical database indexing more than 3,500 international journals in the Medica following fields: drug research, pharmacology, pharmaceutics, toxicology, clinical and experimental human (EMBASE) medicine, health policy and management, public health, occupational health, environmental health, drug dependence and abuse, psychiatry, forensic medicine, and biomedical engineering/instrumentation. HealthSTAR Contains citations to the published literature on health services, technology, administration, and research. MEDLINE The U.S. National Library of Medicine’s (NLM’s) premier bibliographic database covering the fields of medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, the health care system, and the preclinical sciences. MEDLINE contains bibliographic citations and author abstracts from more than 4,600 biomedical journals published in the United States and 70 other countries. National The major resource for locating U.S. government−sponsored research reports and studies in the physical Technical sciences, technology, engineering, the biological sciences, medicine and the health sciences, agriculture, and Information the social sciences. Service (NTIS) PsycINFO Contains citations and summaries of journal articles, book chapters, books, and technical reports, as well as citations to dissertations, all in the field of psychology and psychological aspects of related disciplines. Science Direct Encompasses scientific, technical, and medical peer-reviewed journals. Subject coverage includes the biological sciences, business management and accounting, computer science, the earth and planetary sciences, engineering and technology, environmental science, materials science, mathematics, medicine, physics and astronomy, psychology, and social science. SCOPUS Coverage includes the life and health sciences; the social sciences; psychology; economics; the biological, agricultural, and environmental sciences; and the general sciences. Web of Searches 9,200 journals in more than 45 different languages across the sciences, social sciences, and arts Science and humanities. WorldCat Indexes books, conference proceedings, government reports, dissertations and theses, and even online- accessible publications in all scientific, social science, and arts and humanities disciplines. a Note that a subscription may be required to gain full access to some of these databases. Bridging the Evidence Gap in Obesity Prevention 0

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TABLE D-2 Grey and Unpublished Literature Information Sourcea Description Lexis-Nexis Includes 9,000 newspapers, news magazines, transcripts, the Congressional Record, the Federal Register, public laws, law review journals, and case law. (A subscription is required.) New York Focuses on grey literature resources from the medical field and includes an extensive listing of Academy of agencies and organizations that produce health-related materials. The site also features a quarterly Medicine Grey Grey Literature Report listing many items that are available free of charge online. (http://www.nyam. Literature Page org/library/pages/grey_literature_report) University of Contains links to institutions that produce grey literature, such as technical reports, preprints, Maryland Libraries reprints, dissertations, theses, and research reports of all kinds. The institutions listed provide either Virtual Technical full-text reports or searchable extended abstracts of technical reports on the Internet. (http://www.lib. Reports Central umd.edu/ENGIN/TechReports/Virtual-TechReports.html) a Note that a subscription may be required to gain full access to some of these databases.  Appendix D

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TABLE D-3 Surveys, Polls, and Rankings Information Source Description Behavioral Risk Factor The world’s largest ongoing telephone health survey system. Operated by the Centers for Disease Surveillance System Control and Prevention (CDC) it has collected data in the United States annually since 1984. (BRFSS) The state-based system collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive health practices, and health care access related primarily to chronic disease and injury. States use BRFSS data to identify emerging health problems, establish and track health objectives, and develop and evaluate public health policies and programs. Many states also use BRFSS data to support health-related legislative efforts. (http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/) Center for Health Contains results from parent and teacher public opinion polls and web-based surveys conducted and Health Care in through the CHHCS on a number of topics, including nutrition and physical activity at school. Schools (CHHCS) (http://www.healthinschools.org/Publications-and-Resources/Polls-and-Surveys.aspx) County Health Provides access to 50 state reports, ranking each county within the 50 states according to its Rankings health outcomes and the multiple factors that determine a county’s health. Each county receives a summary rank for its health outcomes and health factors and also for the four different types of health factors: health behaviors, clinical care, social and economic factors, and the physical environment. Each county can also drill down to see specific county-level data (as well as state benchmarks) for the measures upon which the rankings are based. These data could be used to gather information to help answer “Why” questions. (http://www.countyhealthrankings.org/) Gallup Gathers poll and survey data regarding a number of health and well-being topics. (http://www. gallup.com) National Health and A program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in Nutrition Examination the United States. The survey is unique in that it combines interviews and physical examinations. Surveys (NHANES) (http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm) U.S. Department of Provides an overview of key health indicators for local communities to encourage dialogue about Health and Human actions that can be taken to improve a community’s health. The CHSI report was designed not Services, Community only for public health professionals but also for citizens who are interested in the health of their Health Status community. It contains more than 200 measures for each of the 3,141 U.S. counties, and includes Indicators (CHSI) data on morbidity and mortality and health behaviors. (http://www.communityhealth.hhs.gov) TABLE D-4 Government Information Sourcea Description Congressional NCSE provides CRS reports on a variety of topics concerning the environment and related topics. Research Service (http://ncseonline.org/NLE/CRS/) (CRS) Reports via National Council for Science in the Environment (NCSE) THOMAS Provides full-text coverage of the Congressional Record, committee reports, and public laws, as well as links to committee home pages and House and Senate directories. (http://thomas.gov) a Note that a subscription is required to gain full access to these databases. Bridging the Evidence Gap in Obesity Prevention 

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TABLE D-5 Policies and Programs Information Source Description Website CDC’s Guide to A resource designed to aid in the choice of programs http://www.thecommunityguide.org Community Preventive and policies to improve health and prevent disease in Services communities; systematic reviews are used to answer questions about the effectiveness of program/policy interventions, whether an effective intervention is appropriate for a given community, and what effective interventions cost or will return on an investment. CDC’s Healthier Provides toolkits containing customizable solutions to help http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/ Worksite Initiative program planners plan, implement, and evaluate a specific hwi/toolkits/index.htm health promotion intervention in the categories of general workforce health promotion, healthful eating, physical activity, preventive health screenings, and healthful choices. CDC’s LeanWorks! Designed specifically to translate Community Guide http://www.cdc.gov/LEANWorks/ recommendations into practical tools for employers in the worksite setting. It offers interactive tools and evidence- based resources for designing effective worksite obesity prevention and control programs, including an obesity cost calculator to estimate how much obesity is costing a company and how much a company could save with different workplace interventions. Center of Excellence Focused on providing practitioners with the best available http://www.centertrt.org/index. for Training and evidence and approaches related to the prevention cfm?fa=op.overview Research Translation and control of obesity. Provides resources designed to support the planning, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-supported nutrition, physical activity, and obesity prevention interventions. Common Community Initiated by CDC, identifies a core set of community-level http://www.cdc.gov/mmwR/PDF/rr/ Measures for Obesity measures focused on policy and environmental strategies rr5807.pdf. Prevention that impact obesity prevention. These measures can be used for research and can serve as baseline variables for planning and evaluation. International City/ http://www.icma.org/upload/ Report on Community Health and Food Access: The County Management library/2006-09/%7B5CD4101C- Local Government Role Association 2803-4655-9A51- 465461B3C897%7D.pdf Local Government http://www.lgc.org/freepub/docs/ Cultivating Community Gardens: The Role of Local Commission community_design/fact_sheets/ Government in Creating Healthy, Livable Neighborhoods community_gardens.pdf Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities: School and Local http://www.lgc.org/freepub/ Government Collaborations docs/community_design/fact_ sheets/Healthy_Kids_Healthy_ Communities.pdf continued  Appendix D

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TABLE D-5 Continued Information Source Description Website National Academy for http://www.nashp.org/Files/Obesity_ State Approaches to Childhood Obesity: A Snapshot of State Health Policy final_with_correct_appendix_C.pdf Promising Practices and Lessons Learned National Association of http://www.naco.org/Content/ County Government Approaches to Combating Youth Counties ContentGroups/Programs_and_ Obesity, Encouraging Physical Activity, and Creating Projects/Community_Development/ Healthy Communities Center_for_Sustainable_ Transportation Solutions to Create Active, Healthy Communities/Final_Youth_Obesity_ Counties: Collaboration for Childhood Obesity SurveyReport.pdf Prevention http://www.naco.org/Template. cfm?Section=New_Technical_ Assistance&template=/ ContentManagement/ ContentDisplay. cfm&ContentID=27724 National Association http://archive.naccho. Land Use Planning and Community Design: The Role of of County and City org/Documents/Land-use-3.pdf Local Public Health Agencies Health Officials National Association of http://www.naleo.org/downloads/ Obesity in Your Community Latino Elected Officials HealthToolKit.pdf National Association of http://www.activeliving.org/files/ Land Use Planning for Public Health: The Role of Local Local Boards of Health NALBOH_land_use_report.pdf Boards of Health in Community Design and Development National Conference of http://www.ncsl.org/default. Promoting Healthy Communities and Reducing State Legislatures aspx?tabid=18135 Childhood Obesity: Legislative Options National Governors Shaping a Healthier Generation: Successful State Strategies http://www.nga.org/Files/pdf/ Association 0909HEALTHIERGENERATION. to Prevent Childhood Obesity PDF National League of Action Kit for Municipal Leaders: Combating Childhood http://www.nlc.org/IYEF/ Cities Obesity PUBLICATIONS___RESOURCES/ actionkits.aspx#obesity Prevention Institute Environmental Nutrition and Activity Community Tool http://www.preventioninstitute.org/ sa/enact/members/index.php Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Tracking Service: provides information on http://www.rwjf.org/pr/product. Foundation important developments in state legislation, policies, and jsp?id=47788 programs affecting health care, primarily through web- based reports and databases. Its primary audience is state legislators and their staffs. Robert Wood Johnson Healthy Eating Research Results http://www.healthyeatingresearch. Foundation org/content/view/12/35/ Active Living Research Results http://www.activelivingresearch. org/alr/grantsearch/search Bridging the Evidence Gap in Obesity Prevention 

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TABLE D-5 Continued Information Source Description Website Trust for America’s http://healthyamericans.org/reports/ F as in Fat: How Obesity Policies Are Failing in America Health obesity2008/Obesity2008Report.pdf U.S. Conference of http://usmayors.org/chhs/ Mayors’ Guide to Fighting Childhood Obesity Mayors healthycities/documents/guide- 20080326.pdf  Appendix D

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