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APPENDIX I References Adushkin, V.V. and W. Leith. 2001. The containment of Soviet underground nuclear explosions. U.S. Geological Survey. Open File Report 01312. 52 pp. Altshuler, L.V., Y.B. Zeldovich, and Y.M. Styashkin. 1997. Investigation of isentropic compression and equations of state and fissionable materials. Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk 167(1):107-108. (In English). Arrowsmith, S.J., M.A.H. Hedlin, B. Stump, and M.D. Arrowsmith. 2008. Infrasonic signals from large mining explosions. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 98(2):768-777. Arveson, P.T. and D.J. Vendittis. 2000. Radiated Noise Characteristics of a Modern Cargo Ship, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 107(1):118-129. Auer, M., A. Axelsson, X. Blanchard, T.W. Bowyer, G. Brachet, I. Bulowski, Y. Dubasov, K. Elmgren, J.P. Fontaine, W. Harms, J.C. Hayes, T.R. Heimbigner, J.I. McIntyre, M.E. Panisko, Y. Popov, A. Ringbom, H. Sartorius, S. Schmid, J. Schulze, C. Schlosser, T. Taffary, W. Weiss, and B. Wernsperger. 2004. Intercomparison experiments of systems for the measurement of xenon radionuclides in the atmosphere. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 60(6):863-877. Barker, R.B., H.G. Chiles, Jr., C.B. Curtis, S.D. Drell, R.F. Herbst, R.A. Hoover, H.W. Kendall, and L.D. Welch.1999. Report of the Commission on Maintaining U.S. Nuclear Weapons Expertise. Washington, D.C. 1 March 1999. Berest, P. and D.N. Minh. 1981. Stability of cavities in rock salt. Proceedings of the ISRM International Symposium on Weak Rock, Tokyo. September 21-24. 473-478. Bieringer, J., C. Schlosser, H. Sartorius, and S. Schmid. 2009. Trace analysis of aerosol bound particulates and noble gases at the BfS in Germany. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 67(5):672-677. Bilham, R. 2009. The seismic future of cities. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 7(4):839- 887. Bodman, S. 2008. A Future Vision for NNSA’s National Security Laboratories: Transforming the Nuclear Weapons Complex into a National Security Enterprise. U.S. Department of Energy. Washington, D.C. Available at: http://nnsa.energy.gov/sites/default/files/nnsa/news/documents/Future_Vision.pdf Bondar, I., S. Myers, E.R. Engdahl, and E. Bergman. 2004. Epicenter accuracy based on seismic network criteria. Geophysical Journal International 56(3):483-496. Bonner, J., R.B. Herrmann, D. Harkrider, and M. Pasyanos. 2008. The surface wave magnitude for the 9 October 2006 North Korean nuclear explosion. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 98(5):2498-2506. [doi:10.1785/0120080929]. Bottone, S., M.D. Fisk, G.D. McCartor. 2002. Regional seismic event characterization using a simple Bayesian formulation of simple kriging. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 92(6):2277-2296. Bowers, D. and N.D. Selby. 2009. Forensic seismology and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test- Ban Treaty. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 37:209-236. [doi:10.1146/annurev.earth.36.031207.124143]. Bowers, D. and W.R. Walter. 2002. Discriminating between large mine collapses and explosions using teleseismic P waves. Pure and Applied Geophysics 159(4):803-830. Brooks, L.F. 2005. Statement of National Nuclear Security Administrator Linton F. Brooks Before the House Armed Services Committee. Subcommittee on Strategic Forces. March 2, 2005. Washington, D.C. 187
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188 The CTBT-Technical Issues for the U.S. Carothers, J.E. 1995. Caging the Dragon: The Containment of Underground Nuclear Explosions. U.S. Department of Energy Nuclear Agency Report DOE/NV-388 DNA TR 95-74. Washington, D.C. 726 pp. Carrigan, C.R., R.A. Heinle, G.B. Hudson, J.J. Nitao, and J.J. Zucca. 1996. Trace gas emissions on geological faults as indicators of underground nuclear testing. Nature 382(6591):528-531. Che, I.-Y., T.S. Kim, J.-S. Jeon, and H.I. Lee. 2009. Infrasound observation of the apparent North Korean nuclear test of 25 May 2009. Geophysical Research Letters 36(22), Art. No. L22802. Chiapetta, F., F. Heuze, W. Walter, R. Hopler, V. Hsu, B. Martin, C. Pearson, B. Stump, and K. Zipf. 1999. Mine Seismicity and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Department of Energy Working Group Report LA-UR-99-384. Washington, D.C. 62 pp. Available at: http://www.osti.gov/bridge/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id=329501. Chun, K.-Y. and G.A. Henderson. 2009. Lg attenuation near the North Korean border with China, Part II: Model development from the 2006 nuclear explosion in North Korea. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 99(5):3030-3038. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) National Intelligence Estimate (NIE), August 2010. Office of the Director of National Intelligence (classified document). Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). 2008. Special Report: First integrated on-site inspection field exercise, Kazakhstan. Vienna, Austria. Available at: http://www.ctbto.org/specials/integrated-field-exercise-2008/. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) Press Centre. 2009. Overview: DPRK 2009 announced nuclear test. Press Releases May 25, 2009-June 12, 2009. Available at: http://www.ctbto.org/the-treaty/developments-after-1996/2009-dprk- announced-nuclear-test/. Congressional Commission on the Strategic Posture of the United States. 2009. America's Strategic Posture: The Final Report of the Congressional Commission on the Strategic Posture of the United States. U.S. Institute of Peace Press. Washington, D.C. Dahlman, O., S. Mykkeltveit, and H. Haak. 2009. Nuclear Test Ban: Converting Political Visions to Reality. Dordrecht: Springer. Davis, D.M. and L.R. Sykes. 1999. Geological constraints on clandestine nuclear testing in South Asia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 96(20):11090-11095. Davison, I. 2009. Faulting and fluid flow through salt. Journal of the Geological Society 166(2):205-216. Defense Science Board (DSB). 2006. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Nuclear Capabilities. Washington, DC: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics. 58 pp. Defense Science Board. 2008. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Nuclear Deterrent Skills. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics. 148 pp. Defense Science Board. 2009. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Advanced Computing. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics. 65 pp. de Groot-Hedlin, C. and J. Orcutt. 2001. T-phase observations in northern California: Acoustic to seismic coupling at a weakly elastic boundary. Pure and Applied Geophysics 158(3):513-530. Denny, M.D. and D.M. Goodman. 1990. A case study of the seismic source function: Salmon and Sterling reevaluated. Journal of Geophysical Research 95(B12):19705-19729.
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189 Appendix I: References DNI News Release. 2006. Statement by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence on the North Korea Nuclear Test. Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) News Release No. 19-06. Available at: http://www.dni.gov/announcements/20061016_release.pdf. DNI News Release. 2009. Statement by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence on North Korea’s Declared Nuclear Test on May 25, 2009. Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) News Release No. 23-09. Available at: http://www.dni.gov/press_releases/20090615_release.pdf. Dreger, D.S., S.R. Ford, and W.R. Walter. 2008. Source analysis of the Crandall Canyon, Utah mine collapse. Science 321(5886):217. Dubasov, U.V., S.A. Zelentsov, G.A. Krasilov, V.A. Logachyov, A.M. Matsushchenko, S.G. Smagulov, B.S. Tsaturov, G.A. Tsirkov, and A.K. Chernyshov. 1994. Chronological list of the atmospheric nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Test Site and their radiological characteristics. In Scientific Research Institute for Regional Medical and Ecological Problem, Herald of the Research Program “Semipalatinsk Test Site-Altai” N4. 1994. Shoikhet, J.H. (Ed.). Scientific and Practical Journal, Digest of the International Panel Meet “NATO/SCOPE-RADTEST.” Barnaul. September 5-10, 1994. Fineren, D., S. Webb, and A. Barker. 2009. FACTBOX-Nuclear Power Plans in Africa, Middle East. December 29, 2009. [Online]. Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/12/29/nuclear-energy- idUSLDE5BN04Y20091229?type=marketsNews. Ford, S.R., D.S. Dreger, and W.R. Walter. 2009. Source analysis of the Memorial Day explosion, Kimchaek, North Korea. Geophysical Research Letters 36(21): Art. No. L21304. 5pp. [doi:10.1029/2009GL040003]. French Government. 2008. The French White Paper on Defence and National Security. Odile Jacob Publishing Corporation, New York, NY. 332 pp. Available at: http://merln.ndu.edu/whitepapers/france_english2008.pdf. Garbin, H.D. 1986. Free-field and Decoupling Analysis of MILL YARD Data. Report SAND86- 1702. Sandia National Laboratories. Albuquerque, NM. 21 pp. Gertz, B. 1997. Russia suspected of nuclear testing: Moscow says blast was an earthquake (A). The Washington Times. August 28, 1997. Glen, L.A. and P. Goldstein. 1994. Seismic decoupling with chemical and nuclear explosions in salt. Journal of Geophysical Research 99(B6):11723-11730. Global Security Newswire (GSN). 2011. Russia to ready new ICBM by 2013. Global Security Newswire. The National Journal Group. March 18, 2011. Available at: http://gsn.nti.org/gsn/nw_20110318_6022.php. Goldstein, P. and L.A. Glen. 1993. Modeling of tamped and decoupled explosions in salt (Simulation is easy. Prediction is difficult!). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Proceedings of the Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium, Durango, CO. March 23-25, 1993. Report UCRL-JC-113801 Preprint. 8 pp. “Governance Charter for an Interagency Council on the Strategic Capability of DOE National Laboratories as National Security Assets.” Signed by Steven Chu, Dennis Blair, Jane Holl Lute, and Robert Gates. 6 July 2010. Available at: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13367&page=33. Granville, J.P., P.G. Richards, W.-Y. Kim, and L.R. Sykes. 2005. Understanding the differences between three teleseismic mb scales. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 95(5):1809-1824. Hague, W. 2010. Statement on foreign affairs and defense. Daily Hansard, May 26, 2010. Available at: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201011/cmhansrd/cm100526/debtext/10052 6-0005.htm.
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190 The CTBT-Technical Issues for the U.S. Hanson, J.A. and J.R. Bowman. 2006. Methods for monitoring hydroacoustic events using direct and reflected T-waves in the Indian Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research B: Solid Earth 111(2): Art. No. B02305. 18 pp. Harris, D.B. 1991. A waveform correlation method for identifying quarry explosions. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 81(6):2395-2418. Hartse, H.E. 1998. The 16 August 1997 Novaya Zemlya seismic event as viewed from GSN stations KEV and KBS. Seismological Research Letters 69(3):206-215. Hartse, H.E. 2000. The anticipated view of Lop Nor test site from array MKAR based on research using data recorded at GSN station MAKZ. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM. LA-CP-00-204. 42 pp. Hartse, H.E., S.R. Taylor, W.S. Phillips, and G.E. Randall. 1997. A preliminary study of regional seismic discrimination in Central Asia with emphasis on Western China. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 87(3):551-568. Hartse, H.E., R.A. Flores, and P.A. Johnson. 1998. Correcting regional seismic discriminants for path effects in western China. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 88(2):596-608. Heuzé, F.E., T.R. Butkovich, O.R. Walton, and D.M. Maddix. 1991. Explosion phenomenology in jointed rocks: New insights. In Explosion Source Phenomenology. Taylor, S., H. Patton, and P. Richards (Eds.). American Geophysical Union Monograph 65:253-260. Hong, T.-K., C.-E. Baag, H. Choi, and D.-H. Sheen. 2008. Regional seismic observations of the 9 October 2006 underground nuclear explosion in North Korea and the influence of crustal structure on regional phases. Journal of Geophysical Research B: Solid Earth 113(3): Art No. B03305. 15 pp. [doi:10.1029/2007JB004950]. Ingram, P. 2010. UK and France Sign Landmark Defence Agreements. British American Security Information Council. [Online]. Available at: http://basicint.org/search/news?curr=736&terms=radiographic&topic=0®ion=0&pos_u p=news&pos_inc=1. JASON Group 1994. Science Based Stockpile Stewardship. JSR-94-345. The MITRE Corporation. 110 pp. Available at: http://www.fas.org/irp/agency/dod/jason/sbss.pdf. JASON Group. 2007. Pit Lifetime. JSR-06-335. The MITRE Corporation. 29 pp. Available at: http://www.fas.org/irp/agency/dod/jason/pit.pdf. JASON Group. 2009. Lifetime Extension Program (LEP) Executive Summary. JSR-09-334E. The MITRE Corporation. 5 pp. Khalturin, V.I., T.G. Rautian, P.G. Richards, and W.S. Leith. 2005. A review of nuclear testing by the Soviet Union at Novaya Zemlya, 1955-1990. Science and Global Security 13(1-2):1- 42. [doi: 10.1080/08929880590961862]. Khalturin, V.I., T.G. Rautian, and P.G. Richards. 1998. The seismic signal strength of chemical explosions. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 88(6):1511-1524. Kidder, R. 1985. Militarily significant nuclear explosive yields. FAS Public Interest Report. 38(7): 2 pp. Killian, J.R. 1977. Sputnik, Scientists, and Eisenhower. The MIT Press. Cambridge, MA. 360 pp. Kim, T.S., I.B. Kang, and G.Y. Kim. 2009. Yield ratio estimates using regional Pn and Pg from North Korea's underground nuclear explosions. Geophysical Research Letters 36(12): L22302. 6 pp. [doi:10.1029/2009GL040495]. Kim, W.-Y. and P.G. Richards. 2007. North Korean Nuclear Test: Seismic discrimination at low yield. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 88(14):158-161. Kim, W.-Y., P.G. Richards, and L.R. Sykes. 2009. Discrimination of earthquakes and explosions near nuclear test sites using regional high-frequency data. Poster presented at the International Scientific Studies Conference. Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization. Vienna, Austria. Available at: http://www.ctbto.org/fileadmin/user_upload/ISS_2009/Poster/SEISMO-
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191 Appendix I: References 27J%20%28US%29%20- %20Won_Young_Kim%20_Paul_Richards%20and%20Lynn_Sykes.pdf. Koper, K.D., R.B. Herrmann, and H.M. Benz. 2008. Overview of open seismic data from the North Korean event of 9 October 2006. Seismological Research Letters 79(2):178-185. [doi:10.1785/gssrl.79.2.178]. Kværna, T. and F. Ringdal. 1999. Seismic threshold monitoring for continuous assessment of global detection capability. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 89(4):946- 959. Kværna, T., F. Ringdal, J. Schweitzer, and L. Taylor. 2002. Optimized seismic threshold monitoring-Part 1: Regional processing. Pure Applied Geophysics 159(5):969-987. Kværna, T. and F. Ringdal. 2009. Analysis of the IDC Reviewed Event Bulletin for detection capability estimation of the IMS primary and auxiliary seismic stations. International Scientific Studies Conference, SEISMO Poster 15/J. Vienna, Austria. 10-12 June 2009. Available at: http://www.ctbto.org/fileadmin/user_upload/ISS_2009/Poster/SEISMO- 15J%20%28Norway%29%20- %20Tormod_Kvaerna%20and%20Frode_Ringdal.pdf. Lay, T. (Ed.). 2009. Seismological Grand Challenges in Understanding Earth's Dynamic Systems: Long-range Science Plan for Seismology Workshop. September 18-19, 2008, Denver, CO. Report to [S.I.] the National Science Foundation. IRIS Consortium. 84 pp. Available at: http://www.iris.edu/hq/lrsps/seis_lrp_12_08_08.pdf. Leith. W. 2001. Geologic and Engineering Constraints on the Feasibility of Clandestine Nuclear Testing by Decoupling in Large Underground Cavities. USGS Open File Report 01-28. 56 pp. Available at: http://www.vadeker.net/ipri/archive/USGSOFR0128.pdf. Le Pichon, A., J. Vergoz, P. Herry, and L. Ceranna. 2008. Analyzing the detection capability of infrasound arrays in Central Europe. Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres 113(12): Art. No.: D12115. Le Pichon, A., J. Vergoz, E. Blanc, J. Guilbert, L. Ceranna, L. Evers, and N. Brachet. 2009. Assessing the performance of the International Monitoring System's infrasound network: Geographical coverage and temporal variabilities. Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres 114(8): Art No. D08112. Los Alamos National Laboratory. 2009. Fogbank: Lost knowledge regained. Nuclear Weapons Journal 2: 20-21. Matthews, K.M. and L.-E. de Geer. 2005. Processing of data from a global atmospheric radioactivity monitoring network for CTBT verification purposes. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 263(1):235-240. McDonald, M.A., J.A. Hildebrand, and S.M. Wiggins. 2006. Increases in the deep ocean ambient noise in the Northeast Pacific west on San Nicolas Island, California. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America120 (2):711-718. Medalia, J. 2009. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Updated "Safeguards" and Net Assessments. Congressional Research Service. R40612. Medalia, J. 2010. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments. Congressional Research Service. RL33548. Mikhailov, V.N. (Ed.). 1996. USSR Nuclear Weapons Tests and Peaceful Nuclear Explosions: 1949 through 1990. Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy and Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Moscow. 63 pp. Mikhailov, V.N. (Ed.). 1998. Nuclear Tests of the USSR, Hydronuclear Experiments. Sarov Russian Federal Nuclear Center. Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy and Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Moscow. (In Russian).
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