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PRIVATE-PUBLIC SECTOR COLLABORATION TO ENHANCE COMMUNITY DISASTER RESILIENCE A WORKSHOP REPORT Committee on Private-Public Sector Collaboration to Enhance Community Disaster Resilience Geographical Science Committee Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS • 500 Fifth Street, N.W. • Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security under Award No. HSHQDC-08-C-00176, TO #2. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations contained in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agencies that provided support for the project. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations does not constitute their endorsement by the sponsoring agencies. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-15106-1 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-15106-6 C over: Paper-chain people image used with permission from Dreamstime. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334- 3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2010 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distin- guished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autono- mous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievement of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to se- cure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and educa- tion. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of fur- thering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph, J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON PRIVATE-PUBLIC SECTOR COLLABORATION TO ENHANCE COMMUNITY DISASTER RESILIENCE WILLIAM H. HOOKE, Chair, American Meteorological Society, Washington, D.C. ARRIETTA CHAKOS, Harvard University John F. Kennedy School of Government, Cambridge, Massachusetts ANN-MARGARET ESNARD, Florida Atlantic University, Fort Lauderdale JOHN R. HARRALD, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Alexandria LYNNE KIDDER, Business Executives for National Security, Washington, D.C. MICHAEL T. LESNICK, Meridian Institute, Washington, D.C. INÉS PEARCE, Pearce Global Partners, Inc., Los Angeles, California RANDOLPH H. ROWEL, Morgan State University, Baltimore, Maryland KATHLEEN J. TIERNEY, University of Colorado, Boulder BRENT H. WOODWORTH, Los Angeles Emergency Preparedness Foundation, California National Research Council Staff SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Study Director (from July 2009) CAETLIN M. OFIESH, Study Director (until July 2009) COURTNEY R. GIBBS, Program Associate JASON R. ORTEGO, Research Associate (from November 2009) NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Research Associate (until November 2009) TONYA E. FONG YEE, Senior Program Assistant iv

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GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES COMMITTEE WILLIAM L. GRAF, Chair, University of South Carolina, Columbia LUC E. ANSELIN, Arizona State University, Tempe WILLIAM A.V. CLARK, University of California, Los Angeles CAROL P. HARDEN, University of Tennessee, Knoxville CALESTOUS JUMA, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts JOHN A. KELMELIS, Pennsylvania State University, University Park VICTORIA A. LAWSON, University of Washington, Seattle SUSANNE C. MOSER, Susanne Moser Research & Consulting, Santa Cruz, California THOMAS M. PARRIS, ISciences, LLC, Burlington, Vermont NORBERT P. PSUTY, Rutgers University, Sandy Hook, New Jersey DAVID R. RAIN, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. National Research Council Staff MARK D. LANGE, Associate Program Officer JASON R. ORTEGO, Research Associate TONYA E. FONG YEE, Senior Program Assistant v

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BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES CORALE L. BRIERLEY, Chair, Brierley Consultancy, LLC, Highlands Ranch, Colorado KEITH C. CLARKE, University of California, Santa Barbara DAVID J. COWEN, University of South Carolina, Columbia WILLIAM E. DIETRICH, University of California, Berkeley ROGER M. DOWNS, Pennsylvania State University, University Park JEFF DOZIER, University of California, Santa Barbara KATHERINE H. FREEMAN, Pennsylvania State University, University Park WILLIAM L. GRAF, University of South Carolina, Columbia RUSSELL J. HEMLEY, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C. MURRAY W. HITZMAN, Colorado School of Mines, Golden EDWARD KAVAZANJIAN, JR., Arizona State University, Tempe LOUISE H. KELLOGG, University of California, Davis ROBERT B. MCMASTER, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis CLAUDIA INÉS MORA, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico BRIJ M. MOUDGIL, University of Florida, Gainesville CLAYTON R. NICHOLS, Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (Retired), Ocean Park, Washington JOAQUIN RUIZ, University of Arizona, Tucson PETER M. SHEARER, University of California, San Diego REGINAL SPILLER, Frontera Resources Corporation (Retired), Houston, Texas RUSSELL E. STANDS-OVER-BULL, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, Denver, Colorado TERRY C. WALLACE, JR., Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico HERMAN B. ZIMMERMAN, National Science Foundation (Retired), Portland, Oregon National Research Council Staff ANTHONY R. DE SOUZA, Director ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Senior Program Officer DAVID A. FEARY, Senior Program Officer ANNE M. LINN, Senior Program Officer SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Program Officer MARK D. LANGE, Associate Program Officer LEA A. SHANLEY, Postdoctoral Fellow JENNIFER T. ESTEP, Financial and Administrative Associate NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Financial and Research Associate COURTNEY R. GIBBS, Program Associate JASON R. ORTEGO, Research Associate ERIC J. EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant TONYA E. FONG YEE, Senior Program Assistant vi

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This workshop report is dedicated to the memory of Frank Reddish, a long-time leader in natural disaster and recovery. Through years of committed and focused effort, Mr. Reddish made Miami-Dade County and the state of Florida a safer and more resilient place to live. His work drew attention and had impact both locally and nationwide. He contributed powerfully to this workshop, held September 9-10, 2009, and his work will continue to have a positive impact for years to come. vii

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viii

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Acknowledgments In response to a request by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the National Research Council formed an ad hoc committee to assess the current state of the art in private- public sector collaboration dedicated to strengthening community disaster resilience, to identify gaps in knowledge and practice, and to recommend research areas that could be targeted for research investment by the Human Factors Division of the Department of Homeland Security. The committee’s charge included organizing a 2-day workshop to explore relevant issues and inform the study committee’s final recommendations. The workshop was held September 9-10, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia, and engaged a group of approximately 60 participants representing, from different regions of the country, individuals from the private and public sectors and from the research community. For providing excellent workshop presentations intended to orient attendees regarding the subject matter to be discussed, the National Research Council would like to thank Arif Alikhan, DHS, and Emily Walker, Member of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. Also to be acknowledged are those who served as panelists for workshop discussions including: Ron Carlee, Arlington County, Virginia; Jami Haberl, Safeguard Iowa Partnership; Stephen Jordan, U.S. Chamber of Commerce; Leslie Luke, County of San Diego Office of Emergency Services; Gene Matthews, University of North Carolina; Governor Scott McCallum (Wisconsin, 2001-2003), The Aidmatrix Foundation, Inc.; Jason McNamara, Federal Emergency Management Agency; Jim Mullen, Washington State Emergency Management Division; Mickie Valente, Valente Strategic Advisers, LLC; Maria Vorel, Federal Emergency Management Agency; Brit Weber, Michigan State University; Mary Wong, Office Depot Foundation. The workshop would not have been successful without the contributions of those who attended. All participants are listed in Appendix B of this document. This workshop report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purposes of this review are to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following for their participation in the review of this report: ix

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x PRIVATE-PUBLIC SECTOR COLLABORATION FOR COMMUNITY DISASTER RESILIENCE Ann Patton, Founding Director (Retired), Tulsa Partners Inc. Gregory Shaw, Associate Professor of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering Co-Director, The George Washington University Mickie Valente, President, Valente Strategic Advisers, LLC Tom Wilbanks, Group Leader, Global Change and Developing Countries Programs, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse, nor did they see, the final draft of the workshop report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Dr. Susan Cutter, University of South Carolina. Appointed by the Division on Earth and Life Studies, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Research Council.

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Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 13 Workshop Planning, 17 Workshop Report Organization, 19 2 COMMUNITY AND DISASTER RESILIENCE: THE COLLABORATIVE APPROACH 21 Disaster Resilience as Part of Community Resilience, 21 Collaborations for Resilience, 23 Different Perspectives, 31 3 CHALLENGES AND BARRIERS 41 Barriers to Business Sector Engagement, 41 Jurisdictional Challenges, 44 Language Barriers, 48 Building Trust, 48 Resource Challenges, 49 Inefficiencies, 50 Including the Entire Community, 51 Creating Versus Controlling the Environment for Change, 52 4 POTENTIAL RESEARCH 53 Research Themes and Tools, 53 Future Research Mechanisms, 61 Research Funding, 62 A National Agenda to Support Collaboration, 62 REFERENCES 63 xi

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xii PRIVATE-PUBLIC SECTOR COLLABORATION FOR COMMUNITY DISASTER RESILIENCE APPENDIXES A Committee Biographies 65 B Workshop Participants 71