Appendix D
Acronym List

A1B a “medium” emissions scenario; part of the SRES in the IPCC

AAO Antarctic Oscillation

AAR Accumulation Area Ratios

ACC America’s Climate Choices

ACIA Arctic Climate Impact Assessment

AOGCM Atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Model

AR5 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Fifth Assessment Report

ASO August, September, October

BECS bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration

C4MIP Coupled Carbon Cycle Climate Model Intercomparison Project

Ca2+ calcium ions

CaCO3 calcium carbonate

CALFED Calfed Bay-Delta Program

CCSP SAP Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product

CH4 methane

CMIP3 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3

CO2 carbon dioxide

CO32 carbonate ions

CRU Climate Research Unit (of the University of East Anglia)

D&A detection and attribution

DIC dissolved inorganic carbon

DJF December, January, February



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Appendix D Acronym List A1B a “medium” emissions scenario; part of the SRES in the IPCC AAO Antarctic Oscillation AAR Accumulation Area Ratios ACC America’s Climate Choices ACIA Arctic Climate Impact Assessment AOGCM Atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Model AR5 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Fifth Assessment Report ASO August, September, October BECS bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration C4MIP Coupled Carbon Cycle Climate Model Intercomparison Project Ca2+ calcium ions CaCO3 calcium carbonate CALFED Calfed Bay-Delta Program CCSP SAP Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product CH4 methane CMIP3 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 CO2 carbon dioxide CO32 carbonate ions CRU Climate Research Unit (of the University of East Anglia) D&A detection and attribution DIC dissolved inorganic carbon DJF December, January, February 283

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284 APPENDIX D ECMWF European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts EMICs Earth models of intermediate complexity ENSO El Niño/Southern Oscillation EPA Environmental Protection Agency ESCM Earth System Climate Model FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency FPN fraction of positive minus negative estimates GCM general circulation model GDP gross domestic product GFDL Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory GHG greenhouse gas GISS Goddard Institute for Space Studies GISS AGCM GISS’s Atmospheric General Circulation Model GT gigaton gigaton of carbon (gigaton = 1x109 tons) GtC GWP global warming potential H+ hydrogen ion HadISST Hadley Centre Global Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature HFCs hydrofluorocarbons IMAGE Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment IPCC AR3 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Third Assessment Report IPCC AR4 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Fourth Assessment Report IS92a global scenario of the IPCC ITCZ Intertropical Convergence zone JAS July, August, September JFM January, February, March JGOFS Joint Global Ocean Flux Study JJA June, July, August LIG interglacial time period LMSL local mean sea level LTMIP Long Term Model Intercomparison Project

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APPENDIX D 285 m meters MiniCAM Mini-Climate Change Assessment Model MOC meridional overturning circulation MSL mean sea level N2O nitrous oxide NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NCDC National Climatic Data Center NH Northern Hemisphere NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NPCC New York City Panel on Climate Change NRC National Research Council NSIDC National Snow and Ice Data Center NYCOEM New York City Office of Emergency Management PCM Parallel Climate Model pCO2 pressure of carbon dioxide PDO Pacific Decadal Oscillation PDSI Palmer Drought Severity Index PETM Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum petagram of carbon (petagram = 1×1015 grams) PgC pH potentiometric hydrogen ion concentration, pH = –log[H+] ppm parts per million ppmv parts per million by volume RCM Regional Climate Model RCP representative carbon pathways RF radiative forcing SAM Southern (Hemisphere) Annular Mode SAT surface air temperature SCD snow cover duration SLE sea level equivalent SLR sea level rise SPM Summary for Policymakers (of IPCC) SRES Special Report on Emissions Scenarios SST sea surface temperature SWE snow water equivalent

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286 APPENDIX D TA total alkalinity TCR transient climate response U.S. United States USCCSP United States Climate Change Science Program USCCSP SAP Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product USGCRP United States Global Change Research Program UVIC University of Victoria (British Columbia, Canada) model VIC Variable Infiltration Capacity WG1, WG2 Working Group 1 or 2 (of IPCC) WMGG well-mixed greenhouse gases DWMO World Meteorological Organization WOCE World Ocean Circulation Experiment WWAP World Water Assessment Programme