recruitment is impeded, the trial is delayed, sometimes by years, until the number of patients required by the study protocol can be enrolled. Once a trial protocol has been activated, the recruitment of patients requires a significant amount of time and money. Canetta reported that the ability to recruit patients into a trial successfully is similar for the pharmaceutical industry and NCI. Regardless of the trial sponsor, recruitment of patients who meet the requirements of the protocol is difficult: in one study of 14 cancer centers approximately 50 percent of study sites failed to recruit a single patient (Durivage et al., 2009). Thus, patient enrollment can directly affect the number of trials that are completed.

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