data clear and consistent. The Program should support the development of satellite, ship-based, and autonomous sensors, as well as other methods and technologies, as part of a network for observing ocean acidification and its impacts. As the field advances and a consensus emerges, the Program should support the identification and standardization of biological parameters for monitoring ocean acidification and its effects.

6.1.2 Establishing and Sustaining the Network

A number of existing observing systems are already conducting open ocean carbon system measurements. These include existing time series sites (e.g., Hawaii Ocean Time-Series [HOT], Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study [BATS]) and repeat hydrographic surveys (e.g., CLIVAR/CO2 Repeat Hydrography Program). Some of the sites include regular biogeochemical and biological measurements; at the HOT and BATS sites; for example, vertical profiles of inorganic carbon chemistry, nutrient, and chlorophyll concentrations and the rates of biological primary production and sinking particle flux are measured approximately monthly. Additional oceanic time-series sites have been proposed (e.g., OceanSITES; Send et al., 2009).

There are also several existing marine ecosystem monitoring sites within the United States that are supported by various federal agencies, including the NSF Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) program and NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries (Table 6.1). Monitoring is also conducted within the National Estuarine Research Reserve System under a partnership between NOAA and the coastal states. In addition, EPA is mandated to conduct monitoring within certain sanctuaries (e.g., the Florida Keys Marine Sanctuary), and conducts the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). There also exist formal and informal networks of coastal marine laboratories that provide opportunities for assessing past historical conditions and trends, leveraging ongoing observation programs, and establishing new observational systems and process studies.

There are two additional ocean observing systems in development within the United States: the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) and the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). The NSF-supported OOI will provide a framework for sustained observations at four open-ocean sites in the north and south Atlantic and Pacific, a regional observing network off the Pacific Northwest, and a coastal pioneer array, initially to be deployed at the shelf-break off New England (Consortium for Ocean Leadership, 2009). The IOOS, a federal, regional, and private-sector partnership, provides potential observational opportunities through a sub-



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