Index

A

Acclimation and adaptation, 111, 188

(see also Procedural habitation and training)

caloric management and, 67

to noise and vibrations, 81-82

to outdoor housing, 44, 54-55

to physical restraint, 29

Acquisition of animals (see Procurement)

Activity and exercise, xiv, 43, 52-53, 55, 56, 57, 58, 63-64, 67, 84

(see also Enrichment)

Agricultural animals, 2

biomedical vs. agricultural research, 32-33

environment and housing, 29, 33, 43, 44, 137, 176-177

floor drains, 137, 138

information resources, 33, 176-177, 191-192

protocol review, 32-33

space requirements, 60, 62-63

surgery, 117, 144, 145

veterinary care, 145, 191-182

Air pressure, 45, 47, 139, 145-146, 149-150

Air quality and airborne contaminants, 45-47

Airflow (see Ventilation and airflow)

Albino animals, 48-49, 141

Allergens and allergic reactions, 18, 19, 20, 22-23, 45, 155

Alternatives to laboratory animal use, 3, 5, 12, 25, 27, 162-167

American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, 16

American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, 24

Guidelines for Adequate Veterinary Care, xvii, 14

Ammonia, 45, 47, 68, 70, 71, 72-73, 78, 79, 80, 81, 85

Amphibians, 41-42, 44-45, 46, 77, 78-79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 108, 119, 156, 178-179, 192

(see also Aquatic species)

Anesthesia and analgesia

considerations in selection of agents, 75, 121

equipment/delivery, 34, 122, 145, 147

euthanasia agent, 124

field conditions, 32, 117

monitoring, 119-120, 122, 123

neuromuscular blocking agents, 122-123

oversight, 34, 156

pain management, 12, 121-122

preemptive analgesia, 121

principles governing use, 12, 14, 26

recommended reading, 188-190

recordkeeping, 34



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Index A Allergens and allergic reactions, 18, 19, 20, 22-23, 45, 155 Acclimation and adaptation, 111, 188 Alternatives to laboratory animal use, 3, 5, (see also Procedural habitation and 12, 25, 27, 162-167 training) American Association for Laboratory Animal caloric management and, 67 Science, 16 to noise and vibrations, 81-82 American College of Laboratory Animal to outdoor housing, 44, 54-55 Medicine, 24 to physical restraint, 29 Guidelines for Adequate Veterinary Care, Acquisition of animals (see Procurement) xvii, 14 Activity and exercise, xiv, 43, 52-53, 55, Ammonia, 45, 47, 68, 70, 71, 72-73, 78, 56, 57, 58, 63-64, 67, 84 (see also 79, 80, 81, 85 Enrichment) Amphibians, 41-42, 44-45, 46, 77, 78-79, Agricultural animals, 2 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 108, 119, biomedical vs. agricultural research, 156, 178-179, 192 (see also Aquatic 32-33 species) environment and housing, 29, 33, 43, Anesthesia and analgesia 44, 137, 176-177 considerations in selection of agents, 75, floor drains, 137, 138 121 information resources, 33, 176-177, equipment/delivery, 34, 122, 145, 147 191-192 euthanasia agent, 124 protocol review, 32-33 field conditions, 32, 117 space requirements, 60, 62-63 monitoring, 119-120, 122, 123 surgery, 117, 144, 145 neuromuscular blocking agents, 122-123 veterinary care, 145, 191-182 oversight, 34, 156 Air pressure, 45, 47, 139, 145-146, 149-150 pain management, 12, 121-122 Air quality and airborne contaminants, preemptive analgesia, 121 45-47 principles governing use, 12, 14, 26 Airflow (see Ventilation and airflow) recommended reading, 188-190 Albino animals, 48-49, 141 recordkeeping, 34 20

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210 INdEX surgery, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119-120, management, 84-88 122-123, 145, 188-190 microenvironment, 77-78, 82-83 training, 17, 106, 115, 122 noise and vibration, 81-82 waste gas management, 21, 147 pest control, 87 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service population management, 87-88 (APHIS), 30, 148 recommended reading, 178-179, Animal care and use program 192-193 attending veterinarian, 14 recordkeeping, 87-88 collaborations, 15 sanitation, 85-86 defined, 6 sheltered, outdoor, and naturalistic disaster planning and emergency housing, 83 preparedness, 35 space, 83 IACUC, 14-15, 24-33 substrates, 85 institutional official, 13-14 temperature, humidity, and ventilation, oversight, 24-34 80-81 personnel management, 15-24 water quality, 78-79, 85 program management, 13-24 Aseptic practices, 17, 34, 52, 70, 75, 115, recommended reading, 167-172 116, 117, 118-119, 144 regulations, policies, and principles, Attending veterinarian, 3, 4, 13, 14, 15, 17, 21, 24, 28, 106, 114, 116 (see also 12-13 responsibilities, 13-15 Veterinary care) Animal care personnel, (see also Personnel) Autoclaving training and education, 16 bedding material, 69, 146 Animal training (see Procedural habituation drinking water, 146 and training) feed, 66, 146 Animal Welfare Act, 1, 4, 25, 34, 199 surgical instruments, 119, 145 Avian species (see Birds) Animal Welfare Information Center, xv, 16 Animal Welfare Regulations, 1, 12 housing guidelines, 56, 59 b IACUC, 25 transportation of animals, 107 Bacterial gill disease, 112 veterinary care, 30 Barriers Antibiotics, 116 access control, 151 Anxiolytics, 122-123 facilities, 113, 136, 145-146 Apes (see Nonhuman primates) separation of housing and research/ Aquatic species, 2 (see also Amphibians; surgery areas, 134, 144 Fish; Reptiles) visual, 51, 53, 83 algal growth, 86 Bedding, nesting, and substrates behavior and social management, 84 aquatic species, 85 diseases, 112 autoclaving, 69, 136, 146 emergency, weekend, and holiday care, behavioral aspects, 52 87 changing, 46, 47, 52, 69, 70, 73 enrichment and social housing, 82-83 disposal, 19, 20 environment, 77-82 enrichment aspects, 67 facilities, 150-151 environmental aspects, 43, 44, 46, 47, food and feeding, 84-85 49, 52, 53, 69, 71 housing, 82-83, 150-151 experimental influences, 68, 69 husbandry, 84-87 illumination and, 49 identification, 87 materials, 68-69 illumination, 81 outdoor facilities, 54 life support system, 79-80 storage, 136, 141 macroenvironment, 77-78, 86 terrestrial species, 52, 68-69

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211 INdEX Behavioral and social management nesting, bedding and substrates, 52, 70, acclimation, 111 83 activity and exercise, 63-64, 84 nomenclature, 77 airflow and ventilation and, 150 nonhuman primates, 59 aquatic species, 82, 83, 84, 85 recordkeeping, 76, 77, 87, 88 bedding, nesting, and substrate materials rodents and rabbits, xviii, 57, 77, 107 and, 49, 52, 85 sanitation activities and, 70 enrichment, 52-53, 54, 60, 83, 85 space requirements, 55, 56, 57, 33 food and feeding, 65 temperature and humidity and, 44, 80, 82 illumination and, 47, 48, 49 vibration and, 50 procedural habituation and training, 29, Building Seismic Safety Council, 133 64-65 recordkeeping, 75 C sanitation and, 72 social environment, 51, 58, 59, 64, 111 Cages and caging (see also Housing; space considerations, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59 Microenvironment) temperature and humidity and, 43, 44, cleaning and sanitation, 18, 46, 47, 52, 80 69, 70-71, 72, 73, 86, 142, 143, 145 terrestrial species, 83-85 dimensions and space allocation, xviii, training of personnel, 53, 121 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 133 veterinary care and, 107, 111, 112, 114 dividers and shelters in, 53 Behavioral changes flooring, 70 infections and, 118 isolators, 45, 47, 52, 111, 139, 146 monitoring animals for, 112 light intensity in, 46, 49 moribund state, 28 location on cage rack, 46, 49 pain and distress, 120-121, 123 mechanical washers, 71, 72, 86, 135, physical restraint and, 29 136, 141, 143 sanitation and, 71 metabolic, 121 stereotypies and compulsive behaviors, in secondary enclosures, 47 63 ventilated, 44, 46, 47, 50, 58, 70-71, transportation of animals and, 150 111, 141, 146 Behavioral research, 30, 31, 111, 135, vibration of, 50 149-150 Caloric management, 31, 57, 67 Bioexclusion, 28 (see also Barriers) Canadian Council on Animal Care, 16 Biologic agents and hazards, 18, 19, 20, 21, Carcass disposal, 20, 73-74, 138, 142 111, 112-113, 148, 170-172 Cardiovascular shock models, 27 Biosecurity, animal, xviii, 105, 107, 108, Cats 109-110, 111, 135, 170-172 behavioral and social management, 58, Birds, 41, 44, 48, 49, 60, 121, 144, 156, 59, 63-64, 180-181 179-180, 193 enrichment, 53 Bites and scratches, 18, 23 environmental requirements, 43, 44, 53, Breeding and reproduction 180-181 aquatic animals, 44, 80, 82, 83, 87, 88 housing and space, 49, 56, 58, 59, caloric restriction and, 67 180-181 cryopreservation of fertilized embryos, procurement, 106 ova, ovaries, or spermatozoa, 76, recommended reading, 180-181, 193 107 recordkeeping, 75-76 enriched environments and, 83 veterinary care, 193 genetic management, 76, 77 Cattle, 62-63, 64, 176-177, 191-192 (see GMAs, 28, 76 also Agricultural animals) lighting and, 48, 137 Cedar shavings, 69, 156

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212 INdEX Ceilings, 56, 81, 142 Cryopreservation, 76, 107 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cyanobacteria, 86 19, 21, 107, 148, 157 Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1, 23 D Chairing, 29 Chemical agents Defecation, 72 cleaning materials, 71, 72 Definitions non-pharmaceutical-grade, 31 animal biosecurity, 109 hazardous, 18, 19, 20, 21, 136 animal care and use program, 6, 11 Chickens, 48, 60 animal use, 2 Chimpanzees, xviii, 61 attending veterinarian, 14 Chlorines and chloramines, 72, 78-79, 80, engineering standard, 6 85, 86 humane care, 6 Circadian rhythm, 43, 48, 49, 137, 149 institutional animal care and use Cleaning agents, 18, 71, 72 (see also committee, 14 Sanitation) institutional official, 13 (see also Vetterinary care) laboratory animals, 2 Clinical care and management life support system, 79 emergency care, 114 macroenvironment, 42 medical management, 114 “may,” 8 recordkeeping, 115 microenvironment, 42 Clothing and footwear, 20, 21, 146 “must,” 8 Cold storage and refrigeration, 66, 73, 136, performance standard, 6-7 142 policies, 7 Cold stress, 43, 44, 53 practice standard, 7 Collaborations, interinstitutional, 15 principles, 7 Computer modeling procedures, 7 alternative to animal use, 5, 12, 25, 199 “should,” 8 facility design, 46, 133 thermoneutral zone, 43 genetic variability, 76 three Rs, 4-5 Conditioned-response protocols, 31 Dehydration, 68 Construction guidelines, 136-143 Desiccation stress, 45, 46 Containment of hazardous materials, 21, Diet and dietary control (see also Food and 148-149 feedng) Contaminants abrupt changes in, 67 airborne, 22, 45, 46-47, 139, 140, 143, aquatic animals, 84, 85 145, 146-147, 149 autoclavable, 66 bedding, 69, 141, 146 caloric management, 31, 57, 67 cleaning implements, 72, 85 certified diets, 65 food, 19, 65, 66, 67, 84, 141, 146 chemically defined diets, 65, 66 genetic, 76 natural-ingredient, 65, 66 microbial, 72, 81, 108, 109, 110, 113, nutritionally balanced, 67 118, 144-145 purified diets, 65, 66 recommended readings quality assurance, 65, 66 water, 67-68, 81, 86, 138 treats, 67 Convention on International Trade in Disaster planning, 35, 74-75 Endangered Species of Wild Fauna Disease control, 23, 72, 81, 108, 109, 110, and Flora, 107 112-113, 118, 144-145, 190 Corridors, 86, 134, 136, 137, 141, 142 Disease susceptibility, 19, 42 Cryogens, 147

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213 INdEX Disinfection, 20, 51, 52, 68, 69, 70-72, 78, Environment (see also Enrichment; 79, 80, 84, 86, 110, 118, 119, 138, Housing; Macroenvironment; 143, 144, 150 Microenvironment; Social Disposable clothing, 146 environment) Distress (see also Pain and distress) aquatic species, 77-82 defined, 121 recommended reading, 172-175 neuromuscular blocking agents and, terrestrial species, 42-50 122-123 Eosinopenia, 49 recommended reading, 188-190 Ergonomic injury, 19 Diurnal cycles, 48, 141 Ethical considerations, xiii, xvii, 4-5, 12 Dogs recommended reading, 163-164 behavioral and social management, 29, training in, 17 59, 63-64, 180-181 Euthanasia (see also Humane endpoints) enrichment, 53 AV responsibility, 106, 114, 156 environmental requirements, 43, 44, AVMA Guidelines, 123 180-181 carbon dioxide for rodents, 124 housing and space, 49, 58, 59, 136, criteria for, 123 138, 180-181 defined, 123 infusion pumps, 29 disaster planning, 35 pain and distress, 121 fetuses and larval life forms, 123-124 procurement, 106 field studies, 32 recommended reading, 180-181, 193 methods, 123-124 recordkeeping, 75-76 pest control, 74 veterinary care, 193 preemptive, 28 Doors, 136, 137, 138, 142, 143, 144, 149, psychological effects on personnel, 124 150 training, 17, 124 Drafts, 46, 140 Exercise (see Activity and exercise) Drainage, 54, 136, 138, 143, 144, 149, Exotic, wild, and zoo animals, 2, 18, 32, 44, 150 84, 107, 181-182, 193-194 Experimental design and statistics, recommended reading, 164-165 (see E also Protocols) Experimental endpoints, 27-28, 112, 121 Ecdysis (molting), 45, 156 Education (see Training and education) Electric power, 136, 141, 142, 143, 145, F 150 Emergency, weekend, and holiday care Facilities (see also Physical plant) husbandry, 35, 74-75, 87 aquatic species housing, 150-151 medical, 114, 118 barrier facilities, 145-146 Enclosures (see Cages and caging; Primary for behavioral studies, 149-150 enclosures; Secondary enclosures) hazardous agent containment, 148-149 Endangered Species Act, 157 imaging, 146-147 Endpoints (see also Experimental endpoints; irradiation, whole-body, 157-158 Humane endpoints) recommended reading on design and IACUC review, 26, 27-28 construction, 196-197 Engineering standards, 6, 7 for sanitizing materials, 143 Enrichment, xiv, xviii, 33, 43, 50, 52-54, 55, surgical, 116-117, 144-145 56, 58, 60, 64, 82-83, 85, 137, 173- Farm animals (see Agricultural animals) 175 (see also Social environment) Field studies, 18, 32, 155 (see also Exotic, Entrapment, accidental, 51, 82 wild, and zoo animals) Fish (see also Aquatic species)

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214 INdEX H air quality considerations, 81 biosecurity, 110 Hamsters, 44, 57, 64, 68, 71 n.2, 156 (see food and feeding, 84-85 also Rodents) GMAs, 28 Hazard identification and risk assessment, illumination, 81 18-19 noise and vibration, 81-82 Hazardous agents, 20-21 pain and distress, 121 Health Research Extension Act, 34 recirculating systems, 79-80 Heat stress, 43, 44 recommended reading, 178-179, Heating and air-conditioning, 139-140 192-193 Helicobacter spp, 111, 113 recordkeeping, 87-88 Hepatitis B virus, 22 sanitation, 85, 86 Herpesvirus, 23, 112 schooling, 82, 83 Horses and ponies, 63, 64 space requirements, 83 Housing (see also Cages and temperature, 41-42 caging; Macroenvironment; toxic substances, 78-79, 85 Microenvironment; Secondary veterinary care, 192-193 enclosures; Space requirements; and Flaky skin, 45, 156 specific animals) Floors, 137-138 aquatic species, 82-83 Food and Drug Administration Good design considerations, 51 Laboratory Practice standards, 65 environmental enrichment, 52-54, 82- Food and feeding (see also Diet) 83, 173-175 aquatic species, 84-85 flooring, 51-52, 54 enrichment activities with, 67 life support system, 79-80 feeders, 66-67 naturalistic environments, 55, 83 management of caloric intake, 67 occupational health and safety restricted or scheduled access, 30-31 considerations, 19-20 sanitation of feeders and waterers, 71-72 recommended reading, 172-173 storage, vermin control, and handling, repair or replacement, 51 65-66 sheltered or outdoor, 42, 44, 51, 54-55, terrestrial species, 65-67 68, 74, 81, 83, 118, 134, 135, 139, 140 social, 51, 55, 58-59, 60, 82-83 G terrestrial species, 50-63 Genetically modified animals (GMAs) Humane care, defined, 6 breeding, 76 Humane endpoints, xvii, 5, 12, 27-28, 29, humane endpoints, 29 114, 123, 165-166 monitoring for unexpected outcomes, Humidity (see Temperature and humidity) 28-29 Husbandry (see also Sanitation) occupational health and safety aquatic species, 84-87 considerations, 21 bedding and nesting materials and recommended reading, 175-176 substrates, 68-69, 85 Genetics, recommended reading, 175-176 caloric restriction, 30-31, 67 Gerbils, 43, 44, 52 emergency, weekend, and holiday care, Gnotobiotic animals, 52, 70, 135 35, 74-75, 87 Goats, 49, 62, 111, 156, 177, 192 food, 65-67, 84-85 Guinea pigs, 44, 51, 57, 71 n.2, 111, 156 pest control, 74, 87 (see also Rodents) terrestrial species, 65-75 waste disposal, 73-74 water, 67-68

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215 INdEX L Hydrogen peroxide, 72 Hygiene, personal, 18, 19, 20 Laboratory Animal Welfare and Training Exchange, 16 Latex toxicity, 84 I Laws, regulations, and policies (see also Identification of animals, 75, 87 Animal Welfare Act; Animal Welfare Illumination/lighting, 47-49, 81, 141 Regulations; Public Health Service Imaging facilities, 146-147 Policy; other specific acts and policies) Immunization, 22 recommended reading, 168 Immunodeficient animals, 21, 28, 66, 145 training in, 17 Infectious agents (see Biologic agents and Lighting (see Ilumination/lighting) hazards Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, 113 Infectious disease research, 27 Inspection of facilities and equipment, 34 M Institute for Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR), 2, 16 Macacine herpesvirus, 23, 112 Institutional Animal Care and Use Macaques, 23, 112 Committee Macroenvironment agricultural animals, 32-33 aquatic species, 77-78, 86 animal care and use programs and, 6, defined, 42 11, 13 terrestrial species, 42 collaborating institutions, 15 Management of animals (see Behavioral endpoint considerations, 27-28 and social management; Husbandry; field investigations, 32 Population management) food and fluid regulation, 30-31 aquatic species, 84-88 investigating and reporting animal medical, 114 welfare concerns, 23 recommended reading, 172-173 membership and function of committee, terrestrial species, 63-77 17, 24-25 Mice (see also Rodents) multiple survival surgical procedures, 30 acclimation, 111 non-pharmaceutical-grade chemicals or aggression in males, 53, 64 substances, 31 anxiety studies, 53 occupational health and safety and, 17 bedding and nesting materials, 52, 53, physical restraint, 29-30 68 program management and, 13, 14-15 breeding animals, 52 protocol review, 25-26 caloric restriction, 67 recommended reading, 169-170 enrichment, 53, 54 special considerations during review GMAs, 28, 68, 145-146 process, 27-33 housing, 53, 57, 145-146 surgery and, 115-118 identification/nomenclature, 77 surgical procedures, 30 illumination, 49, 137 training and education, 15 infections, 111, 112 unexpected outcomes, 28-29 nude or hairless animals, 68 Institutional official, 13-14, 17, 23, 24, 25, recommended reading, 184-187, 30, 35 194-196 International Air Transport Association, 107 social stress, 53 International Committee on Standardized space requirements, 57, 156 Genetic Nomenclature for Mice, 77 specific pathogen-free mice, 145-146 Invertebrate animals, 2 temperature and humidity, 43, 45 Irradiation facilities, 157-158 toe-clipping, 75

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216 INdEX Microenvironment (primary enclosure) recommended reading, 182-184, 194 aquatic species, 77-78, 82-83 recordkeeping, 75-76 defined, 42 restraint, 29 terrestrial species, 42, 50-52 space requirements, xviii, 56, 58-60, 61 Midwest Plan Service, 33 temperature and humidity, 43, 44, 45, Monitoring and surveillance 140 disease prevention, 112-113 transport, 107 facilities, equipment, and exposure, 19-20 ventilation, 47, 139 food and fluid intake, 31 veterinary care, 194 GMAs, 28 zoonosis surveillance and, 23, 110 intraoperative, 119 Noroviruses, 113 postapproval, 33-34 postoperative care, 119 O restrained animals, 29 sanitation practices, 72-73 Occupational health and safety program Monkeys (see Nonhuman primates) administrative controls, 18 Monoclonal antibody production, 27 animal housing systems, 19-20 Moribund state, 28 collaborative approach, 17, 21 Mouse hepatitis virus, 112, 113 control and prevention strategies, 18 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, 112 engineering controls, 18, 19 facility and equipment support, 19-20 field studies or wildlife research, 18 N hazard identification and risk National Institutes of Health, 19, 155 assessment, 18-19 National Research Council Committee on hazardous animal experimentation, 18, Animal Nutrition, 65 20-21 Necropsies, 21 hazardous material containment, 149 Nesting (see Bedding, nesting, and hygiene, 18, 19, 20 substrates) medical evaluation and preventive Neuromuscular blocking agents, 122-123 medicine for personnel, 22-23 Nocturnal animals, 48 monitoring, 19-20 Noise and vibration noise exposure, 22, 49 aquatic animals, 81-82 personal protective equipment, 18, 20, control, 142, 143 21, 23, 109, 146, 148, 167-172 hearing protection for personnel, 22, 49 recommended reading, 17, 19, 21, terrestrial animals, 49-50 170-172 Non-pharmaceutical-grade chemicals or regulations, 17, 18, 20, 21 substances, 31-32 reporting requirements, 23-24 Nonhuman primates responsibility, 18 acclimation, 111 safety committee, 17-18, 21, 32 behavioral and social management, xviii, security, 23 29, 53 training, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24 enrichment, 53, 67, 137 Organ or system failure research, 27 environment, 43, 44, 45, 50, 139 Other animals, recommended reading, food and feeding, 67 187-188 housing, xviii, 49, 111-112, 136 Outdoor enclosures/habitats, 42, 44, 51, illumination, 48 54-55, 68, 74, 81, 83, 118, 134, 135, infections, 23, 111-112 139, 140 Oversight (see also Institutional Animal Care infusion pumps, 29 noise and vibration effects, 50 and Use Committee) personal protective equipment for staff, postapproval monitoring, 33-34 21-22

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21 INdEX recommended reading, 169-170 drainage, 138 responsibility for, 13 floors, 137-138 Owl monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus), 112 functional areas, 135-136 general considerations, 133-135 HVAC, xviii, 46-47, 139-140 P location, 134 noise control, 142 Pain and distress (see also Distress) power and lighting, 141 analgesics and anesthetics, 12, 121-123 recommended reading, 196-197 chronic, 122 security and access control, 151 guidelines and, 12, 199-200 storage areas, 141-142 humane endpoints, 5, 27, 123 vibration control, 142 indicators of, 120-121, 123 walls and ceilings, 138-139 modeling/studies, 28 windows, exterior, 137 monitoring GMAs for, 29 Phytoestrogens, 65 multiple survival surgical procedures, 30 Pigeons, 60, 180, 193 postoperative, 117, 120 Pilot studies, 26, 28 prevention or alleviation, 5, 12, 26, 33, Poikilothermic animals, 41, 44, 55, 80, 82, 35, 105, 114, 120-121, 200 108 recommended reading, 120, 188-190 Policies, defined, 7 restraint devices, 29 Population management studies of, 34 aquatic species, 87-88 “wind-up” phenomenon, 120 breeding, genetics, and nomenclature, Parvoviruses, 113 75-76 Pasteurella multocida, 112 identification, 75, 87 Pedigree management, 55, 76, 87 recordkeeping, 75-76, 87-88 Performance standard, defined, 6-7 terrestrial species, 75-77 Personnel (see also Occupational health Poultry, 44, 48, 60 and safety program; Training and Practice standard, 7, 12 education; specific personnel) Preventive medicine animal welfare concerns and, 23-24 animal biosecurity, xviii, 79, 105, 107, hygiene, 18, 19, 20 108, 109-110, 111, 135 management, 15-24 disease surveillance, diagnosis, and medical evaluation and preventive treatment, 112-113 medicine for, 22-23 quarantine and stabilization, 110-111 occupational health and safety program, separation of animals by health status 17-23 and species, 111-112 protection, 21-22 Primary enclosures, 42, 43, 44-45, 46, 50- security, 23 52, 72, 77, 82 (see also Cages and Pest control, 74, 87, 110 caging; Microenvironment) Pesticides, 65, 74 Primates (see Nonhuman primates) Photoperiod, 47, 48, 81, 137, 143 Principal investigator, 5, 16, 18, 27, 28, 32, Photostressors, 47 (see also 114, 155 Illumination/lighting) Principles (see also U.S. Government Phototoxic retinopathy, 48, 49 Principles) Physical hazards, 18, 19 defined, 7 Physical plant (see also Facilities) the Guide, 1 centralized vs. decentralized, 134-135 Procedural habituation and training, 29, construction guidelines, 136-143, 64-65 196-197 Procedures, defined, 7 corridors, 136 Procurement of animals, 106-107 doors to animal rooms, 137

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218 INdEX Protocols for animal use illumination, 48-49, 137 alternatives to animal use, 3, 5, 12, 25, recommended reading, 184-187, 27, 162-164 194-196 conditioned-response, 31 space requirements, 57, 156 food and fluid regulation, 30-31 temperature and humidity, 43, 44, 45 IACUC review, 26-33 Recordkeeping number of animals used, 5, 12, 15, 25, clinical care, 115 26, 28, 106, 199, 201 population management, 75-76, 87-88 postapproval monitoring, 33-34 Removal of animals from protocol, 26, 29, reuse of animals, 5, 30 31 special considerations, 27-33 Reporting Three Rs, xvii, 3, 4-5, 17, 201 accidents, bites, scratches, and allergic topics considered, 25-26 reactions, 23 Public Health Service Policy on Humane animal welfare concerns, 17, 23-24 Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, hazardous conditions or “near miss” 1, 12, 25, 56 incidents, 19 status of Animal care and use program, 25 Q Reproduction (see Breeding and reproduction) Quail, 60, 180, 193 Reptiles, 41-42, 44, 45, 77, 80, 81, 82, 83, Quarantine and stabilization, 110-111 84, 85, 156, 178-179, 192-193 Research and testing methodology, recommended reading, 165-166 R Research team, training and education, 16-17 Rabbits Respirators and respiratory protection, 22, behavioral and social management, 63 23 enrichment, 54 Restraint, 29-30, 55, 122, 144 environment, 43, 44, 49, 54, 140 Reuse of animals, 5 food and feeding, 67 Ringtail, 45 housing, 51, 53, 58, 59 Rodents, laboratory (see also individual infections, 112 species) nomenclature, 77 acclimation, 111 recommended reading, 184-187 aggression in males, 53, 64 sanitation of cages, 71 n.2 albino animals, 48-49, 141 space requirements, xviii, 59 anxiety studies, 53 Rabies, 22 barrier facilities, 145-146 Radiation hazards, 18, 20, 73, 147 bedding and nesting materials, 52, 53, Rainbow trout, 112 68-69 Rat Genome and Nomenclature Committee, breeding, xviii, 49, 52, 57 77 caloric restriction, 67 Rat theilovirus, 112 diseases, 111, 112, 113 Rats (see also Rodents) enrichment, 53, 54 acclimation, 111 euthanasia, 124 albino, 48-49 GMAs, 28, 68, 145-146 bedding and nesting materials, 52 housing, 53, 57, 145-146 breeding animals, 52 identification/nomenclature, 77 caloric restriction, 67 illumination, 48, 49, 137 diseases, 45, 111, 112 implanted systems, 29 GMAs, 145-146 noise and vibration effects, 49, 50 identification/nomenclature, 77

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21 INdEX pain and distress, 121-122 oversight, 34 recommended reading, 184-187, postoperative care, 44, 119-120 194-196 presurgical planning, 116 social stress, 53 procedures, 117-118 space requirements, xviii, 56-58, 156 recommended reading, 188-190 temperature and humidity, 43, 45 training. 115-116 thermoneutral zone, 43 Swine, 49, 53, 60, 62, 112, 136 S T Tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), 112 Sanitation aquatic species, 85-86 Temperature and humidity assessing effectiveness of, 72-73 aquatic species, 41-42, 80-81 bedding/substrate change, 70 HVAC systems and, 139-140 defined, 69-70 terrestrial species, 43-45 facilities for sanitizing materials, 143 Terrestrial species macroenvironment, 72-73 activity, 63-64 microenvironment, 70-72 bedding and nesting materials, 68-69 Secondary enclosures, 42, 43, 45-46, 47, 78 behavioral and social management, (see also Macroenvironment) 83-85 Security, 23, 55, 151 (see also Biosecurity) breeding, genetics, and nomenclature, Separation of animals by health status and 75-76 species, 111-112 emergency, weekend, and holiday care, Sheep, 62, 64, 111, 156, 176-177, 191-192 74-75 Simian hemorrhagic fever, 111-112 enrichment, 52-54 Simian immunodeficiency virus, 111-112 environment, 42-50 Social environment, xviii, 51, 53, 64, 82-83, food and feeding, 65-67 121 (see also Behavioral and social housing, 50-63 management; Enrichment; Housing) husbandry, 65-75 Space requirements identification, 75 agricultural animals, 60-63 illumination, 47-49 aquatic species, 83 macroenvironment, 42 general considerations, 55-56 management, 63-77 IACUC review, 56 microenvironment, 42, 50-52 laboratory rodents, xviii, 56-58 noise and vibration, 49-50 “minimum,” xviii pest control, 74 nonhuman primates, 58-61 population management, 75-77 other common species (dogs, cats, procedural habituation and training, rabbits; pigeons, quail, chickens), 58, 64-65 59, 60 recordkeeping, 75-76 rabbits, xviii social environment, 64 Specific pathogen-free animals, 72, 108, space requirements, 55-63 113, 135, 136, 145-146 temperature and humidity, 43-45 Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), 112 ventilation and air quality, 45-47 Statement of task, xix, 201-202 waste disposal, 73-74 Storage areas, 141-142 water, 67-68 Surgery Tetanus, 22 aseptic technique, 17, 34, 115, 116, 117, Thermoneutral zone, 43, 156 118-119, 144 Three Rs (replacement, reduction, and facilities, 116-117, 144-145 refinement), xvii, 3, 4-5, 17, 201 intraoperative monitoring, 119 Toxicology research, 27 multiple survival procedures, 30 Toxins (see Biologic agents and hazards)

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220 INdEX Training and education, 20, 115-116 Veterinary care (see also Clinical care and animal care personnel and technicians, management; Preventive medicine; 16, 50, 78 Surgery) aquatic systems, 78 anesthesia and analgesia, 121-123 emergency preparedness, 35 euthanasia, 123-124 IACUC members, 17 pain and distress, 120-121 IACUC oversight of, 15 principles, 12 noise reduction, 50 procurement of animals, 106-107 postapproval review as, 34 recommended reading, 188-196 recommended reading, 168-169 responsibilities of attending veterinarian, research team, 16-17 14 U.S. Government Principles, 12, training and education of professional 199-200 staff, 15-16 veterinary and other professional staff, transportation of animals, 12, 32, 33, 55, 15-16 107-109, 156, 195 Transportation of animals, 12, 14, 32, 105, Vibration (see Noise and vibration) 107-109, 110, 111, 134, 135, 147, 150, 156, 188, 199 W Trauma research, 27 Tuberculosis, 23, 112 Walls and ceilings, 138-139 Tumor models/studies, 27, 34 Waste management (see also Sanitation) anesthetic gases, 21, 147 disposal options, 73-74 U drainage, 54, 138 Unexpected outcomes, 28-29, 34 flushing, 72 US Department of Agriculture, 19, 30, 107, gases from primary enclosures, 46 148, 157 hazardous materials, 20, 73-74, 148-149 US Fish and Wildlife Service, 106, 107, 157 soiled bedding, 85, 143 U.S. Government Principles for the storage before incineration or removal, Utilization and Care of Vertebrate 136, 142 Animals Used in Testing, Research, training, 20, 74 and Training, 4, 12, 199-200 wastewater, 80, 87 Uses and users of the Guide, 4-5 Water/fluids devices and delivery systems, 68 outdoor sources, 68 V quality for aquatic species, 78-79, 85 regulated, 30-31 Vaccine challenges/studies, 27 terrestrial species, 67-68 Ventilation and airflow (see also Air quality) Windows, exterior, 137 aquatic species, 80-81 containment of hazardous agents, 21, 47 filtered, 47 x for static isolation caging, 47 HVAC system, 46, 47, 139-140 Xenopus spp., 79-80, 83, 88, 178-179, individually ventilated cages, 44, 46, 50, 192-193 58, 70-71, 111, 141, 146 preventive maintenance and evaluation, Z 47 recommended reading, 196-197 Zebrafish, 79, 83 recycling air, 46-47 Zoonosis surveillance, 23, 32, 110 terrestrial species, 43, 45-47