B
Acronyms and Abbreviations

ACB Amphibious Construction Battalion

ACC America’s Climate Choices

ANZUS Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty

AON Arctic Observing Network

AR4 Fourth Assessment Report (of IPCC)

ARG Amphibious Ready Group

ASN RDA Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development, and Acquisition

ASW antisubmarine warfare

C4ISR command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance

CCSM3 Community Climate System Model version 3

CCSP Climate Change Science Program (U.S.)

CDMA Code Division Multiple Access

CIESIN Center for International Earth Science Information Network (Columbia University)

CNA Center for Naval Analyses

CNAS Center for a New American Security

CNMOC Commander, Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command

CNO Chief of Naval Operations

COCOM Combatant Commander

COMSUBLANT Commander, Submarine Force, Atlantic Fleet



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B Acronyms and Abbreviations ACB Amphibious Construction Battalion ACC America’s Climate Choices ANZUS Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty AON Arctic Observing Network AR4 Fourth Assessment Report (of IPCC) ARG Amphibious Ready Group ASN RDA Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development, and Acquisition ASW antisubmarine warfare C4ISR command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance CCSM3 Community Climate System Model version 3 CCSP Climate Change Science Program (U.S.) CDMA Code Division Multiple Access CIESIN Center for International Earth Science Information Network (Columbia University) CNA Center for Naval Analyses CNAS Center for a New American Security CNMOC Commander, Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command CNO Chief of Naval Operations COCOM Combatant Commander COMSUBLANT Commander, Submarine Force, Atlantic Fleet 133

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134 NATIONAL SECURITY IMPLICATIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE CPC Climate Prediction Center CRMS Center for Migration and Refugee Studies CRS Congressional Research Service CVI Coastal Vulnerability Index DAMOCLES Developing Arctic Modeling and Observing Capabilities for Long-Term Environmental Studies DESDYNI deformation, ecosystem structure, and dynamics of ice DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program DOD Department of Defense DOE Department of Energy DoN Department of the Navy DSCA defense support of civil authorities EAF expeditionary airfield EEZ exclusive economic zone EHF extremely high frequency ENSO El Niño Southern Oscillation ESA European Space Agency EUCOM U.S. European Command FAO foreign area officer FLTSAT Fleet Satellite FNMOC Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center FSU former Soviet Union GBS Global Broadcast Service GCOS Global Climate Observing System GDP gross domestic product GEO geosynchronous Earth orbit GERG Geochemical and Environmental Research Group GFCS Global Framework for Climate Services GLONASS Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System GOOS Global Ocean Observing System GPS Global Positioning System HA/DR humanitarian assistance/disaster relief HDOP horizontal dilution of precision HF high frequency HSPD Homeland Security Presidential Directive ICSU International Council for Science

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135 APPENDIX B iGPS High Integrity GPS Augmentation Demonstration Program (Naval Research Laboratory) INMARSAT International Maritime Satellite INS inertial navigation system IOC International Oceanographic Commission IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff JHSV joint high-speed vessel JHU/APL Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory LCS littoral combat ship LEO low Earth orbit LHA amphibious assault ship (general purpose) LHD amphibious assault ship (multipurpose) LIDAR light detection and ranging LPD amphibious transport dock (ship) MDA maritime domain awareness MEB Marine Expeditionary Brigade MEDEA Measurements of Earth Data for Environmental Analysis MEO medium elliptical orbit MEU Marine Expeditionary Unit MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology MLP Mobile Landing Platform MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MPF Maritime Prepositioning Force MSC Military Sealift Command MUOS Mobile User Objective System NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NAVFESC Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center NAVOCEANO Naval Oceanographic Office NAVSEA Naval Sea Systems Command NEO noncombatant evacuation order NFH Navy fleet hospital NGO nongovernmental organization NIC National Ice Center; National Intelligence Council NMCB Naval Mobile Construction Battalion NMME National Multi-Model Ensemble NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOC10 Naval Operations Concept 2010

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136 NATIONAL SECURITY IMPLICATIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE NORPAX North Pacific Experiment NORTHCOM U.S. Northern Command NRC National Research Council NRL Naval Research Laboratory NSB Naval Studies Board NSE Naval Support Element NSF National Science Foundation NSIDC National Snow and Ice Data Center NSPD National Security Presidential Directive OCS outer continental shelf OECD Office of Economic Cooperation and Development ONR Office of Naval Research OSTP Office of Science and Technology Policy PACOM U.S. Pacific Command PEO-Ships Program Executive Office for Ships POM Program Objective Memorandum QDR Quadrennial Defense Review R&D research and development RF radio frequency RSR refracted-surface reflected SACEUR Supreme Allied Commander Europe (NATO) SAON Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks SAP 4.1 Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.1 SAR synthetic aperture radar; search and rescue SATCOM satellite communications SCICEX Scientific Ice Exercise Program SEARCH Study of Environmental Arctic Change SERDP Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program SOFAR sound fixing and ranging SPAWAR Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command SRES Special Report on Emissions Scenarios SSN nuclear-powered attack submarine SST sea surface temperature SUBICEX submarine ice exercise SUBPAC Submarine Force, Pacific Fleet

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137 APPENDIX B TEC total electron count TFCC Task Force Climate Change (Navy) TOPEX Ocean Topography Experiment TOR terms of reference UAV unmanned aerial vehicle UCAR University Corporation for Atmospheric Research UCP Unified Command Plan UHF ultrahigh frequency UFO UHF Follow-on (Satellite) UN United Nations USCG United States Coast Guard USCGC United States Coast Guard Cutter USGS U.S. Geological Survey USMC United States Marine Corps UNCLOS United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea USACE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers USN United States Navy VDOP vertical dilution of precision VHF very high frequency VRIM Vulnerability-Resilience Indicators Model WAAS wide area augmentation system WCRP World Climate Research Program WGS Wideband Global Satcom WHO World Health Organization WMO World Meteorological Organization WRS wide area ground reference station XBT expendable bathythermograph XCTD expendable conductivity temperature and depth