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National Security Implications of Climate Change for U.S. Naval Forces C Biographies of Committee Members and Staff Frank L. Bowman (NAE), Co-Chair, is president of Strategic Decisions, LLC, a private consulting firm that provides governments and organizations with management training and strategic planning expertise. He retired from the U.S. Navy in December 2004 as a four-star admiral. He was director of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program and was concurrently deputy administrator—naval reactors in the National Nuclear Security Administration at the Department of Energy (DOE). In these dual positions, he was responsible for the operations of 103 reactors onboard the U.S. Navy’s aircraft carriers and submarines, four training sites, and two DOE laboratories. His prior naval assignments include the chief of naval personnel and director of political-military affairs on the Joint Staff. Following his Navy career, he was president and chief executive officer of the Nuclear Energy Institute, the nuclear energy industry’s policy organization. A graduate of Duke University, Admiral Bowman completed a dual master’s program in nuclear engineering and naval architecture/marine engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and was elected to the Society of Sigma Xi. He is a recipient of the Robert S. Landauer Memorial Lecture Award for distinguished contributions to the field of radiological physics and radiation health protection. He was awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters from Duke University. In 2006, Admiral Bowman was knighted by the Queen of England as Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire in recognition of his commitment in support of the Royal Navy submarine program. He also has served on numerous advisory panels, including the MIT Nuclear Engineering Visiting Committee and as an advisor to the Pennsylvania State University’s Nuclear Engineering Department. His National Research Council service includes being a member of the National Academy of Engineering’s (NAE’s) Forum on
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National Security Implications of Climate Change for U.S. Naval Forces Diversity in the Engineering Workforce (1999-2004). More recently, he served as a member of the military advisory board for the 2008 Center for Naval Analyses Corporation report entitled National Security and the Threat of Climate Change. Antonio J. Busalacchi, Jr., Co-Chair, is director of the Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center and Professor in the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science at the University of Maryland, College Park. His research interests include tropical ocean circulation and its role in the coupled climate system, and climate variability and predictability. Dr. Busalacchi has been involved in the activities of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) for many years and currently is chair of the Joint Scientific Committee that oversees the WCRP. He previously was co-chair of the scientific steering group for its subprogram on Climate Variability and Predictability. Dr. Busalacchi has participated extensively in National Research Council (NRC) activities, including as chair of the Climate Research Committee and the Committee on a Strategy to Mitigate the Impact of Sensor Descopes and Demanifests on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite Spacecraft, and as a member of the Committee on Earth Studies, the Panel on the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Program, and the Panel on Ocean Atmosphere Observations Supporting Short-Term Climate Predictions. Dr. Busalacchi currently serves as chair of the NRC Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate and as a member of the NRC Committee on America’s Climate Choices: Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Arthur B. Baggeroer (NAE) is Ford Professor of Engineering and the Secretary of the Navy/Chief of Naval Operations Chair for Ocean Science in the Departments of Ocean and Electrical Engineering at MIT. His areas of expertise include advanced signal processing methods applied to sonar, ocean acoustics, and geophysics. Dr. Baggeroer has served as director of the MIT–Woods Hole Joint Program in Oceanography and Oceanographic Engineering. During sabbatical leaves he has also served as a consultant to the Chief of Naval Research at the NATO Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic Center in La Spezia, Italy, and as a Green Scholar at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. He is a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the Acoustical Society of America. Dr. Baggeroer recently served as co-chair of the NRC Committee on Distributed Remote Sensing for Naval Undersea Warfare. He is a former member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board and Ocean Studies Board. Cecilia M. Bitz is an assistant professor in the Atmospheric Sciences Department at the University of Washington. Her research interests include climate dynamics, climate change, paleoclimate, the role of sea ice in the climate system, Arctic/North Atlantic interactions, and sea-ice model development. The primary tools for her research are a variety of models, from simple reduced models to sophisti-
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National Security Implications of Climate Change for U.S. Naval Forces cated climate system models. Dr. Bitz is a member of the advisory board for the Community Climate System Model sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy and of the steering committee for the NOAA Climate and Global Change postdoctoral program. She currently serves on the NRC Climate Research Committee and was a member of the U.S. International Polar Year Planning Committee. Ronald Filadelfo is research team leader for the Environment and Energy Research Team at the Center for Naval Analyses (CNA), the Navy’s federally funded research and development center. His early work at CNA was in the field of antisubmarine warfare, and since the mid-1990s, he has worked on Navy environmental issues. His current research focus is on the effects of military sonars on marine mammals. For the last 2 years, Dr. Filadelfo has examined the issue of climate change and its relationships to national security. Most recently, he served on the CNA study team for the 2007 report entitled National Security and the Threat of Climate Change. Jeffrey M. Garrett retired from the U.S. Coast Guard with the rank of Rear Admiral after 31 years on active duty. He is currently an independent consultant. Admiral Garrett served in a variety of command, operational, and staff assignments. His shipboard assignments included polar icebreaking deployments throughout the eastern and western Arctic and in the Antarctic in the polar icebreakers Burton Island (WAGB 283) and Polar Star (WAGB 10), and as commanding officer (CO) of Polar Sea (WAGB 11). As the commissioning CO of Healy (WAGB 20), he brought the nation’s newest polar icebreaker through delivery, shakedown operations, and ice trials in the eastern Arctic, and through the Northwest Passage to homeport in Seattle. Other Coast Guard service included duties at the Vessel Traffic Service in Valdez, Alaska, command of a Great Lakes icebreaker, and multiple programming and budgeting staff assignments at Coast Guard headquarters. As a flag officer, Admiral Garrett served as the Coast Guard’s director of resources, responsible for the service’s budget, long-range planning, and policy development, and as Commander of the 13th District in the Pacific Northwest. Since retirement in 2005, Admiral Garrett has served as a member of the NRC Committee on Assessment of U.S. Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Roles and Future Needs (2006), as chairman of the Coast Guard’s Polar Operations and Policy study (2008), and as a consultant for a variety of maritime- and polar-related projects. Harry W. Jenkins, Jr., retired from the U.S. Marine Corps with the rank of Major General and is currently an independent consultant. His background includes naval operations, mine countermeasures, and Marine Corps intelligence operations—in particular, its mission use of command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance, or C4ISR, systems. He
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National Security Implications of Climate Change for U.S. Naval Forces formerly served as director of business development and congressional liaison at ITT Industries—Defense, where he was responsible for activities in support of tactical communications systems and airborne electronic warfare among the Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, and National Guard. During Operation Desert Storm, General Jenkins served as the Commanding General of the Fourth Marine Expeditionary Brigade. He most recently served on the NRC Committee on the “1,000-ship Navy”—A Distributed and Global Maritime Network. Catherine M. Kelleher is a professor of public policy at the University of Maryland and senior faculty associate at Brown University’s Watson Institute, where her research interests include cooperative European defense and security policies, NATO relations, and international security and arms control. Dr. Kelleher served in the Clinton Administration as personal representative of the Secretary of Defense in Europe and as deputy assistant secretary of defense for Russia, Ukraine, and Eurasia. She has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including as vice chair, co-vice chair, and member of the NRC Committee on International Security and Arms Control and as a member of the NRC Committee on the “1,000-ship Navy”—A Distributed Global and Maritime Network. She is a member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board. Mahlon C. Kennicutt II is a professor of chemical oceanography at the Texas A&M University, where he earned his Ph.D. in oceanography in 1980. After 18 months of postdoctoral work in geosciences at the University of Tulsa, Dr. Kennicutt returned to Texas A&M in 1981 and was a founding member of the Geochemical and Environmental Research Group (GERG). At GERG he served in various positions and rose to be director for 6-1/2 years, ending in 2004. He was promoted to full professor with tenure in the Department of Oceanography in 2002. At Texas A&M University he has served as a principal investigator (PI), deputy program manager, and/or program manager on several large interdisciplinary programs. He has participated in or led over $22 million worth of research, contracts, and grants during his time at Texas A&M University. He has served as PI on National Science Foundation (NSF) grants from Marine Chemistry and the Office of Polar Programs. He has spent over 575 days at sea, deployed to Antarctica six times, participated in six submersible dives in various vessels including the Navy NR-1, and maintains a current project at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, for the U.S. Army and NSF. Dr. Kennicutt served as leader of an interdisciplinary research program entitled the Sustainable Coastal Margins Program (SCMP), a coalition of six colleges, nine academic departments, five centers, and two institutes at Texas A&M as well as five partners external to Texas A&M. He was director of sustainable development in the Office of the Vice President for Research from 2004 to 2008. Dr. Kennicutt is the U.S. delegate to the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). Dr. Kennicutt was elected to a 4-year term as president of SCAR in 2008. Within SCAR he has served on committees
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National Security Implications of Climate Change for U.S. Naval Forces and held various offices, including that of vice president for finance and scientific affairs, member of the Standing Committee to the Antarctic Treaty System, chair of the Delegates Committee on Scientific Affairs, and secretary of the SCAR Scientific Research Program Subglacial Antarctic Lake Environments. He has also served as ex officio member of the Polar Research Board since 1998 and has been a science advisor to the U.S. Department of State Antarctic Treaty Delegations since 2002. Dr. Kennicutt has served as a member of several National Research Council committees and acted as a report monitor and external reviewer of several NRC reports. He is also served on a committee of visitors reviewing NSF Office of Polar Programs logistical and science support efforts. Ronald R. Luman is head of the National Security Analysis Department at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL). He has led a variety of systems engineering efforts in the areas of missile guidance systems, unmanned undersea vehicles, countermine warfare, ballistic missile defense, intelligence systems, and domestic infrastructure resiliency. Dr. Luman has served on studies for the National Research Council (as a member of the NRC Committee on the Role of Naval Forces in the Global War on Terror) and for the National Infrastructure Advisory Council, and he chairs the annual JHU Unrestricted Warfare Symposium as a means to foster stronger collaboration among the national security policy, analysis, and technology communities. He is also the acting director of strategic planning at JHU/APL and the systems engineering program chair at the JHU Whiting School of Engineering. W. Berry Lyons is a Distinguished Professor of Mathematical and Physical Sciences at the Ohio State University School of Earth Sciences and former director of the Byrd Polar Research Center. Previously he was a faculty member at the University of New Hampshire, the University of Nevada, Reno (where he served as the director of the Hydrologic Sciences Graduate Program), and the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa (where he was the Loper Chair of Environmental Geology). Dr. Lyons’s research interests include environmental geochemistry of trace metals, such as mercury; the causes and rates of chemical weathering and landscape change; the dynamics of carbon in the terrestrial environment; the role of agriculture and urbanization on water resources; and the impact of climate change on polar ecosystems. Dr. Lyons is a fellow of the Geological Society of America, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Geophysical Union. He is a past member of the NRC’s Polar Research Board and past chair of the NRC Committee on Designing an Arctic Observing Network. James J. McCarthy is the Alexander Agassiz Professor of Biological Oceanography at Harvard University. He holds faculty appointments in the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and the Department of Earth and Planetary
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National Security Implications of Climate Change for U.S. Naval Forces Sciences. His research interests focus on the regulation of plankton productivity in the sea and the upper ocean nitrogen cycle, especially in mixing processes, monsoonal cycles, and the El Niño Southern Oscillation system. He participated in the early planning phases of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme and served as its chair for the first 6 years of the program. He was involved in the first Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment, coauthoring the concluding chapter of Working Group I. In the third IPCC assessment he cochaired Working Group II, whose task it was to assess impacts of and vulnerabilities to global climate change, with an intensified focus on adaptation. He is past president and chair of the board of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. McCarthy has served on numerous scientific advisory boards and committees, including the NRC Ecosystems Panel, the Committee on Global Change Research, and the Committee to Review the Global Ocean Observing System. Michael J. McPhaden is a senior scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory in Seattle, Washington. He is an affiliate professor in the School of Oceanography at the University of Washington, director of the TAO [Tropical Atmosphere Ocean] Project Office, and a senior fellow with both the Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean at the University of Washington and the Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research at the University of Hawaii. Dr. McPhaden’s primary research and expertise is in the ocean’s role in climate and ocean-atmospheric interactions. He has served on the NRC Panel on Near-Term Development of Operational Ocean Observations. Dr. McPhaden is currently president of the American Geophysical Union. John H. Moxley III (IOM) is retired managing director of North American Health Care Division, Korn/Ferry International. His areas of expertise include government policy and federal government administration; military training, costs, and manpower issues; military medical issues; and chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear detection. He has held a number of senior positions in academia, government, and commercial industry, including dean of the University of Maryland and the University of California (San Diego) Medical Schools, assistant secretary of defense for health affairs, and senior vice president at American Medical International. He has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the American Hospital Association Board of Trustees, the California Medical Association, the American Medical Association, the National Fund for Medical Education, and the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine. He recently served as cochair of the NRC Committee on Manpower and Personnel Needs for a Transformed Naval Force and is a former member of the NRC’s Board on Army Science and Technology as well as the NRC’s Naval Studies Board.
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National Security Implications of Climate Change for U.S. Naval Forces David J. Nash (NAE) retired from the U.S. Navy with the rank of Rear Admiral and is president of Dave Nash and Associates, LLC, a project development firm serving businesses and governments around the world. Admiral Nash has more than 4 decades of experience in building, design, and program management for both the U.S. Navy and the private sector. His experience includes the management of the Navy’s shore installations worldwide and the reconstruction of Iraq’s infrastructure. Most recently, Admiral Nash served as director of the Iraq Program Management Office under the Coalition Provisional Authority and, later, as director of the Iraq Reconstruction Management Office under the U.S. State Department. Admiral Nash is the recipient of numerous awards, including the Society of American Military Engineers Golden Eagle Award, the Beavers Award for Heavy Engineering Construction, the ASCE John I. Parcel-Leif J. Sverdrup Award for Civil Engineering Management, and the CERF/IIEC Henry L. Michel Award for Industry Advancement of Research. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering “for leadership in the reconstruction of devastated areas after conflicts and natural disasters.” He currently serves on the NRC Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment and recently served on the NRC’s Committee on Toward Sustainable Critical Infrastructure Systems: Framing the Challenges Workshop. Heidi C. Perry is the director of Algorithms and Software at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory. This engineering directorate supports business across the laboratory’s wide spectrum of work in strategic, space, tactical, special operations, biomedical, and geospatial systems. Her expertise includes guidance, navigation and control, Global Positioning System anti-jam and ground control, autonomous vehicle (air, land, sea, space) avionics, and real-time embedded mission-critical software. She also has experience in developing signal processing systems, decision systems, and command, control, and communications systems. Previously, Ms. Perry served as director for Draper Independent Research and Development. She also served as the Mission Systems Division leader, Software Engineering Division leader, and principal member technical staff at Draper. She served as a member of the NRC Committee on the “1,000-ship Navy”—A Distributed Global and Maritime Network and is a member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board. J. Marshall Shepherd is an associate professor at the University of Georgia, Athens (UGA), where he conducts research, advising, and teaching in atmospheric sciences, climatology, water-cycle processes, and urban climate systems. He joined UGA’s Department of Geography’s Atmospheric Sciences Program in January 2006. Prior to joining the UGA faculty, Dr. Shepherd spent 12 years as a research meteorologist in the Earth-Sun Division at NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center. Dr. Shepherd also served as a member of the United Nations World Meterological Organization steering team on aerosols and precipitation, and was contributing author on the 2007 IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. In 2004
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National Security Implications of Climate Change for U.S. Naval Forces Dr. Shepherd received a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers at the White House. He was made a fellow of the American Meterological Society in 2009. Dr. Shepherd is currently a member of the NASA Precipitation Measurement Missions Science team and the NOAA Climate Working Group. He is editor of the Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology and the climatogy section of Geography Compass. Charles F. Wald retired from the U.S. Air Force as a four-star general with more than 35 years of service and more than 3,600 flying hours and 430 combat hours as a command pilot. General Wald is director and senior advisor to aerospace and defense industry for Deloitte Services, LLP. In this role, he is responsible for providing senior leadership in strategy and relationships with defense contractors and Department of Defense program executives. He is a subject matter specialist in weapons procurement and deployment, counterterrorism, national energy, and international security policy. General Wald has received major military awards and decorations, including the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, the Defense Superior Service Medal, and the Distinguished Flying Cross. A graduate of North Dakota State University, he received a master’s degree in international relations from Troy University. He also completed coursework at Harvard University and the National War College and has been awarded an Honorary Doctor of Law degree from North Dakota State University. General Wald served as a member of the military advisory board for the 2008 Center for Naval Analyses report entitled National Security and the Threat of Climate Change. Dr. David Whelan (NAE) is vice president, deputy general manager, Advanced Systems and chief scientist, Integrated Defense Systems, at the Boeing Company. His areas of expertise include defense research, development, and enabling technologies such as autonomous vehicles and space-based moving target indicator radar systems. Prior to joining Boeing, he served as director of the Tactical Technology Office at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. His high-technology development experience includes roles as a research physicist for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and as a lead engineer at Northrop Grumman. Dr. Whelan has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the Defense Science Board, the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, and the NRC Committee on Research, Development and Acquisition Options for U.S. Special Operations Command. Dr. Whelan is vice chair of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board. He also serves as a member of the NRC’s America’s Climate Choices: Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Dr. Carl Wunsch (NAS) is the Cecil and Ida Green Professor of Physical Oceanography at MIT. His research interests include ocean observing technologies and the general circulation of the world’s oceans and its implications for climate change. He has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees,
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National Security Implications of Climate Change for U.S. Naval Forces including the NRC’s Ocean Studies Board and the International Steering Group for the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. He is a foreign member of the Royal Society and a recipient of the American Geophysical Union’s Macelwane Award and Maurice Ewing Medal, and the American Meteorological Society’s Henry Stommel Medal. Staff Charles F. Draper is director of the National Research Council’s Naval Studies Board. Before joining the NRC in 1997, he was the lead mechanical engineer at S.T. Research Corporation, where he provided technical and program management support for satellite Earth station and small satellite design. He received his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Vanderbilt University in 1995; his doctoral research was conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), where he used an atomic-force microscope to measure the nanomechanical properties of thin-film materials. In parallel with his graduate student duties, Dr. Draper was a mechanical engineer with Geo-Centers, Inc., working on-site at NRL on the development of an underwater X-ray backscattering tomography system used for the nondestructive evaluation of U.S. Navy sonar domes on surface ships. Billy M. Williams is a senior program officer with the National Research Council’s Naval Studies Board. Prior to joining the NSB, he served in a similar capacity with the NRC’s Board on Army Science and Technology, where he led projects associated with the U.S. Army’s chemical demilitarization program. Mr. Williams retired as a global research and development director from the Dow Chemical Company in 2004 after 30 years of service. His career at Dow included directing analytical materials science and polymer fabrication laboratories in operations across the United States, Europe, and Asia. He also served as the company’s director of external science and technology programs, with responsibility for developing and securing strategic technical partnerships with leading research universities, national laboratories, and federal agencies. Mr. Williams earned an M.S. degree in organic chemistry and has completed executive education programs at Indiana University and Harvard University.