I
Results of Other Major Studies

Tables I.1 through I.8, which indicate the costs and fuel consumption benefits from other major studies, are included here to facilitate the comparison to other sources of technology cost and effectiveness. However, the reader is encouraged to look at the original source material to gain a better understanding of the different assumptions made in each study. For example, some sources consider incremental benefits, while others do not. Certain items, such as improved accessories, may include different technologies, which makes an apples-to-apples comparison difficult. Retail price equivalent factors also vary from source to source, reinforcing the need to review the original materials as well as the tables.

REFERENCES

DOT/NHTSA (U.S. Department of Transportation/National Highway Traffic Safety Administration). 2009. Average Fuel Economy Standards, Passenger Cars and Light Trucks, Model Year 2001: Final Rule. 49 CFR Parts 523, 531, 533, 534, 536, and 537, Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0062, RIN 2127-AK29, March 23. Washington D.C.

EEA (Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc.). 2007. Technologies to Improve Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy. Draft report to the National Research Council Committee on Fuel Economy of Light-Duty Vehicles. EEA, Arlington, Va. September.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. EPA Staff Technical Report: Cost and Effectiveness Estimates of Technologies Used to Reduce Light-Duty Vehicle Carbon Dioxide Emissions. EPA420R-08-008. EPA, Washington, D.C.

Martec Group, Inc. 2008. Variable Costs of Fuel Economy Technologies. Prepared for Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers. June 1; amended September 26 and December 10.

NESCCAF (Northeast States Center for a Clean Air Future). 2004. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Light-Duty Motor Vehicles. March.

NRC (National Research Council). 2002. Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

Ricardo, Inc. 2008. A Study of Potential Effectiveness of Carbon Dioxide Reducing Vehicle Technologies. Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA420-R-08-004, Contract No. EP-C-06-003, Work Assignment No. 1-14, Ricardo, Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich.

Sierra Research. 2008. Basic Analysis of the Cost and Long-Term Impact of the Energy Independence and Security Act Fuel Economy Standards. Sierra Research, Sacramento, Calif. April 24.



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I Results of Other Major Studies Tables I.1 through I.8, which indicate the costs and fuel EEA (Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc.). 2007. Technologies to Improve Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy. Draft report to the National consumption benefits from other major studies, are included Research Council Committee on Fuel Economy of Light-Duty Vehicles. here to facilitate the comparison to other sources of technolo- EEA, Arlington, Va. September. gy cost and effectiveness. However, the reader is encouraged EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. EPA Staff Techni- to look at the original source material to gain a better under- cal Report: Cost and Effectiveness Estimates of Technologies Used standing of the different assumptions made in each study. to Reduce Light-Duty Vehicle Carbon Dioxide Emissions. EPA420- R-08-008. EPA, Washington, D.C. For example, some sources consider incremental benefits, Martec Group, Inc. 2008. Variable Costs of Fuel Economy Technologies. while others do not. Certain items, such as improved acces- Prepared for Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers. June 1; amended sories, may include different technologies, which makes an September 26 and December 10. apples-to-apples comparison difficult. Retail price equivalent NESCCAF (Northeast States Center for a Clean Air Future). 2004. Reducing factors also vary from source to source, reinforcing the need Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Light-Duty Motor Vehicles. March. NRC (National Research Council). 2002. Effectiveness and Impact of Cor- to review the original materials as well as the tables. porate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Ricardo, Inc. 2008. A Study of Potential Effectiveness of Carbon Dioxide REFERENCES Reducing Vehicle Technologies. Prepared for the U.S. Environmental DOT/NHTSA (U.S. Department of Transportation/National Highway Traf - Protection Agency, EPA420-R-08-004, Contract No. EP-C-06-003, fic Safety Administration). 2009. Average Fuel Economy Standards, Work Assignment No. 1-14, Ricardo, Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich. Passenger Cars and Light Trucks, Model Year 2001: Final Rule. 49 CFR Sierra Research. 2008. Basic Analysis of the Cost and Long-Term Impact Parts 523, 531, 533, 534, 536, and 537, Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0062, of the Energy Independence and Security Act Fuel Economy Standards. RIN 2127-AK29, March 23. Washington D.C. Sierra Research, Sacramento, Calif. April 24. 189

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TABLE I.1 Technology Effectiveness, Incremental (Percent) Fuel Consumption Benefit from DOT/NHTSA (2009) 190 NHTSA - 2011 Rule Perf. SubcompactCar Perf. Compact Car Perf. Midsize Car Perf. Large Car I4 V6 V6 V8 Technologies Incremental Value Net Value Incremental Value Net Value Incremental Value Net Value Incremental Value Net Value Abbreviation Spark Ignition T echs Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High 0.5 - - 0.5 - - 0.5 - - 0.5 - - Low Friction Lubricants LUB 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - Engine Friction Reduction EFR 1.0 3.0 - - 1.0 3.0 - - 1.0 3.0 - - 1.0 3.0 - - VVT - Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), SOHC CCP 1.0 3.0 - - 1.0 3.0 - - 1.0 3.0 - - 1.0 3.0 - - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), SOHC DVVL - - - - 2.5 3.0 - - 2.5 3.0 - - 2.5 3.0 - - Cylinder Deactivation, SOHC DEAC 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - VVT - In take Cam Phasing (ICP) ICP 2.0 3.0 - - 2.0 3.0 - - 2.0 3.0 - - 2.0 3.0 - - VVT - Dual Cam Phasing (DCP) DCP 1.0 3.0 - - 1.0 3.0 - - 1.0 3.0 - - 1.0 3.0 - - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), DOHC DVVL 1.5 3.5 - - 1.5 3.5 - - 1.5 3.5 - - 1.5 3.5 - - Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) CVVL - - - - 3.9 5.5 - - 3.9 5.5 - - 3.9 5.5 - - Cylinder Deactivation, OHV DEAC 1.0 1.5 - - 1.0 1.5 - - 1.0 1.5 - - 1.0 1.5 - - VVT - Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), OHV CCP 0.5 2.6 - - 0.5 2.6 - - 0.5 2.6 - - 0.5 2.6 - - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), OHV DVVL 1.0 2.6 - - 1.0 2.6 - - 1.0 2.6 - - 1.0 2.6 - - Conversion to DOHC with DCP CDOHC 1.9 2.9 5.0 13.0 1.9 2.9 7.0 14.0 1.9 2.9 7.0 14.0 1.9 2.9 7.0 14.0 Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) SGDI Turbocharging and Downsizing TRBDS 4.5 5.2 11.0 17.0 2.1 2.2 11.0 17.0 2.1 2.2 11.0 17.0 2.1 2.2 11.0 17.0 Diesel Techs 15.0 15.3 21.2 25.9 12.3 13.1 21.2 25.9 11.1 12.0 20.2 24.9 11.1 12.0 20.2 24.9 Conversion to Diesel DSL 6.6 7.7 21.2 25.9 6.6 7.7 21.2 25.9 5.3 6.5 20.2 24.9 5.3 6.5 20.2 24.9 Conversion to Diesel following TRBDS DSL Conversion to Advanced Diesel ADSL - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Electrification/Accessory T echs Electric Power Steering (EPS) EPS 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - Improved Accessories IACC 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - 12V BAS Micro-Hybrid MHEV 1.0 2.9 - - 1.0 2.9 - - 3.4 4.0 - - 3.4 4.0 - - Higher Voltage/Improved Alternator HVIA 0.2 0.9 - - 0.2 0.9 - - 0.2 0.6 - - 0.2 0.6 - - Integrated Starter Generator ISG 1.8 2.6 - - 1.8 2.6 - - 1.8 1.9 - - 1.8 2.6 - - Transmission Techs 0.7 2.0 - - 0.7 2.0 - - 0.7 2.0 - - - - - - Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) CVT 1.4 3.4 - - 1.4 3.4 - - 1.4 3.4 - - 1.4 3.4 - - 6/7/8-Speed Auto. Trans. with Improved Internals NAUTO Dual Clutch T ransmission (DCT) DCT 2.7 4.1 5.5 9.7 2.7 4.1 5.5 9.7 2.7 4.1 5.5 9.7 2.7 4.1 5.5 9.7 Hybrid T echs Power Split Hybrid PSHEV 14.6 15.2 21.0 26.5 14.6 15.0 21.0 26.5 13.1 14.6 21.0 26.5 13.7 15.7 21.0 26.5 2-Mode Hybrid 2MHEV - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Plug-in hybrid PHEV 62.0 65.0 65.0 69.5 62.0 65.0 65.0 69.5 61.0 65.0 65.0 69.5 - - - - Vehicle T echs Mass Reduction - 1% MR1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 2% MR2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 5% MR5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 10% MR10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 20% MR20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Low Rolling Resistance Tires ROLL - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Low Drag Brakes LDB - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Secondary Axle Disconnect SAX 1.0 1.5 - - 1.0 1.5 - - 1.0 1.5 - - 1.0 1.5 - - Aero Drag Reduction 10% AERO 2.0 3.0 - - 2.0 3.0 - - 2.0 3.0 - - 2.0 3.0 - - ASSESSMENT OF FUEL ECONOMY TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGHT-DUTY VEHICLES continued

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TABLE I.1 Continued APPENDIX I NHTSA - 2011 Rule Subcompact Car Compact Car Midsize Car Large Car Technologies I4 I4 I4 V6 Incremental Value Net Value Incremental Value Net Value Incremental Value Net Value Incremental Value Net Value Spark Ignition Techs Abbreviation Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 Low Friction Lubricants LUB - - - - - - - - Engine Friction Reduction EFR 1.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 - - - - - - - - 1.0 3.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 3.0 VVT- Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), SOHC CCP - - - - - - - - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), SOHC DVVL 1.0 3.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 3.0 - - - - - - - - 2.5 3.0 Cylinder Deactivation, SOHC DEAC - - - - - - - - - - - - 1.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 VVT - In take Cam Phasing (ICP) ICP - - - - - - - - VVT - Dual Cam Phasing (DCP) DCP 2.0 3.0 2.0 3.0 2.0 3.0 2.0 3.0 - - - - - - - - 1.0 3.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 3.0 Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), DOHC DVVL - - - - - - - - Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) CVVL 1.5 3.5 1.5 3.5 1.5 3.5 1.5 3.5 - - - - - - - - 3.9 5.5 Cylinder Deactivation, OHV DEAC - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1.0 1.5 1.0 1.5 1.0 1.5 1.0 1.5 VVT - Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), OHV CCP - - - - - - - - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), OHV DVVL 0.5 2.6 0.5 2.6 0.5 2.6 0.5 2.6 - - - - - - - - 1.0 2.6 1.0 2.6 1.0 2.6 1.0 2.6 Conversion to DOHC with DCP CDOHC - - - - - - - - Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) SGDI 1.9 2.9 5.0 13.0 1.9 2.9 5.0 13.0 1.9 2.9 5.0 13.0 1.9 2.9 5.0 13.0 Turbocharging and Downsizing TRBDS 4.5 5.2 11.0 17.5 4.5 5.2 11.0 17.5 4.5 5.2 11.0 17.5 2.1 2.2 11.0 17.5 Diesel Techs 15.0 15.3 21.2 25.9 15.0 15.3 21.2 25.9 13.8 14.2 20.2 24.9 11.1 12.0 20.2 24.9 Conversion to Diesel DSL 6.6 7.7 21.2 25.9 6.6 7.7 21.2 25.9 5.3 6.5 20.2 24.9 5.3 6.5 20.2 24.9 Conversion to Diesel following TRBDS DSL Conversion to Advanced Diesel ADSL - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Electrification/Accessory Techs Electric Power Steering (EPS) EPS 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - Improved Accessories IACC 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - 12V BAS Micro-Hybrid MHEV 1.0 2.9 - - 1.0 2.9 - - 3.4 4.0 - - 3.4 4.0 - - Higher Voltage/Improved Alternator HVIA 0.2 0.9 0.2 0.9 0.2 0.6 0.2 0.6 - - - - - - - - Integrated Starter Generator ISG - - - - - - - - 5.7 6.5 5.7 6.5 5.7 6.5 5.7 6.5 Transmission Techs Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) CVT 0.7 2.0 0.7 2.0 0.7 2.0 0.7 2.0 - - - - - - - - 1.4 3.4 1.4 3.4 1.4 3.4 1.4 3.4 6/7/8-Speed Auto. Trans. with Improved Internals NAUTO - - - - - - - - Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) DCT 5.5 7.5 8.2 12.9 5.5 7.5 8.2 12.9 2.7 4.1 5.5 9.7 2.7 4.1 5.5 9.7 Hybrid Techs Power Split Hybrid PSHEV 13.5 13.9 23.0 28.5 13.5 13.9 23.0 28.5 1 1.8 12.8 23.0 28.5 11.8 12.8 23.0 28.5 2-Mode Hybrid 2MHEV - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Plug-in hybrid PHEV - - - - 61.0 63.0 65.0 69.5 61.0 63.0 65.0 69.5 60.0 63.0 65.0 69.5 Vehicle Techs Mass Reduction - 1% MR1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 2% MR2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 5% MR5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 10% MR10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 20% MR20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Low Rolling Resistance Tires ROLL 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - Low Drag Brakes LDB - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Secondary Axle Disconnect SAX - - - - - - - - 1.0 1.5 1.0 1.5 1.0 1.5 1.0 1.5 Aero Drag Reduction 10% AERO - - - - - - - - 2.0 3.0 2.0 3.0 2.0 3.0 2.0 3.0 191 continued

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TABLE I.1 Continued 192 NHTSA - 2011 Rule Minivan L T Small LT Midsize LT Large LT V6 I4 V6 V8 T echnologies Incremental Value Net Value Incremental Value Net Value Incremental Value Net Value Incremental Value Net Value Abbreviation Spark Ignition T echs Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High Low Friction Lubricants LUB 0.5 - - 0.5 - - 0.5 - - 0.5 - - Engine Friction Reduction EFR 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - VVT - Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), SOHC CCP 1.0 3.0 - - 1.0 3.0 - - 1.0 3.0 - - 1.0 3.0 - - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), SOHC DVVL 1.0 3.0 - - 1.0 3.0 - - 1.0 3.0 - - 1.0 3.0 - - 2.5 3.0 - - - - - - 2.5 3.0 - - 2.5 3.0 - - Cylinder Deactivation, SOHC DEAC 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - VVT - In take Cam Phasing (ICP) ICP 2.0 3.0 - - 2.0 3.0 - - 2.0 3.0 - - 2.0 3.0 - - VVT - Dual Cam Phasing (DCP) DCP 1.0 3.0 - - 1.0 3.0 - - 1.0 3.0 - - 1.0 3.0 - - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), DOHC DVVL 1.5 3.5 - - 1.5 3.5 - - 1.5 3.5 - - 1.5 3.5 - - Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) CVVL Cylinder Deactivation, OHV DEAC 3.9 5.5 - - - - - - 3.9 5.5 - - 3.9 5.5 - - VVT - Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), OHV CCP 1.0 1.5 - - 1.0 1.5 - - 1.0 1.5 - - 1.0 1.5 - - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), OHV DVVL 0.5 2.6 - - 0.5 2.6 - - 0.5 2.6 - - 0.5 2.6 - - Conversion to DOHC with DCP CDOHC 1.0 2.6 - - 1.0 2.6 - - 1.0 2.6 - - 1.0 2.6 - - 1.9 2.9 7.0 14.0 1.9 2.9 4.5 13.0 1.9 2.9 7.0 14.0 1.9 2.9 7.0 14.0 Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) SGDI T urbocharging and Downsizing TRBDS 2.1 2.2 11.0 17.5 4.5 5.2 11.0 17.5 2.1 2.2 11.0 17.5 2.1 2.2 11.0 17.5 Diesel Techs - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11.1 12.0 20.2 24.9 13.8 14.2 20.2 24.9 9.9 12.0 20.2 23.9 10.0 10.9 19.2 23.9 Conversion to Diesel DSL 5.3 6.5 20.2 24.9 5.3 6.5 20.2 24.9 4.0 6.5 20.2 23.9 4.0 5.3 19.2 23.9 Conversion to Diesel following TRBDS DSL Conversion to Advanced Diesel ADSL - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Electrification/Accessory T echs - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Electric Power Steering (EPS) EPS 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - - - - - Improved Accessories IACC 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - - - - - - - - - 12V BAS Micro-Hybrid MHEV 3.4 4.0 - - 1.0 2.9 - - 3.4 4.0 - - - - - - Higher Voltage/Improved Alternator HVIA 0.2 0.6 - - 0.2 0.9 - - 0.2 0.6 - - - - - - Integrated Starter Generator ISG 5.7 6.5 - - 5.7 6.5 - - 5.7 6.5 - - - - - - Transmission T echs - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0.7 2.0 - - 0.7 2.0 - - - - - - - - - - Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) CVT 1.4 3.4 - - 1.4 3.4 - - 1.4 3.4 - - 1.4 3.4 - - 6/7/8-Speed Auto. T rans. with Improved Internals NAUTO Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) DCT 2.7 4.1 5.5 9.7 2.7 4.1 5.5 9.7 2.7 4.1 5.5 9.7 2.7 4.1 5.5 9.7 Hybrid T echs - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Power Split Hybrid PSHEV 11.8 12.8 23.0 28.5 13.5 13.9 23.0 28.5 13.3 16.2 23.0 28.5 - - - - 2-Mode Hybrid 2MHEV - - - - 1.5 4.3 17.5 21.0 0.3 2.9 17.5 21.0 7.9 8.7 13.5 17.0 Plug-in hybrid PHEV - - - - 61.0 63.0 65.0 69.5 - - - - - - - - Vehicle Techs - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 1% MR1 - - - - - - - - 0.4 - - 0.4 - - Mass Reduction - 2% MR2 0.4 0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 5% MR5 1.0 1.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 10% MR10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 20% MR20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Low Rolling Resistance T ires ROLL 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - 1.0 2.0 - - - - - - Low Drag Brakes LDB - - - - - - - - 0.5 1.0 - - 0.5 1.0 - - Secondary Axle Disconnect SAX 1.0 1.5 - - 1.0 1.5 - - 1.0 1.5 - - 1.0 1.5 - - Aero Drag Reduction 10% AERO 2.0 3.0 - - 2.0 3.0 - - 2.0 3.0 - - 2.0 3.0 - - ASSESSMENT OF FUEL ECONOMY TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGHT-DUTY VEHICLES

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193 APPENDIX I TABLE I.2 Technology Effectiveness, Incremental (Percent) Fuel Consumption Benefit from NRC (2002) NRC - 2002 Technologies Spark Ignition Techs Low High AVG Abbreviation 1.0 1.0 Low Friction Lubricants LUB 3.0 1.0 5.0 Engine Friction Reduction EFR 1.5 VVT- Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), SOHC CCP 1.0 2.0 1.5 1.0 2.0 Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), SOHC DVVL - - - Cylinder Deactivation, SOHC DEAC 2.5 VVT - In take Cam Phasing (ICP) ICP 2.0 3.0 2.0 3.0 2.5 VVT - Dual Cam Phasing (DCP) DCP 1.5 1.0 2.0 Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), DOHC DVVL 1.5 Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) CVVL 1.0 2.0 3.0 6.0 4.5 Cylinder Deactivation, OHV DEAC 2.5 2.0 3.0 VVT - Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), OHV CCP 1.5 1.0 2.0 Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), OHV DVVL - - - Conversion to DOHC with DCP CDOHC - - - Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) SGDI Turbocharging and Downsizing TRBDS 6.0 5.0 7.0 Diesel Techs Non-incremental - - - Conversion to Diesel DSL - - - Conversion to Diesel following TRBDS DSL Conversion to Advanced Diesel ADSL - - - Electrification/Accessory Techs Non-incremental Electric Power Steering (EPS) EPS 2.0 1.5 2.5 1.5 Improved Accessories IACC 1.0 2.0 12V BAS Micro-Hybrid MHEV - - - Higher Voltage/Improved Alternator HVIA - - - Integrated Starter Generator ISG 5.5 4.0 7.0 Transmission Techs Non-incremental 6.0 Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) CVT 4.0 8.0 1.5 1.0 2.0 6/7/8-Speed Auto. Trans. with Improved Internals NAUTO Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) DCT 4.0 3.0 5.0 Hybrid Techs Non-incremental Power Split Hybrid PSHEV - - - 2-Mode Hybrid 2MHEV - - - Plug-in hybrid PHEV - - - Vehicle Techs Non-incremental Mass Reduction - 1% MR1 - - - Mass Reduction - 2% MR2 - - - Mass Reduction - 5% MR5 - - - Mass Reduction - 10% MR10 - - - Mass Reduction - 20% MR20 - - - Low Rolling Resistance Tires ROLL 1.0 1.5 1.3 Low Drag Brakes LDB - - - Secondary Axle Disconnect SAX - - - Aero Drag Reduction 10% AERO - - -

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194 ASSESSMENT OF FUEL ECONOMY TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGHT-DUTY VEHICLES TABLE I.3 Technology Effectiveness, Incremental (Percent) Fuel Consumption Benefit from EPA (2008) EPA 2008 Small Car Large Car Technologies I4 V6 Spark Ignition Techs AVG AVG Low High Low High Abbreviation 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 Low Friction Lubricants LUB 2.0 2.0 Engine Friction Reduction EFR 1.0 3 1.0 3 3.0 4.0 VVT- Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), SOHC CCP 3.0 - 4.0 - 4.0 3.0 4.0 - 3.0 - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), SOHC DVVL - 6.0 - - 6.0 - Cylinder Deactivation, SOHC DEAC 2.0 1.0 2.0 - 1.0 - VVT - In take Cam Phasing (ICP) ICP 3.0 4.0 3.0 - 4.0 - VVT - Dual Cam Phasing (DCP) DCP 4.0 3.0 Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), DOHC DVVL 4.0 - 3.0 - 5.0 6.0 Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) CVVL 5.0 - 6.0 - - 6.0 - - 6.0 - Cylinder Deactivation, OHV DEAC 3.0 4.0 3.0 - 4.0 - VVT - Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), OHV CCP 4.0 4.0 4.0 - 4.0 - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), OHV DVVL - - - - - - Conversion to DOHC with DCP CDOHC 1.5 1.5 1.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) SGDI Turbocharging and Downsizing TRBDS 6.0 6.0 5.0 7.0 5.0 7.0 1 Diesel T echs Non-incremental - - - - 30.0 35.0 25.0 35.0 30.0 40.0 Conversion to Diesel DSL - - - - - - Conversion to Diesel following TRBDS DSL Conversion to Advanced Diesel ADSL - - - - - - Electrification/Accessory Techs Non-incremental - - - - 1.5 1.8 Electric Power Steering (EPS) EPS 1.5 - 1.5 2.0 1.5 1.5 Improved Accessories2 IACC 1.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 - - 12V BAS Micro-Hybrid MHEV - - - - - - Higher Voltage/Improved Alternator HVIA - - - - Integrated Starter Generator ISG 30.0 25.0 30.0 - 25.0 - Transmission Techs Non-incremental - - - - 3 6.0 6.0 6.0 - 6.0 - Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) CVT 3 5.3 5.3 6/7/8-Speed Auto. Trans. with Improved Internals NAUTO 4.5 6.0 4.5 6.0 3 Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) DCT 12.0 12.0 9.5 14.5 9.5 14.5 Hybrid Techs Non-incremental - - - - 35.0 35.0 Power Split Hybrid PSHEV 35.0 - 35.0 - - 40.0 2-Mode Hybrid 2MHEV - - 40.0 - Plug-in hybrid PHEV 58.0 58.0 58.0 - 58.0 - Vehicle T echs Non-incremental - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 1% MR1 - - - - Mass Reduction - 2% MR2 - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 5% MR5 - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 10% MR10 - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 20% MR20 - - - - - - Low Rolling Resistance Tires ROLL 1.5 1.5 1.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 Low Drag Brakes LDB - - - - - - 1.0 1.0 Secondary Axle Disconnect SAX 1.0 - 1.0 - Aero Drag Reduction 10% AERO - - - - - -

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TABLE I.4 Technology Effectiveness, Incremental (percent) Fuel Consumption Benefit from Ricardo, Inc. (2008), NESCCAF (2004), Sierra Research (2008), and EEA (2007) APPENDIX I Ricardo, Inc. Standard Car Full Size Car Small MPV Large MPV Truck I4, 2.4L-4V, DCP, 5spd AT, 3.39 FDR V6, 3.5L-4V, 5spd AT, 2.87 FDR I4, 2.4L-4V, DCP, 4spd AT, 3.91 FDR V6, 3.8L-2V, OHV, 4spd AT, 3.43 FDR V8, 5.4L-3V, CCP, 4spd AT, 3.73 FDR Technologies Spark Ignition Techs Abbreviation from EPA report from report for NAS Low from EPA report from report for NAS from EPA report from report for NAS (pack 5) (pack 15) from EPA report from report for NAS from EPA report from report for NAS Low Friction Lubricants LUB - - - - - - - 2.0 2.0 - 2.0 2.0 - - - - - - - Engine Friction Reduction EFR - - - - - - - - - - - - VVT- Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), SOHC CCP Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), SOHC DVVL - - - - - - - - - - - - Cylinder Deactivation, SOHC DEAC - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - VVT - In take Cam Phasing (ICP) ICP - - - 5.0 - - - - 5.0 - - - VVT - Dual Cam Phasing (DCP) DCP 2.0 1.5 - - - - - - - - - - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), DOHC DVVL Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) CVVL - - - 3.0 - - - - - - - - Cylinder Deactivation, OHV DEAC - - - - - - - - - 4.0 - - - - - - - - - - - 2.5 - - VVT - Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), OHV CCP - - - - - - - - - - - - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), OHV DVVL - - - - - - - - - - - - Conversion to DOHC with DCP CDOHC Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) SGDI - - - 2.0 - 2.0 - - 3.0 2.8 - - Turbocharging and Downsizing TRBDS - - - - - - - 4.4 3.0 - - - Diesel Techs - - - - - - 12.8 - - - 16.0 11.4 Conversion to Diesel DSL - - - - - - - - - - - - Conversion to Diesel following TRBDS DSL Conversion to Advanced Diesel ADSL - - - - - - - - - - - - Electrification/Accessory Techs Electric Power Steering (EPS) EPS - - - - - - - - - - - - Improved Accessories IACC - - - - - - 1.7 1.4 - - - - 12V BAS Micro-Hybrid MHEV 3.0 3.0 - - - 3.0 - - - 2.0 - - Higher Voltage/Improved Alternator HVIA - - - - - - - - - - - - Integrated Starter Generator ISG - - - - - - - - - - - - Transmission Techs - - - - - - - - - - - - Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) CVT - - - - - - - - 2.0 2.4 - - 6/7/8-Speed Auto. Trans. with Improved Internals NAUTO Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) DCT 8.0 6.7 - 7.0 - - 6.8 6.4 - - 9.0 9.3 Hybrid Techs Power Split Hybrid PSHEV - - - - - - - - - - - - 2-Mode Hybrid 2MHEV - - - - - - - - - - - - Plug-in hybrid PHEV - - - - - - - - - - - - Vehicle Techs Mass Reduction - 1% MR1 - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 2% MR2 - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 5% MR5 - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 10% MR10 - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 20% MR20 - - - - - - - - - - - - Low Rolling R esistance Tires ROLL - 1.3 - - 1.3 - 1.6 1.9 - 1.4 - - Low Drag Brakes LDB - - - - - - - - - - - - Secondary Axle Disconnect SAX - - - - - - - - - - - - Aero Drag Reduction 10% AERO - - - - - - - - - - 2.0 1.4 195 continued

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TABLE I.4 Continued 196 NESCCAF Small ar C Large ar C Mini an V Small ruck/SUV T Large Truck/SUV Technologies I4 V6 V6 V6 V8 Abbreviation Spark Ignition Techs Low Friction Lubricants LUB 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 Engine Friction Reduction EFR VVT- Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), SOHC CCP 3.0 4.0 2.0 2.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), SOHC DVVL Cylinder Deactivation, SOHC DEAC - 6.0 5.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 VVT - In take Cam Phasing (ICP) ICP VVT - Dual Cam Phasing (DCP) DCP 3.0 4.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), DOHC DVVL 5.0 6.0 4.0 5.0 5.0 Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) CVVL - 6.0 5.0 6.0 4.0 Cylinder Deactivation, OHV DEAC - - - - - VVT - Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), OHV CCP Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), OHV DVVL 4.0 4.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 - - - - - Conversion to DOHC with DCP CDOHC Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) SGDI 0.0 1.0 -1.0 -1.0 0.0 Turbocharging and Downsizing TRBDS 6.0 8.0 6.0 6.0 - Diesel Techs - - - - - - - - - - Conversion to Diesel DSL - - - - - Conversion to Diesel following TRBDS DSL Conversion to Advanced Diesel ADSL 13.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 17.0 Electrification/Accessory Techs - - - - - Electric Power Steering (EPS) EPS 1.0 - - - 1.0 Improved Accessories IACC 3.0 - - - 2.0 12V BAS Micro-Hybrid MHEV - - - - - Higher Voltage/Improved Alternator HVIA 1.0 - - - 0.0 Integrated Starter Generator ISG - - - - - Transmission Techs - - - - - 4.0 3.0 4.0 - - Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) CVT 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 6/7/8-Speed Auto. Trans. with Improved Internals NAUTO Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) DCT 8.0 7.0 8.0 8.0 5.0 Hybrid Techs - - - - - Power Split Hybrid PSHEV 53.0 53.0 53.0 53.0 53.0 2-Mode Hybrid 2MHEV - - - - - Plug-in hybrid PHEV - - - - - Vehicle Techs - - - - - Mass Reduction - 1% MR1 0.5 - - - 0.6 Mass Reduction - 2% MR2 1.0 - - - 1.1 Mass Reduction - 5% MR5 2.6 - - - 2.9 Mass Reduction - 10% MR10 5.3 - - - 5.7 Mass Reduction - 20% MR20 - - - - - Low Rolling Resistance Tires ROLL 1.8 - - - 2.0 Low Drag Brakes LDB - - - - - Secondary Axle Disconnect SAX - - - - - Aero Drag Reduction 10% AERO 1.7 - - - 1.9 ASSESSMENT OF FUEL ECONOMY TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGHT-DUTY VEHICLES continued

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197 APPENDIX I TABLE I.4 Continued Sierra Research Midsize Truck Technologies - assume engine size adj. constant acceleration for Spark Ignition Techs Abbreviation 0.5 0.5 Low Friction Lubricants LUB - - Engine Friction Reduction EFR VVT- Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), SOHC CCP - - - - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), SOHC DVVL 7.5 8.8 Cylinder Deactivation, SOHC DEAC VVT - In take Cam Phasing (ICP) ICP - - - - VVT - Dual Cam Phasing (DCP) DCP 6.3 6.8 Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), DOHC DVVL Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) CVVL 11.4 12.4 7.5 8.8 Cylinder Deactivation, OHV DEAC - - VVT - Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), OHV CCP - - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), OHV DVVL - - Conversion to DOHC with DCP CDOHC 5.9 6.2 Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) SGDI Turbocharging and Downsizing TRBDS -0.3 0.3 Diesel Techs - - Conversion to Diesel DSL 21.3 18.6 Conversion to Diesel following TRBDS DSL Conversion to Advanced Diesel ADSL - - Electrification/Accessory Techs Electric Power Steering (EPS) EPS 1.8 1.1 Improved Accessories IACC - - 12V BAS Micro-Hybrid MHEV - - Higher Voltage/Improved Alternator HVIA 0.9 0.6 Integrated Starter Generator ISG - - Transmission Techs Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) CVT - - - - 6/7/8-Speed Auto. Trans. with Improved Internals NAUTO Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) DCT 4.0 4.4 Hybrid Techs Power Split Hybrid PSHEV 28.7 22.1 2-Mode Hybrid 2MHEV - - Plug-in hybrid PHEV - - Vehicle Techs Mass Reduction - 1% MR1 - - Mass Reduction - 2% MR2 - - Mass Reduction - 5% MR5 - - Mass Reduction - 10% MR10 - - Mass Reduction - 20% MR20 - - Low Rolling Resistance Tires ROLL - - Low Drag Brakes LDB - - Secondary Axle Disconnect SAX - - Aero Drag Reduction 10% AERO - - continued

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198 ASSESSMENT OF FUEL ECONOMY TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGHT-DUTY VEHICLES TABLE I.4 Continued EEA -constant engine size percent relative to PFI, T echnologies fixed valve timing Values were converted to FC% Spark Ignition Techs AVG Low High Abbreviation 1.0 0.9 1.1 Low Friction Lubricants LUB 3.9 1.8 6.0 Engine Friction Reduction EFR 1.6 1.3 1.9 VVT - Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), SOHC CCP n/a Discrete V ariable Valve Lift (DVVL), SOHC DVVL n/a n/a 6.2 Cylinder Deactivation, SOHC DEAC 5.3 7.1 1.4 1.1 1.8 VVT - In take Cam Phasing (ICP) ICP 2.2 1.8 2.5 VVT - Dual Cam Phasing (DCP) DCP 3.4 2.9 3.8 Discrete V ariable Valve Lift (DVVL), DOHC DVVL 7.4 Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) CVVL 6.5 8.3 6.2 Cylinder Deactivation, OHV DEAC 5.3 7.1 1.6 1.3 1.9 VVT - Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), OHV CCP n/a n/a n/a Discrete V ariable Valve Lift (DVVL), OHV DVVL n/a n/a n/a Conversion to DOHC with DCP CDOHC 3.4 Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) SGDI 2.9 3.8 Turbocharging and Downsizing TRBDS n/a n/a n/a Diesel Techs n/a 24.8 30.1 Conversion to Diesel DSL n/a n/a n/a Conversion to Diesel following TRBDS DSL Conversion to Advanced Diesel ADSL n/a n/a n/a Electrification/Accessory Techs 2.0 Electric Power Steering (EPS) EPS 1.8 2.2 n/a Improved Accessories IACC n/a n/a 4.3 12V BAS Micro-Hybrid MHEV 4.0 4.6 0.5 Higher Voltage/Improved Alternator HVIA 0.3 0.7 Integrated Starter Generator ISG 7.2 2.9 11.5 Transmission Techs 6.3 4.8 7.8 Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) CVT 4.8 6/7/8-Speed Auto. Trans. with Improved Internals NAUTO 4.0 5.5 Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) DCT 6.5 6.1 7.0 Hybrid Techs - Power Split Hybrid PSHEV - - - 2-Mode Hybrid 2MHEV - - Plug-in hybrid PHEV - - - Vehicle T echs n/a Mass Reduction - 1% MR1 n/a n/a n/a Mass Reduction - 2% MR2 n/a n/a 3.1 Mass Reduction - 5% MR5 3.0 3.2 6.0 Mass Reduction - 10% MR10 5.8 6.2 - Mass Reduction - 20% MR20 1.3 1.5 Low Rolling Resistance Tires ROLL n/a n/a n/a n/a Low Drag Brakes LDB n/a n/a n/a Secondary Axle Disconnect SAX 1.8 2.2 Aero Drag Reduction 10% AERO 3.8 3.5 4.2

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TABLE I.5 Incremental Costs ($) from DOT/NHTSA (2009) APPENDIX I NHTSA 2011 Subcompact Car Compact Car Midsize Car Large Car Technologies I4 I4 I4 V6 Abbreviation Spark Ignition T echs Low High Low High Low High Low High AVG Net AVG Net AVG Net AVG Net Low Friction Lubricants LUB 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 - 5.0 - 5.0 - 5.0 - Engine Friction Reduction EFR 52.0 196.0 52.0 196.0 52.0 196.0 78.0 294.0 124.0 - 124.0 - 124.0 - 186.0 - VVT- Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), SOHC CCP 61.0 - 61.0 - 61.0 - 122.0 - 61.0 - 61.0 - 61.0 - 122.0 - 201.0 - 201.0 - 201.0 - 306.0 - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), SOHC DVVL 201.0 - 201.0 - 201.0 - 306.0 - - - - - - - 75.0 - Cylinder Deactivation, SOHC DEAC - - - - - - 75.0 - 61.0 - 61.0 - 61.0 - 122.0 - VVT - In take Cam Phasing (ICP) ICP 61.0 - 61.0 - 61.0 - 122.0 - 61.0 - 61.0 - 61.0 - 122.0 - VVT - Dual Cam Phasing (DCP) DCP 61.0 - 61.0 - 61.0 - 122.0 - 201.0 - 201.0 - 201.0 - 306.0 - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), DOHC DVVL 201.0 - 201.0 - 201.0 - 306.0 - 306.0 - 306.0 - 306.0 - 432.0 - Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) CVVL 306.0 - 306.0 - 306.0 - 432.0 - Cylinder Deactivation, OHV DEAC - - - - - - 306.0 - - - - - - - 306.0 - VVT - Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), OHV CCP 61.0 - 61.0 - 61.0 - 122.0 - 61.0 - 61.0 - 61.0 - 122.0 - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), OHV DVVL 201.0 - 201.0 - 201.0 - 76.0 - 201.0 - 201.0 - 201.0 - 76.0 - 373.0 - 373.0 - 373.0 - 590.0 - Conversion to DOHC with DCP CDOHC 373.0 - 373.0 - 373.0 - 590.0 - 293.0 440.0 293.0 440.0 293.0 440.0 384.0 558.0 Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) SGDI 366.5 - 366.5 - 366.5 - 471.0 - Turbocharging and Downsizing TRBDS 1223.0 - 1223.0 - 1223.0 - 822.0 - 1223.0 - 1223.0 - 1223.0 - 822.0 - Diesel T echs 2963.0 3254.0 2963.0 3254.0 2963.0 3254.0 4105.0 4490.0 3108.5 4000.0 3108.5 4000.0 3108.5 4000.0 4297.5 5600.0 Conversion to Diesel DSL 1567.0 1858.0 1567.0 1858.0 1567.0 1858.0 3110.0 3495.0 1712.5 4000.0 1712.5 4000.0 1712.5 4000.0 3302.5 5600.0 Conversion to Diesel following TRBDS DSL Conversion to Advanced Diesel ADSL - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Electrification/Accessory Techs - Electric Power Steering (EPS) EPS 105.0 120.0 105.0 120.0 105.0 120.0 105.0 120.0 112.5 - 112.5 - 112.5 - 112.5 - Improved Accessories IACC 173.0 211.0 173.0 211.0 173.0 211.0 173.0 211.0 192.0 - 192.0 - 192.0 - 192.0 - 12V BAS Micro-Hybrid MHEV 372.0 - 408.0 - 453.0 - 490.0 - 372.0 - 408.0 - 453.0 - 490.0 - Higher Voltage/Improved Alternator HVIA 84.0 - 84.0 - 84.0 - 84.0 - 84.0 - 84.0 - 84.0 - 84.0 - Integrated Starter Generator ISG 1713.0 - 2019.0 - 2190.0 - 2386.0 - 1713.0 - 2019.0 - 2190.0 - 2386.0 - Transmission T echs 300.0 - 300.0 - 300.0 - 300.0 - Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) CVT 300.0 - 300.0 - 300.0 - 300.0 - 323.0 - 323.0 - 323.0 - 323.0 - 6/7/8-Speed Auto. Trans. with Improved Internals NAUTO 323.0 - 323.0 - 323.0 - 323.0 - Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) DCT 68.0 - 68.0 - 218.0 - 218.0 - 68.0 500.0 68.0 500.0 218.0 600.0 218.0 600.0 Hybrid Techs Power Split Hybrid PSHEV 1409.0 1462.0 1742.0 1795.0 2175.0 2228.0 2534.0 2587.0 1435.5 4300.0 1768.5 4900.0 2201.5 5600.0 2560.5 6200.0 2-Mode Hybrid 2MHEV - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Plug-in hybrid PHEV 19648.0 19701.0 23670.0 23723.0 26702.0 26755.0 - - 19674.5 22500.0 23696.5 26700.0 26728.5 30000.0 - - Vehicle Techs Mass Reduction - 1% MR1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 2% MR2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 5% MR5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 10% MR10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 20% MR20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Low Rolling Resistance Tires ROLL 6.0 9.0 6.0 9.0 6.0 9.0 6.0 9.0 7.5 - 7.5 - 7.5 - 7.5 - Low Drag Brakes LDB - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Secondary Axle Disconnect SAX 117.0 - 117.0 - 117.0 - 117.0 - 117.0 - 117.0 - 117.0 - 117.0 - Aero Drag Reduction 10% AERO 60.0 116.0 60.0 116.0 60.0 116.0 60.0 116.0 88.0 - 88.0 - 88.0 - 88.0 - 199 continued

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TABLE I.5 Continued 200 NHTSA 2011 Performance Subcompact Car Performance Compact Car Performance Midsize Car Performance Large Car T echnologies I4 V6 V6 V8 Abbreviation Spark Ignition Techs Low High Low High Low High Low High AVG Net AVG Net AVG Net AVG Net Low Friction Lubricants LUB 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 - 5.0 - 5.0 - 5.0 - 52.0 196.0 78.0 294.0 78.0 294.0 104.0 392.0 Engine Friction Reduction EFR 124.0 - 186.0 - 186.0 - 248.0 - 61.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - VVT- Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), SOHC CCP 61.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), SOHC DVVL 201.0 - 306.0 - 306.0 - 396.0 - 201.0 - 306.0 - 306.0 - 396.0 - - - 75.0 - 75.0 - 75.0 - Cylinder Deactivation, SOHC DEAC - - 75.0 - 75.0 - 75.0 - VVT - In take Cam Phasing (ICP) ICP 61.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - 61.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - 61.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - VVT - Dual Cam Phasing (DCP) DCP 61.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - 201.0 - 306.0 - 306.0 - 396.0 - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), DOHC DVVL 201.0 - 306.0 - 306.0 - 396.0 - Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) CVVL 306.0 - 432.0 - 432.0 - 582.0 - 306.0 - 432.0 - 432.0 - 582.0 - - - 306.0 - 306.0 - 400.0 - Cylinder Deactivation, OHV DEAC - - 306.0 - 306.0 - 400.0 - VVT - Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), OHV CCP 61.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - 61.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - 201.0 - 76.0 - 76.0 - 76.0 - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), OHV DVVL 201.0 - 76.0 - 76.0 - 76.0 - 373.0 - 590.0 - 590.0 - 746.0 - Conversion to DOHC with DCP CDOHC 373.0 - 590.0 - 590.0 - 746.0 - Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) SGDI 293.0 440.0 384.0 558.0 384.0 558.0 512.0 744.0 366.5 - 471.0 - 471.0 - 628.0 - T urbocharging and Downsizing TRBDS 1223.0 - 822.0 - 822.0 - 1229.0 - 1223.0 - 822.0 - 822.0 - 1229.0 - Diesel Techs 2963.0 3254.0 4105.0 4490.0 4105.0 4490.0 5125.0 5617.0 3108.5 4000.0 4297.5 5600.0 4297.5 5600.0 5371.0 7000.0 Conversion to Diesel DSL 1567.0 1858.0 3110.0 3495.0 3110.0 3495.0 3723.0 4215.0 1712.5 4000.0 3302.5 5600.0 3302.5 5600.0 3969.0 7000.0 Conversion to Diesel following TRBDS DSL Conversion to Advanced Diesel ADSL - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Electrification/Accessory T echs - Electric Power Steering (EPS) EPS 105.0 120.0 105.0 120.0 105.0 120.0 105.0 120.0 112.5 - 112.5 - 112.5 - 112.5 - Improved Accessories IACC 173.0 211.0 173.0 211.0 173.0 211.0 173.0 211.0 192.0 - 192.0 - 192.0 - 192.0 - 12V BAS Micro-Hybrid MHEV 406.0 - 443.0 - 494.0 - 549.0 - 406.0 - 443.0 - 494.0 - 549.0 - Higher Voltage/Improved Alternator HVIA 84.0 - 84.0 - 84.0 - 84.0 - 84.0 - 84.0 - 84.0 - 84.0 - Integrated Starter Generator ISG 1789.0 1864.0 2054.0 - 2183.0 - 2351.0 - 1826.5 - 2054.0 - 2183.0 - 2351.0 - Transmission Techs Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) CVT 300.0 - 300.0 - 300.0 - - - 300.0 - 300.0 - 300.0 - - - 323.0 638.0 323.0 638.0 323.0 638.0 323.0 638.0 6/7/8-Speed Auto. T rans. with Improved Internals NAUTO 480.5 - 480.5 - 480.5 - 480.5 - Dual Clutch T ransmission (DCT) DCT 97.0 218.0 97.0 218.0 97.0 218.0 97.0 218.0 157.5 600.0 157.5 600.0 157.5 600.0 157.5 600.0 Hybrid T echs Power Split Hybrid PSHEV 2838.0 2966.0 3144.0 3197.0 4093.0 4146.0 5467.0 5520.0 2902.0 5900.0 3170.5 6400.0 4119.5 7500.0 5493.5 8800.0 2-Mode Hybrid 2MHEV - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Plug-in hybrid PHEV 23736.0 23864.0 26790.0 26843.0 30110.0 30163.0 - - 23800.0 26800.0 26816.5 30100.0 30136.5 33600.0 - - Vehicle Techs Mass Reduction - 1% MR1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 2% MR2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 5% MR5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 10% MR10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 20% MR20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Low Rolling Resistance T ires ROLL - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Low Drag Brakes LDB - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Secondary Axle Disconnect SAX 117.0 - 117.0 - 117.0 - 117.0 - 117.0 - 117.0 - 117.0 - 117.0 - Aero Drag Reduction 10% AERO 60.0 116.0 60.0 116.0 60.0 116.0 60.0 116.0 88.0 - 88.0 - 88.0 - 88.0 - ASSESSMENT OF FUEL ECONOMY TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGHT-DUTY VEHICLES continued

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TABLE I.5 Continued APPENDIX I NHTSA 2011 Minivan LT Small LT Midsize LT Large LT Technologies V6 I4 V6 V8 Abbreviation Spark Ignition T echs Low High Low High Low High Low High AVG Net AVG Net AVG Net AVG Net 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 Low Friction Lubricants LUB 5.0 - 5.0 - 5.0 - 5.0 - Engine Friction Reduction EFR 78.0 294.0 52.0 196.0 78.0 294.0 104.0 392.0 186.0 - 124.0 - 186.0 - 248.0 - VVT- Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), SOHC CCP 122.0 - 61.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - 61.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), SOHC DVVL 306.0 - 201.0 - 306.0 - 396.0 - 306.0 - 201.0 - 306.0 - 396.0 - Cylinder Deactivation, SOHC DEAC 75.0 - - - 75.0 - 75.0 - 75.0 - - - 75.0 - 75.0 - 122.0 - 61.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - VVT - In take Cam Phasing (ICP) ICP 122.0 - 61.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - 61.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - VVT - Dual Cam Phasing (DCP) DCP 122.0 - 61.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - 306.0 - 201.0 - 306.0 - 396.0 - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), DOHC DVVL 306.0 - 201.0 - 306.0 - 396.0 - 432.0 - 306.0 - 432.0 - 582.0 - Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) CVVL 432.0 - 306.0 - 432.0 - 582.0 - 306.0 - - - 306.0 - 400.0 - Cylinder Deactivation, OHV DEAC 306.0 - - - 306.0 - 400.0 - 122.0 - 61.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - VVT - Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), OHV CCP 122.0 - 61.0 - 122.0 - 122.0 - 76.0 - 201.0 - 76.0 - 76.0 - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), OHV DVVL 76.0 - 201.0 - 76.0 - 76.0 - Conversion to DOHC with DCP CDOHC 590.0 - 373.0 - 590.0 - 746.0 - 590.0 - 373.0 - 590.0 - 746.0 - Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) SGDI 384.0 558.0 293.0 440.0 384.0 558.0 512.0 744.0 471.0 - 366.5 - 471.0 - 628.0 - Turbocharging and Downsizing TRBDS 822.0 - 1223.0 - 822.0 - 1229.0 - 822.0 - 1223.0 - 822.0 - 1229.0 - Diesel T echs 4105.0 4490.0 2963.0 3254.0 4105.0 4490.0 5125.0 5617.0 4297.5 5600.0 3108.5 4000.0 4297.5 5600.0 5371.0 7000.0 Conversion to Diesel DSL 3110.0 3495.0 1567.0 1858.0 3110.0 3495.0 3723.0 4215.0 3302.5 5600.0 1712.5 4000.0 3302.5 5600.0 3969.0 7000.0 Conversion to Diesel following TRBDS DSL Conversion to Advanced Diesel ADSL - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Electrification/Accessory Techs Electric Power Steering (EPS) EPS 105.0 120.0 105.0 120.0 105.0 120.0 - - 112.5 - 112.5 - 112.5 - - - Improved Accessories IACC 173.0 211.0 173.0 211.0 - - - - 192.0 - 192.0 - - - - - 12V BAS Micro-Hybrid MHEV 490.0 - 427.0 - 502.0 - - - 490.0 - 427.0 - 502.0 - - - Higher Voltage/Improved Alternator HVIA 84.0 - 84.0 - 84.0 - - - 84.0 - 84.0 - 84.0 - - - Integrated Starter Generator ISG 2386.0 - 2029.0 - 2457.0 - - - 2386.0 - 2029.0 - 2457.0 - - - Transmission T echs Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) CVT 300.0 - 300.0 - - - - - 300.0 - 300.0 - - - - - 6/7/8-Speed Auto. Trans. with Improved Internals NAUTO 323.0 - 323.0 638.0 323.0 638.0 323.0 638.0 323.0 - 480.5 - 480.5 - 480.5 - Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) DCT 218.0 - 97.0 218.0 97.0 218.0 97.0 218.0 218.0 600.0 157.5 600.0 157.5 600.0 157.5 600.0 Hybrid T echs Power Split Hybrid PSHEV 2534.0 2587.0 1932.0 1985.0 3173.0 3188.0 - - 2560.5 6200.0 1958.5 5200.0 3180.5 6400.0 - - 2-Mode Hybrid 2MHEV - - 6376.0 6429.0 8313.0 8328.0 14106.0 15171.0 - - 6402.5 9800.0 8320.5 12100.0 14638.5 15300.0 Plug-in hybrid PHEV - - 24376.0 24329.0 - - - - - - 24352.5 27500.0 - - - - Vehicle Techs Mass Reduction - 1% MR1 - - - - 1.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 - - - - 1.5 - 1.5 - Mass Reduction - 2% MR2 - - - - 1.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 - - - - 1.5 - 1.5 - Mass Reduction - 5% MR5 - - - - 2.0 4.0 2.0 4 - - - - 3.0 - 3.0 - Mass Reduction - 10% MR10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 20% MR20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Low Rolling Resistance Tires ROLL 6.0 9.0 6.0 9.0 6.0 9.0 - - 7.5 - 7.5 - 7.5 - - - Low Drag Brakes LDB - - - - 89.0 - 89.0 - - - - - 89.0 - 89.0 - Secondary Axle Disconnect SAX 117.0 - 117.0 - 117.0 - 117.0 - 117.0 - 117.0 - 117.0 - 117.0 - Aero Drag Reduction 10% AERO 60.0 116.0 60.0 116.0 60.0 116.0 60.0 116.0 88.0 - 88.0 - 88.0 - 88.0 - 201

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202 ASSESSMENT OF FUEL ECONOMY TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGHT-DUTY VEHICLES TABLE I.6 Incremental Costs ($) from NRC (2002) NRC 2002 Technologies Spark Ignition Techs Low High AVG Abbreviation - Low Friction Lubricants LUB - 87.5 35.0 140.0 Engine Friction Reduction EFR 87.5 35.0 140.0 VVT- Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), SOHC CCP 95.0 70.0 120.0 Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), SOHC DVVL 112.0 252.0 182.0 Cylinder Deactivation, SOHC DEAC 87.5 VVT - In take Cam Phasing (ICP) ICP 35.0 140.0 87.5 35.0 140.0 VVT - Dual Cam Phasing (DCP) DCP 95.0 70.0 120.0 Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), DOHC DVVL - - - Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) CVVL 112.0 252.0 182.0 Cylinder Deactivation, OHV DEAC 87.5 VVT - Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), OHV CCP 35.0 140.0 95.0 70.0 120.0 Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), OHV DVVL - - - Conversion to DOHC with DCP CDOHC - - - Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) SGDI Turbocharging and Downsizing TRBDS 455.0 350.0 560.0 Diesel Techs - - - Conversion to Diesel DSL - - - Conversion to Diesel following TRBDS DSL Conversion to Advanced Diesel ADSL - - - Electrification/Accessory Techs Electric Power Steering (EPS) EPS 105.0 150.0 127.5 Improved Accessories IACC 84.0 112.0 98.0 12V BAS Micro-Hybrid MHEV - - - - Higher Voltage/Improved Alternator HVIA - - Integrated Starter Generator ISG 280.0 210.0 350.0 Transmission Techs 140.0 350.0 245.0 Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) CVT 210.0 6/7/8-Speed Auto. Trans. with Improved Internals NAUTO 140.0 280.0 Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) DCT 175.0 70.0 280.0 Hybrid Techs Power Split Hybrid PSHEV - - - 2-Mode Hybrid 2MHEV - - - Plug-in hybrid PHEV - - - Vehicle Techs Mass Reduction - 1% MR1 - - - Mass Reduction - 2% MR2 - - - Mass Reduction - 5% MR5 280.0 210.0 350.0 Mass Reduction - 10% MR10 - - - Mass Reduction - 20% MR20 - - - Low Rolling Resistance Tires ROLL 35.0 14.0 56.0 Low Drag Brakes LDB - - - Secondary Axle Disconnect SAX - - - Aero Drag Reduction 10% AERO 0.0 140.0 70.0

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TABLE I.7 Incremental Costs ($) from EPA (2008) APPENDIX I EPA Small Car Large Car Minivan Small Truck Large Truck T echnologies I4 V6 V6 V6 V8 Abbreviation Spark Ignition T echs Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High A VG A VG A VG AVG AVG Low Friction Lubricants LUB 3 - 3 - 3 - 3 - 3 - 3 3 3 3 3 Engine Friction Reduction EFR 0 84 0 126 0 126 0 126 0 168 42 63 63 63 84 VVT - Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), SOHC CCP 59 - 119 - 119 - 119 - 119 - 59 119 119 119 119 Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), SOHC DVVL 169 - 246 - 246 - 246 - 322 - 169 246 246 246 322 Cylinder Deactivation, SOHC DEAC - - 203 - 203 - 203 - 229 - - 203 203 203 229 VVT - In take Cam Phasing (ICP) ICP 59 - 119 - 119 - 119 - 119 - 59 119 119 119 119 VVT - Dual Cam Phasing (DCP) DCP 89 - 209 - 209 - 209 - 209 - 89 209 209 209 209 Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), DOHC DVVL 169 - 246 - 246 - 246 - 322 - 169 246 246 246 322 Continuously V ariable Valve Lift (CVVL) CVVL 254 - 466 - 466 - 466 - 508 - 254 466 466 466 508 Cylinder Deactivation, OHV DEAC - - 203 - 203 - 203 - 229 - - 203 203 203 229 VVT - Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), OHV CCP 59 - 59 - 59 - 59 - 59 - 59 59 59 59 59 Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), OHV DVVL 169 - 246 - 246 - 246 - 322 - 169 246 246 246 322 Conversion to DOHC with DCP CDOHC - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) SGDI 122 420 204 525 204 525 204 525 228 525 271 364.5 364.5 364.5 376.5 T urbocharging and Downsizing TRBDS 690 - 120 - 120 - 120 - 810 - 690 120 120 120 810 Diesel T echs Conversion to Diesel DSL 2790 - 3045 - 3120 - 3405 - 4065 - 2790 3045 3120 3405 4065 Conversion to Diesel following TRBDS DSL - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Conversion to Advanced Diesel ADSL - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Electrification/Accessory T echs Electric Power Steering (EPS) EPS 118 197 118 197 118 197 118 197 118 197 157.5 157.5 157.5 157.5 157.5 Improved Accessories IACC - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12V BAS Micro-Hybrid MHEV - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Higher Voltage/Improved Alternator HVIA - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Integrated Starter Generator ISG 2477 - 3153 - - - - - - - 2477 3153 - - - Transmission T echs Continuously V ariable T ransmission (CVT) CVT 231 - 270 - 270 - - - - - 231 270 270 - - 6/7/8-Speed Auto. T rans. with Improved Internals NAUTO 76 167 76 167 76 167 76 167 76 167 121.5 121.5 121.5 121.5 121.5 Dual Clutch T ransmission (DCT) DCT 141 - 141 - 141 - 141 - 141 - 141 141 141 141 141 Hybrid T echs Power Split Hybrid PSHEV 3754 - - - - - - - - - 3754 - - - - 2-Mode Hybrid 2MHEV - - 4655 - 4655 - 4655 - 6006 - - 4655 4655 4655 6006 Plug-in hybrid PHEV 4500 - 6750 - 6750 - 6750 - 10200 - 4500 6750 6750 6750 10200 Vehicle T echs Mass Reduction - 1% MR1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 2% MR2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 5% MR5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 10% MR10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 20% MR20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Low Rolling Resistance T ires ROLL 6 - 6 - 6 - 6 - 6 - 6 6 6 6 6 Low Drag Brakes LDB - - - - - - 87 - 87 - - - - 87 87 Secondary Axle Disconnect SAX 676 - 676 - 676 - 676 - - - 676 676 676 676 - Aero Drag Reduction 10% AERO - - - - 0 75 0 75 0 75 - - 37.5 37.5 37.5 203

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TABLE I.8 Technology Effectiveness, Incremental (Percent) Fuel Consumption Benefit from EEA (2007), Sierra Research (2008), Martec (2008), and NESCCAF 204 (2004) EEA T echnologies I4 I-6 V6 V8 Spark Ignition T echs Abbreviation Low High Low High Low High Low High AVG A VG AVG A VG Low Friction Lubricants LUB 14 18 17 23 17 23 20 28 16 20 20 24 Engine Friction Reduction EFR 18 60 23 85 23 85 27 88 39 54 54 58 VVT - Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), SOHC CCP 50 54 50 54 100 108 100 108 52 52 104 104 Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), SOHC DVVL - - - - - - - - - - - - Cylinder Deactivation, SOHC DEAC - - 302 318 302 318 205 225 - 310 310 215 VVT - In take Cam Phasing (ICP) ICP 50 54 50 54 100 108 100 108 52 52 104 104 VVT - Dual Cam Phasing (DCP) DCP 76 84 76 84 178 190 178 190 80 80 184 184 Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), DOHC DVVL 142 158 188 212 198 222 255 285 150 200 210 270 Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) CVVL 314 346 380 420 440 480 575 625 330 400 460 600 Cylinder Deactivation, OHV DEAC - - 302 318 302 318 205 225 - 310 310 215 VVT - Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), OHV CCP - - - - - - - - - - - - 82 94 120 140 120 140 144 170 Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), OHV DVVL 88 130 157 130 - - - - - - - - Conversion to DOHC with DCP CDOHC - - - - Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) SGDI 145 155 193 207 193 207 240 260 150 200 200 250 Turbocharging and Downsizing TRBDS 480 520 540 580 550 610 630 690 560 500 580 660 Diesel T echs - - - - - - - - Conversion to Diesel DSL 2200.0 - 3200.0 - - - - - - - - - Conversion to Diesel following TRBDS DSL - - - - Conversion to Advanced Diesel ADSL - - - - - - - - - - - - Electrification/Accessory T echs - Electric Power Steering (EPS) EPS 75 85 80 75 85 80 75 85 80 75 85 80 Improved Accessories IACC - - - - - - - - - - - - 12V BAS Micro-Hybrid MHEV 320 380 350 320 380 350 320 380 350 320 380 350 Higher Voltage/Improved Alternator HVIA 16 18 17 16 18 17 16 18 17 16 18 17 Integrated Starter Generator ISG - - - - - - - - - - - - T ransmission T echs Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) CVT 225 255 240 360 400 380 360 400 380 360 400 380 6/7/8-Speed Auto. Trans. with Improved Internals NAUTO 190 325 258 190 325 258 190 325 258 190 325 258 Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) DCT 195 225 210 195 225 210 195 225 210 195 225 210 Hybrid T echs Power Split Hybrid PSHEV - - - - - - - - - - - - 2-Mode Hybrid 2MHEV - - - - - - - - - - - - Plug-in hybrid PHEV - - - - - - - - - - - - V ehicle T echs Mass Reduction - 1% MR1 - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 2 % MR2 - - - - - - - - - - - - Mass Reduction - 5% MR5 100 140 120 100 140 120 100 140 120 100 140 120 Mass Reduction - 10% MR10 380 440 410 380 440 410 380 440 410 380 440 410 Mass Reduction - 20% MR20 - - - - - - - - - - - - Low Rolling Resistance Tires ROLL 18 22 20 18 22 20 18 22 20 18 22 20 Low Drag Brakes LDB - - - - - - - - - - - - Secondary Axle Disconnect SAX - - - - - - - - - - - - Aero Drag Reduction 10% AERO 23 33 28 23 33 28 23 33 28 23 33 28 ASSESSMENT OF FUEL ECONOMY TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGHT-DUTY VEHICLES continued

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205 APPENDIX I TABLE I.8 Continued Sierra Research Midsize Truck Technologies Spark Ignition Techs Low Low Abbreviation Low Friction Lubricants LUB 13 16 Engine Friction Reduction EFR - - VVT- Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), SOHC CCP - - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), SOHC DVVL - - Cylinder Deactivation, SOHC DEAC 335 410 VVT - In take Cam Phasing (ICP) ICP - - VVT - Dual Cam Phasing (DCP) DCP - - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), DOHC DVVL - - Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) CVVL - - Cylinder Deactivation, OHV DEAC 335 410 VVT - Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), OHV CCP - - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), OHV DVVL - - Conversion to DOHC with DCP CDOHC - - Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) SGDI 515 630 Turbocharging and Downsizing TRBDS 814 996 Diesel Techs Conversion to Diesel DSL - - Conversion to Diesel following TRBDS DSL 5775 7063 Conversion to Advanced Diesel ADSL - - Electrification/Accessory Techs Electric Power Steering (EPS) EPS 76 140 Improved Accessories IACC - - 12V BAS Micro-Hybrid MHEV - - Higher Voltage/Improved Alternator HVIA 68 83 Integrated Starter Generator ISG - - Transmission Techs - - Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) CVT - - 6/7/8-Speed Auto. Trans. with Improved Internals NAUTO Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) DCT 450 551 Hybrid Techs Power Split Hybrid PSHEV - - 2-Mode Hybrid 2MHEV - - Plug-in hybrid PHEV - - Vehicle Techs Mass Reduction - 1% MR1 - - Mass Reduction - 2% MR2 - - Mass Reduction - 5% MR5 - - Mass Reduction - 10% MR10 - - Mass Reduction - 20% MR20 - - Low Rolling Resistance Tires ROLL - - Low Drag Brakes LDB - - Secondary Axle Disconnect SAX - - Aero Drag Reduction 10% AERO - - continued

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206 ASSESSMENT OF FUEL ECONOMY TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGHT-DUTY VEHICLES TABLE I.8 Continued Martec Research MPFI, DOHC, 4V MPFI, DOHC, 4V MPFI, DOHC, 4V Technologies L4 V6 V8 Spark Ignition Techs Abbreviation Low Friction Lubricants LUB - - - Engine Friction Reduction EFR - - - VVT- Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), SOHC CCP - - - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), SOHC DVVL - - - Cylinder Deactivation, SOHC DEAC - - - VVT - In take Cam Phasing (ICP) ICP - - - VVT - Dual Cam Phasing (DCP) DCP - - - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), DOHC DVVL - 480 - Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) CVVL 428 675 825 Cylinder Deactivation, OHV DEAC - - - VVT - Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), OHV CCP - - - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), OHV DVVL - - - Conversion to DOHC with DCP CDOHC - - - Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) SGDI 440 558 746 Turbocharging and Downsizing TRBDS - 855 1289 Diesel Techs - - - Conversion to Diesel DSL Conversion to Diesel following TRBDS DSL - 3542 5198 Conversion to Advanced Diesel ADSL - - - Electrification/Accessory Techs Electric Power Steering (EPS) EPS - - - Improved Accessories IACC - - - 12V BAS Micro-Hybrid MHEV - - 627 Higher Voltage/Improved Alternator HVIA - - - Integrated Starter Generator ISG 617 - - Transmission Techs - - - Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) CVT 6/7/8-Speed Auto. Trans. with Improved Internals NAUTO 638 638 638 Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) DCT 450 450 450 Hybrid Techs Power Split Hybrid PSHEV 5246 7871 9681 2-Mode Hybrid 2MHEV - - - Plug-in hybrid PHEV - - - Vehicle Techs Mass Reduction - 1% MR1 - - - Mass Reduction - 2% MR2 - - - Mass Reduction - 5% MR5 - - - Mass Reduction - 10% MR10 - - - Mass Reduction - 20% MR20 - - - Low Rolling Resistance Tires ROLL - - - Low Drag Brakes LDB - - - Secondary Axle Disconnect SAX - - - Aero Drag Reduction 10% AERO - - - continued

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207 APPENDIX I TABLE I.8 Continued NESCCAF Large Car Technologies V6 Spark Ignition Techs Abbreviation Low Friction Lubricants LUB 16 Engine Friction Reduction EFR 16 VVT- Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), SOHC CCP 173 Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), SOHC DVVL 278 Cylinder Deactivation, SOHC DEAC 173 VVT - In take Cam Phasing (ICP) ICP 105 VVT - Dual Cam Phasing (DCP) DCP 210 Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), DOHC DVVL 383 Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) CVVL 623 Cylinder Deactivation, OHV DEAC 173 VVT - Coupled Cam Phasing (CCP), OHV CCP - Discrete Variable Valve Lift (DVVL), OHV DVVL - Conversion to DOHC with DCP CDOHC - Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) SGDI 278 Turbocharging and Downsizing TRBDS -420 Diesel Techs Conversion to Diesel DSL - Conversion to Diesel following TRBDS DSL - Conversion to Advanced Diesel ADSL 1125 Electrification/Accessory Techs Electric Power Steering (EPS) EPS 60 Improved Accessories IACC 75 12V BAS Micro-Hybrid MHEV - Higher Voltage/Improved Alternator HVIA 60 Integrated Starter Generator ISG - Transmission Techs Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) CVT 263 6/7/8-Speed Auto. Trans. with Improved Internals NAUTO - Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) DCT - Hybrid Techs Power Split Hybrid PSHEV 5246 2-Mode Hybrid 2MHEV - Plug-in hybrid PHEV - Vehicle Techs Mass Reduction - 1% MR1 - Mass Reduction - 2% MR2 - Mass Reduction - 5% MR5 321 Mass Reduction - 10% MR10 - Mass Reduction - 20% MR20 - Low Rolling Resistance Tires ROLL 96 Low Drag Brakes LDB - Secondary Axle Disconnect SAX - Aero Drag Reduction 10% AERO 134