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Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies - Workshop Summary Appendix F Speaker Biographies Arturo Casadevall, M.D., Ph.D., is the Leo and Julia Forchheimer Professor of Microbiology and Immunology at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University. He is chairman of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and he served as director of the Division of Infectious Diseases from 2000 to 2006. Dr. Casadevall received both his M.D. and Ph.D. (Biochemistry) degrees from New York University in New York. Subsequently, he completed internship and residency in internal medicine at Bellevue Hospital in New York. Later he completed subspecialty training in infectious diseases at the Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Dr. Casadevall’s major research interests are in fungal pathogenesis and the mechanism of antibody action. In the area of biodefense, he has an active research program to understand the mechanisms of antibody-mediated neutralization of Bacillus anthracis toxins. Henry F. Chambers, M.D., graduated from Vanderbilt University School of Medicine in 1977, where he was class valedictorian. He trained in internal medicine and infectious diseases at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). He was also a Kaiser Foundation Fellow in General Internal Medicine at UCSF and a postdoctoral research fellow at Rockefeller University. Dr. Chambers has been a member of the medical faculty of the UCSF since 1985, where he currently is professor of medicine, chief of infectious diseases at San Francisco General Hospital, and director of the UCSF Infectious Diseases Fellowship Training Program. He is also co-chairman of the Infection Control Committee and chair of the Antibiotic Advisory Committee at San Francisco General Hospital. Dr. Chambers is a fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and fellow of the American College of Physicians, and he was elected to
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Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies - Workshop Summary membership in the American Society of Clinical Investigation. He is editor for Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, on the editorial board of Microbial Drug Resistance, an editor of the Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy, a reviewer for numerous medical publications, and a peer reviewer for National Institutes of Health (NIH) study sections. He has been a member of advisory groups for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and a member of IDSA treatment guidelines committees. His clinical and research interests are anti-microbial drug resistance, staphylococcal infections, experimental therapeutics, and epidemiology and pathogenesis of disease caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. He has over 200 publications and textbook chapters in the areas of drug resistance, endocarditis, bacterial infections, and staphylococcal diseases. James J. Collins, Ph.D., is an investigator in the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and a William F. Warren Distinguished Professor, university professor, professor of biomedical engineering, and co-director of the Center for BioDynamics at Boston University. He is also a core founding faculty member of the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University. His research group works in synthetic biology and systems biology, with a particular focus on network biology approaches to antibiotic action and bacterial defense mechanisms. Patrice Courvalin, M.D., is Professor de Classe Exceptionnelle at the Institut Pasteur, where he directs the French National Reference Center for Antibiotics and has been the Head of the Antibacterial Agents Unit since 1983. He and his collaborators are experts in the genetics and biochemistry of antibiotic resistance. In particular, he first described and then elucidated vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus. His research has led to a revision of the dogma describing natural dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. He and his colleagues demonstrated that a wide variety of pathogenic bacteria can promiscuously exchange the genetic material conferring antibiotic resistance, proved that conjugation could account for dissemination of resistance determinants between phylogenetically remote bacterial genera, elucidated the transposition mechanism of conjugative transposons from Gram-positive cocci, and, more recently, obtained direct gene and protein transfer from bacteria to mammalian cells. His work has been reported in more than 290 publications in international scientific journals. Julian Davies, Ph.D., is emeritus professor of microbiology and immunology at University of British Columbia. Trained as an organic chemist, he switched to molecular microbiology in 1962 when he joined the Department of Bacteriology and Immunology at Harvard Medical School. Subsequently, he held academic positions at the University of Wisconsin, University of Geneva, and Institut Pasteur before joining the University of British Columbia (UBC) as Head of
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Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies - Workshop Summary Microbiology and Immunology in 1992. Davies was research director and president of Biogen (Geneva) from 1980 to 1985 and founded TerraGen Discovery (Vancouver) in 1996. He served as Director of the UBC Life Sciences Institute from 2005 to 2006. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society (London) and the Royal Society of Canada and has served as President of the American Society for Microbiology and President of the International Union of Microbiological Societies. Dr. Davies’ research interests concern many aspects of microbial ecology. He is interested in the origins, mechanisms, and transfer of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Recent work in his laboratory on the mechanism of antibiotic action, particularly at subinhibitory concentrations, has led to the notion of a role for antibiotics as signaling molecules in nature. These studies have provided novel approaches to antibiotic discovery. In addition, Davies has an active interest in new sources of antibiotics and is currently exploring the extensive biodiversity of British Columbia, in particular lichens and bryophytes. Michael A. Fischbach, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences at UCSF. His research focuses on identifying and characterizing small molecules from microbes with an emphasis on the human microbiome. Dr. Fischbach received his Ph.D. in chemistry from Harvard University, where he worked as a Hertz Foundation Fellow in the laboratories of Christopher Walsh and David Liu on the role of iron acquisition in bacterial pathogenesis and on the biosynthesis of small molecule natural products. Before coming to UCSF, Dr. Fischbach spent 2 years as an independent fellow at Massachusetts General Hospital coordinating a collaborative effort based at the Broad Institute to develop genomics-based approaches to the discovery of natural products from microbes. Shelley Hearne, Ph.D., is the managing director of the Pew Health Group at the Pew Charitable Trusts and is a visiting professor at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. The Pew Health Group works to improve the health and well-being of all Americans by reducing unnecessary risks in food, medical, and consumer products. Dr. Hearne most recently was the founding executive director of Trust for America’s Health (TFAH), a national organization dedicated to preventing epidemics and protecting people. Her prior positions include executive director of the Pew Environmental Health Commission, a program officer at the Pew Charitable Trusts, the Acting Director of the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Office of Pollution Prevention, and a scientist with the Natural Resources Defense Council. She has served as the chair of the American Public Health Association’s Executive Board and Vice President of the Council on Education for Public Health, the accreditation body for public health schools. Dr. Hearne holds a bachelor’s degree in chemistry and environmental studies with honors from Bowdoin College and a doctorate in environmental health sciences from Columbia University’s School of Public Health.
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Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies - Workshop Summary Ramanan Laxminarayan, Ph.D., M.P.H., is a senior fellow at Resources for the Future, where he directs the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics, and Policy, and he is also a visiting scholar and lecturer at Princeton University. Trained in economics and epidemiology, Dr. Laxminarayan has worked on research that integrates epidemiological models of infectious diseases and drug resistance into the economic analysis of public health problems. He has worked to improve understanding drug resistance as a problem of managing a shared global resource, and on the appropriate design of incentives to encourage more prompt reporting of infectious disease outbreaks. Dr. Laxminarayan has worked with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank on evaluating malaria treatment policy, vaccination strategies, the economic burden of tuberculosis, and the control of non-communicable diseases. He has served on a number of advisory committees at WHO, CDC, and the Institute of Medicine. In 2003–2004, he served on the Institute of Medicine Committee on the Economics of Antimalarial Drugs and subsequently helped create the Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria, a novel financing mechanism for antimalarials. Dr. Laxminarayan has coauthored over 60 journal articles, books, and book chapters. His work has been covered in major media outlets including the Associated Press, BBC, CNN, the Economist, the LA Times, the National Journal, NBC, NPR, Reuters, Science, and the Wall Street Journal. Jeffrey Levi, Ph.D., is executive director of Trust for America’s Health (TFAH), where he leads the organization’s advocacy efforts on behalf of a modernized public health system. Dr. Levi oversees TFAH’s work on a range of public health policy issues, including its annual reports assessing the nation’s public health preparedness, investment in public health infrastructure, and response to chronic diseases such as obesity. Dr. Levi is also an associate professor at the George Washington University’s Department of Health Policy. He has also served as an associate editor of the American Journal of Public Health and deputy director of the White House Office of National AIDS Policy. Dr. Levi received a B.A. from Oberlin College, an M.A. from Cornell University, and a Ph.D. from the George Washington University. Stuart B. Levy, M.D., professor of molecular biology, microbiology and medicine, is the director of the Center for Adaptation Genetics and Drug Resistance at Tufts University School of Medicine and staff physician at the New England Medical Center. He also serves as president of the international Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics and is cofounder and chief scientific officer of Paratek Pharmaceuticals, Inc. He is a past president of the American Society for Microbiology. Dr. Levy led the discovery of the first energy-dependent antibiotic efflux mechanism and efflux protein (for tetracyclines). His research into multidrug resistance revealed a regulatory locus, mar, for intrinsic antibiotic resistance and virulence among the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas. He has published
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Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies - Workshop Summary over 300 papers and edited 4 books and 2 special journal editions devoted to antibiotic use and resistance. His 1992 book, The Antibiotic Paradox: How Miracle Drugs Are Destroying the Miracle, now in its second edition, has been translated into four languages. Dr. Levy received his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania, competed his residency at Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York, and performed postdoctoral research at NIH. He is a Fellow of the American College of Physicians, the IDSA, the American Academy of Microbiology, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He was chairperson of the U.S. Fogarty Center study of “Antibiotic Use and Resistance Worldwide” and helped write the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment report on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. He serves on the recently established National Science Advisory Board on Biosecurity. In 1995 he received the Hoechst-Roussel Award for esteemed research in antimicrobial chemotherapy from the American Society for Microbiology and has been awarded honorary degrees from Wesleyan and Des Moines Universities. Kim Lewis, Ph.D., is professor of biology and director, Antimicrobial Discovery Center at Northeastern University in Boston. He obtained his Ph.D. in biochemistry from Moscow University, Moscow, U.S.S.R., in 1980, and has been on the faculty of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), University of Maryland, and Tufts University prior to coming to Northeastern. Dr. Lewis has authored over 100 papers and is an inventor on several patents. These include the discovery of synergistically acting antimicrobials in medicinal plants, a general method to grow previously “unculturable” bacteria that make up >99 percent of biodiversity on the planet, the invention of sterile surface materials, the development of high-throughput screening for antimicrobials in a live infected animal (C. elegans), and the discovery of the culprit of recalcitrant biofilm infections, drug-tolerant persister cells. Dr. Lewis has presented over 50 invited lectures, including the 2005 Division A (Antimicrobial Chemotherapy) Lecture at the American Society for Microbiology General Meeting in 2005 and the Harvard University Microbial Science Initiative Lecture in 2006. Dr. Lewis has been a permanent member of the Drug Discovery and Drug Resistance NIH Study Section (2004–2006) and chair of two NIH Study Sections on Drug Discovery (2008). Dr. Lewis is a member of Faculty 1000, a worldwide panel of experts evaluating research advancements. He is a recipient of the MIT C.E. Reed Faculty Initiative Award for an innovative research project (1992) and is a recipient of the NIH Director’s Transformative RO1 Grant (2009). Dr. Lewis is funded by the NIH, Army Research Office, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Apart from his work in academia, Dr. Lewis has served as a consultant to the pharmaceutical industry, the biotech industry, and is a founder of two biotech companies, NovoBiotic Pharmaceuticals, and Arietis Corporation.
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Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies - Workshop Summary Douglas W. MacPherson, M.D., M.Sc. (CTM), FRCPC, is an internist and medical microbiologist with specialty qualifications in infectious diseases, tropical medicine, and diagnostic parasitology. His scope of professional activities has centered on mobile populations and health in health services delivery, health policy, and public health. He has published extensively in this area and frequently provides expert technical support for regional to international governments and agencies related to issues of population mobility and health risk management. He is associated with the consulting group Migration Health Consultants, Inc., and the Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Dominique L. Monnet, Pharm.D., Ph.D., is a senior expert and the program coordinator for the program on antimicrobial resistance and healthcare-associated infections at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), a European Union agency based in Stockholm, Sweden. He received his degrees in pharmacy and clinical microbiology from the University of Lyon (France) and then obtained further education as a hospital infection control specialist and epidemiologist. In 1993–1995, he worked at CDC, where he conducted the pilot study of Project I-CARE, the CDC and Emory University joint attempt to start surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use in National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance hospitals. Between 1999 and 2007, he coordinated surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial consumption in humans in Denmark as part of the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme. In October 2007, he joined the ECDC to coordinate the disease-specific program on antimicrobial resistance and healthcare-associated infections. His research interests include surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and anti-microbial consumption, the relationship between consumption of antimicrobials and resistance, and the factors that affect antimicrobial usage, both in hospitals and in primary care. David Pimentel, Ph.D., is a professor of ecology and agricultural sciences at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. His Ph.D. is from Cornell University and involved a postdoctoral fellowship at Oxford University. He was awarded a distinguished honorary degree from the University of Massachusetts. His research spans the fields of energy, population ecology, biological pest control, sustainable agriculture, land and water conservation, and environmental policy. Pimentel has published 653 scientific papers and 30 books and has served on many national and government committees, including the National Academy of Sciences; President’s Science Advisory Council; U.S. Department of Agriculture; U.S. Department of Energy; U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress; and the U.S. State Department. Louis B. Rice, M.D., received his A.B. degree from Harvard College in 1977
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Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies - Workshop Summary and his M.D. from Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1983. He received his clinical training in internal medicine at NYU and Bellevue Hospital Center from 1983 to 1986. After completing his residency, he trained in clinical infectious diseases at the New England Deaconess Hospital and Harvard Medical School, followed by 3 years working in the laboratories of Robert C. Moellering, Jr., M.D., at the Deaconess Hospital and George A. Jacoby, M.D., at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. In 1990, Dr. Rice moved to Cleveland, Ohio, where he assumed a staff position in the Infectious Diseases Section at the Cleveland VA Medical Center (VAMC). In 1996, Dr. Rice assumed the role of chief of the Infectious Diseases Section at the Cleveland VA Medical Center and chairman of the VA Medical Center Infection Control Committee. In 1999, Dr. Rice became chief of the Medical Service at the Cleveland VAMC and vice chairman of Medicine at University Hospitals of Cleveland. Dr. Rice is currently a professor of medicine at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. Dr. Rice’s laboratory effort is funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs and NIH, and he is an author of more than 130 original papers and invited reviews. He recently stepped down after 10 years as an associate editor of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy and after 2 years as chair of the Drug Development and Resistance Study section at NIH. He is the incoming chair of the Research Committee at the IDSA. He is a member of the American Society for Microbiology and the IDSA and a Fellow of the American College of Physicians. His research interests focus on the mechanisms of gene exchange and penicillin resistance in enterococci, the molecular epidemiology of resistant enterococcal infection, the molecular genetics of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in Gram-negative bacilli, and the influence of antibiotic administration on the emergence of resistance in the clinical setting. Jørgen Schlundt, Ph.D., D.V.M., received his D.V.M. and a Ph.D. from the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark. Dr. Schlundt has primarily worked in the area of human health effects of microorganisms and chemical substances in food and in the environment, including effects assessment related to biotechnology products. Dr. Schlundt’s main research areas have been epidemiological aspects of Salmonella infection, survival of zoonotic pathogens in the environment, the intestinal microbial colonization process, test methodology for the assessment of genetically modified microorganisms, and microbiological risk assessment. Dr. Schlundt has held positions in national authorities in Denmark and Zimbabwe and most recently as Director of the Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses at WHO in Geneva, Switzerland. At the international level, Dr. Schlundt has participated in scientific evaluations in a number of international bodies: the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Assessments of Existing Chemicals and Genetically Modified Organisms, the European Union Scientific Committee for Food and for Veterinary Public Health, WHO and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Expert
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Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies - Workshop Summary Consultations on microbiology and risk assessment, and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission. In recent years, Dr. Schlundt has primarily participated in activities aimed at an improvement of the present food safety systems at national and international levels. Recently, Dr. Schlundt has participated in the initiation of a number of initiatives related to antimicrobial resistance, including the development of the WHO definition of critically important antimicrobials for human health. Brad Spellberg, M.D., is an associate professor of medicine at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and the Harbor-UCLA Medical Center. He received his B.A. in molecular cell biology-immunology in 1994 from the University of California, Berkeley. He then attended medical school at the Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, where he received numerous academic honors, including serving as the UCLA Alpha Omega Alpha Chapter Co-President, and winning the prestigious Stafford Warren Award for the top academic performance in his graduating class. Dr. Spellberg completed his residency in internal medicine and subspecialty fellowship in infectious diseases at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, where he received the Department of Medicine’s Subspecialty “Fellow of the Year” award. Dr. Spellberg’s research focuses on using the immune system to prevent and/or treat infections. For the last several years he has worked to develop a vaccine that targets the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the fungus Candida, which are the second and third most common causes of bloodstream infections. Dr. Spellberg is also developing genetically engineered white blood cells that recapitulate neutrophil functions and can be used to overcome the technical barriers to neutrophil transfusion therapy for neutropenic infections. He has also designed the protocol and served as principal investigator for a clinical trial of iron chelation therapy for mucormycosis. Dr. Spellberg is a member of the IDSA’s Antimicrobial Availability Task Force (AATF). His data set regarding new drug development has been a cornerstone of the IDSA’s white paper, Bad Bugs, No Drugs, and has been cited extensively in medical literature and on Capitol Hill. As a member of the AATF, he has first-authored consensus IDSA position papers on the appropriate clinical trial designs for infectious diseases. Finally, Dr. Spellberg is the author of Rising Plague (2008), which he wrote to inform and educate the public about the crisis in antibiotic-resistant infections and lack of antibiotic development. Fred C. Tenover, Ph.D., D(ABMM), F(AAM), F(IDSA), received his bachelors degrees in biology and chemistry at the University of Dayton, and masters and doctoral degrees in medical microbiology from the University of Rochester. He was a postdoctoral fellow in clinical microbiology and public health at the University of Washington. After completing his postdoctoral fellowship, he served as Chief of Molecular Biology and Associate Chief of Microbiology at the Seattle
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Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies - Workshop Summary Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Seattle and was Associate Professor of Laboratory Medicine at the University of Washington. Dr. Tenover went to CDC in July 1990 as chief of the Nosocomial Pathogens Laboratory Branch and then became the associate director for laboratory science in the Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion. He established the CDC-WHO Collaborating Centre for Global Monitoring of Antimicrobial Resistance in 1998 and served as its director until 2008. In 2007, he became the director of the Office of Antimicrobial Resistance at CDC. In 2008, Dr. Tenover left CDC to become senior director for scientific affairs at Cepheid, in Sunnyvale, California. He continues to serve as an adjunct professor in the Division of Epidemiology, Emory University, Rollins School of Public Health, and is consulting professor of pathology at Stanford University in Stanford, California. He also is a diplomate of the American Board of Medical Microbiology and a fellow of both the American Academy of Microbiology and the IDSA. He has been author or coauthor of over 300 peer-reviewed journal articles and 40 book chapters and has edited 10 books. Robert A. Weinstein, M.D., is chief operating officer of the outpatient Ruth M. Rothstein CORE Center for the Prevention, Care, and Research of Infectious Diseases, which provides comprehensive primary outpatient care for ~6,000 patients with HIV/AIDS and offers outpatient clinics for sexually transmitted infections, viral hepatitis, and other complicated infectious diseases; Interim Chairman of the Department of Medicine at the John H. Stroger (formerly Cook County) Hospital, the major safety-net hospital in the Chicago metropolitan area; and the C. Anderson Hedberg, M.D., Professor of Internal Medicine at Rush University Medical College. Gerard (Gerry) D. Wright, Ph.D., is the director of the Michael G. DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research, a professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, and an associate member in the Department of Chemistry and the Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine at McMaster University. He was chair of the Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences from 2001 to 2007 and is the founding director of the McMaster Antimicrobial Research Centre at McMaster. He received his B.Sc. in biochemistry (1986) and his Ph.D. in chemistry (1990) from the University of Waterloo. He followed this up with 2 years of postdoctoral research at Harvard Medical School in Boston and joined the Department of Biochemistry at McMaster in 1993. He holds a Tier 1 Canada Research Chair in Antibiotic Biochemistry and has received Canadian Institutes of Health Research Scientist (2000–2005), Medical Research Council of Canada Scholar (1995–2000), Premiers’ Research Excellence (1999), and Polanyi Prize (1993) awards. He is the director of the American Chemical Society Short Course on Antibiotics and Antibacterial Agents. Dr. Wright is cofounder, with Dr. Eric Brown, of the McMaster High Throughput Screening
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Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies - Workshop Summary Facility. He is a member of the editorial boards of the scientific peer-reviewed journals Chemistry and Biology and the Journal of Antibiotics. Dr. Wright’s laboratory conducts research on the chemical biology of antibiotic resistance, including resistance to aminoglycoside, glycopeptide, and streptogramin families of antibiotics; on the mechanisms of antibiotic biosynthesis; and on the discovery of new antimicrobial targets, in particular antifungal agents. He is the author of over 130 published papers and book chapters.