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Index

A

Abnormal Spindle-Like Microcephaly-Associated (ASPM) gene, 55-56, 269

Acetylation, 124, 132, 138, 140

Acetyl-CoA, 132, 134, 137, 138, 140, 141

Ache, 223

Acheulean traditions, 252

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), 132, 133, 134, 137, 138, 139, 200

Adygei, 151, 154, 156

Aerobic energy metabolism (AEM) genes, 57-59

Affymetrix 500K platform, 147, 150, 155, 156, 164, 165

Africa and African population history.

See also specific countries

agriculture, 84-85

anatomically modern humans, 10-11, 83-84

apes, 31, 32

autosomal DNA data, 4, 83, 86, 91, 92, 93, 95-96, 99

Bantu expansion, 90-91

contemporary genetic and linguistic variation, 92-99

Darwin’s views of human origins, 28-29, 31, 48-49

fossil record, 1, 10-11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20-21, 34-35, 38, 39

gene flows in movement of technology and culture, 85-91

genetic diversity, 239

genome-wide association studies, 91

hunter-gatherer history, 83, 98-99

lactase persistence, 89-90

linguistic analysis, 82-83, 85, 86, 92-99

Middle Stone Age, 84

migrations, 73, 83, 84-91, 96-97, 136, 238-239, 248, 249, 250

mtDNA analysis, 83, 84, 86, 91, 93, 94, 95, 98-99, 136

Natufian technologies, 85

Neolithic, 84-91

NRY analysis, 83-84, 86, 87, 91, 93, 94, 95, 98-99

pastoralism, 85, 87-91

patrilocality and polygyny, 91

sex-biased migration and gene flow, 91, 96

skin pigmentation, 172

slave trade, 148, 160

TMRCA, 84, 98, 99

trade, 86

African Americans, 154, 159, 161, 164

Afrotheria, 58-59

Age-dependent macular degeneration, 119



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OCR for page 393
Index A fossil record, 1, 10-11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20-21, 34-35, 38, 39 Abnormal spindle-like Microcephaly- gene flows in movement of technology Associated (ASPM) gene, 55-56, and culture, 85-91 269 genetic diversity, 239 Acetylation, 124, 132, 138, 140 genome-wide association studies, 91 Acetyl-CoA, 132, 134, 137, 138, 140, 141 hunter-gatherer history, 83, 98-99 Ache, 223 lactase persistence, 89-90 Acheulean traditions, 252 linguistic analysis, 82-83, 85, 86, 92-99 Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), 132, 133, Middle stone Age, 84 134, 137, 138, 139, 200 migrations, 73, 83, 84-91, 96-97, 136, Adygei, 151, 154, 156 238-239, 248, 249, 250 Aerobic energy metabolism (AeM) genes, mtDnA analysis, 83, 84, 86, 91, 93, 94, 57-59 95, 98-99, 136 Affymetrix 500K platform, 147, 150, 155, natufian technologies, 85 156, 164, 165 neolithic, 84-91 Africa and African population history. See nry analysis, 83-84, 86, 87, 91, 93, 94, also specific countries 95, 98-99 agriculture, 84-85 pastoralism, 85, 87-91 anatomically modern humans, 10-11, patrilocality and polygyny, 91 83-84 sex-biased migration and gene flow, 91, apes, 31, 32 96 autosomal DnA data, 4, 83, 86, 91, 92, skin pigmentation, 172 93, 95-96, 99 slave trade, 148, 160 Bantu expansion, 90-91 TMrCA, 84, 98, 99 contemporary genetic and linguistic trade, 86 variation, 92-99 African Americans, 154, 159, 161, 164 Darwin’s views of human origins, 28- Afrotheria, 58-59 29, 31, 48-49 Age-dependent macular degeneration, 119 

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 / Index Agriculture and agricultural populations Asthma, 115, 149, 198, 244 gene–culture coevolution, 3-4, 67, 73, 74, Ateles, 52 76, 88, 231, 236, 240, 245, 247, 255 Atherosclerosis, 119, 120-121 gene flows, 3-4, 84-85, 99 Auditory system, 56 genetic adaptations, 67, 73, 74, 76, 88, Australian aborigines, 65 231, 236 Australopithecus holocene, 245, 255 Au. afarensis, 9, 15-16, 17, 20, 21, 35 neolithic period in Africa, 3-4, 84, 85, Au. africanus, 6, 9, 15, 17 88, 90 Au. anamensis, 9, 16, 35 Plio-Pleistocene, 247 Au. bahrelghazali, 9, 16 population movements, 3-4, 160 Au. boisei, 18 AiDs, 115 Au. garhi, 9, 17, 19 Albinism, 193 Au. sediba, 6, 9 Alkaptonuria, 193 classification, 32 Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka, 3, 63-79 diet, 253 Allia Bay fossils, 15, 16 morphology, 15-16, 17, 20, 21, 34, 35, 36, Altruism, 261, 266, 268, 298, 321-322, 332- 38, 39, 40, 251 333, 334, 335 Autoimmune diseases, 113, 115, 173 Amhara people, 65, 68 Avise, John C., xiii-xiv, 104, 185-204 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 196 Auton, Adam, 102-103, 147-166 Anabaptists, 245 Autosomal DnA analysis Anagenesis, 22, 35, 36, 38, 46 African population history, 4, 83, 86, 91, Anatomically modern Homo, 2, 8, 9, 10-11, 92, 93, 95-96, 99 13, 83, 234, 236, 237-238, 241, 248, hispanic/latino ancestry, 147, 148, 151, 249, 250-251. See also homo sapiens 152, 153, 158, 159, 161, 162 Ancestral north indians, 172 Ayala, Francisco J., xiii-xiv, 309, 319-339 Angelman syndrome, 138 Aymara, 151, 156 Anthropogeny, defined, xvi Arago fossils, 46 B Aramis fossils, 19, 34-35 Archaeopteryx, 28 Baboons, 53, 60 Archaic hominins, 2, 6, 9, 14, 15-17, 23 Baggara people, 96 Ardipithecus Bailey’s ecoregion Map, 76 A. kadabba, 9, 20-21, 36 Bantu people and languages, 68, 82, 88, 90- A. ramidus, 9, 19-20, 21, 34-35, 237, 254 91, 97, 151, 154, 155, 156, 161 Argentinians, 149 Barrett, h. Clark, 207, 293-318 Arginine, 71, 111, 113 Basques, 68, 151, 154, 156 Argument from design, 104, 188-189 Bayesian linear model method, 65 Argument from imperfection. See human Beall, Cynthia, 3, 63-79 genomic flaws Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, 138-139 Aristotle, 168, 323 Behe, Michael, 186, 190 Arsuaga, Juan luis, 2, 27-46 Belgium, fossil sites, 11 Arthur M. sackler Colloquia, iv, viii, xiii, Belohdelie fossils, 15 xv-xvi, 46, 125, 331 Bengalese finch, 288 Arthur M. sackler Gallery of Asian Art, viii Biaka pygmies, 151, 154, 156 Ascorbic acid synthesis, 287-288 Bile acid biosynthesis, 71 Asfaw, Berhane, 10 Bimana, 49 Asia Biodiversity, defined, xiii anatomically modern humans, 83 Bioenergetics. See also energy metabolism apes, 29, 30, 50 and ascent of man, 128, 142-144 fossil sites, 11 and brain evolution, 102, 143-144 western, 11

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Index /  and complex diseases, 127-128, 131, 135- Broken hill (Kabwe) fossils, 10, 45, 46 137, 138, 142-144 Brown sands fossils, 15 energy environments (regions), 127, 130, Bryc, Katarzyna, 102-103, 147-166 131, 132, 133-137 Bustamante, Carlos D., 102-103, 147-166 energy fluctuation (seasons) and cyclic adaptation, 102, 127, 130, 131, 132, C 136, 137-141 energy reservoirs (niches), 127, 130, 131, Caenorhabditis elegans,143 132 Callicebus, 52 epigenomic regulation of, 127-128, 131, Callithrix jacchus (marmoset), 53 132, 137-139 Calmodulin, 132 introns and, 195-196 Camel domestication, 89 levels of, 127, 129-132 Cameroon, 90, 93, 96 mathematical formulations, 144, 145 Campbell, Donald T., 283 mtDnA genes, 56-59, 70-71, 102, 127- Cancer, 72, 108, 117, 119, 120, 135, 136, 149, 128, 130-131, 133-135, 137-139, 142 170-171, 179, 180, 181, 196, 198, 199, nDnA mutations, 127, 128, 130-131, 136, 200 137, 139, 142 Canis familiaris, 59 and origin of complexity, 102, 127, Capuchin monkeys, 60, 337, 338 128-129 Cardiovascular disease, 117, 119, 120-121, signal transduction and metabolic 135, 149, 225, 226-227 regulation, 132, 139-141 Catarrhines, 55, 60 and speciation, 127, 130, 132, 136 Cave of hearths fossils, 10-11 and subpopulation radiation, 127, Central Africa and Central Africans, 82, 84, 133-137 90, 91, 93, 94, 95, 96 threshold, 135 Central Awash Complex fossils, 19 Biology, universal laws in, 106 Ceprano fossils, 45-46 Blind mole rat (Spalax), 284 Cercopithecus, 52 Bodo fossils, 12 Chad, fossil sites, 16, 20 Bonobos (Pan paniscus), 7, 8, 15, 20, 21, 50, Chadic language and speakers, 82, 85, 86, 52, 53, 106 93, 94, 96 Bos taurus, 59 Chagnon, napoleon, 262-263 Boyd, robert, 206, 231-255 Chaplin, George, 103, 167-183 Brain evolution. See also Cognitive and Charnov, e. l., 213, 216 emotional stimulation Chemeron fossils, 14 bioenergetics and, 102, 143-144 Chesowanja fossils, 18 body size and, 39, 55 Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). See also cerebral cortex, 55, 320 longevity developmental processes, 282-283 brain evolution, 54, 56-57, 60 diet and, 253 cranial capacity/brain size, 39, 41, 55 energy metabolism, 3, 47-48, 56-59 culture and language, 53, 334 frontal cortex, 241 diet, 35 genetic correlates, 55-59, 269 epidermal differentiation, 170-171 language, 246 evolutionary rate, 52 and life span, 47-48, 58, 59 fertility, 222-225 phylogenomic assessment of, 54-59 FOXP2 gene, 55 plasticity, 60 genome sequencing, 101, 110 postnatal development period, 54, 60 gorilla kinskip with, 39, 51, 52-53 siglecs and, 111, 112, 114, 124 heart disease, 120 size, 11, 13, 14, 18, 39-40, 48, 60, 214, human kinship with, 7, 29, 30-31, 32, 47, 237, 242, 247, 250, 251, 253, 265, 320 49, 50, 51-54, 55, 101, 106 Brazilians, 149

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 / Index last common ancestor of humans and, hominid evolution and, 264-265 35, 53, 55 indices of, 237 life expectancy, 227 intuitive theories, 257, 259, 260, 261, life history evolution, 216-217 267, 269, 272, 276, 294 linnaean hierarchy, 7-8, 33, 51, 52-53 metaphorical abstraction ability, 257, locomotion, 34, 35 259, 269-272 “missing link” between humans and, 28 morphological adaptations and, 54, 264 molecular supermatrix analysis, 7 opportunity for exploitation and, 260, morphological structure, 7, 20, 21, 35, 263 47, 49 paleoclimate and, 242, 263 protein structure, 7 reciprocation and reciprocal altruism, sialic acid genetics, 106, 109, 110, 113, 261, 266, 296, 297, 298-299, 312 114, 115, 120 self-awareness and death awareness, China, fossil sites, viii, 12, 38, 40, 43 205, 321, 334 ChiP-on-chip technology, 240-241 technological know-how and, 257, 259, 3-Chloroacrylic acid, 71 260, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266-267 Chomsky, noam, 277-278 Wallace’s views of, 257, 258-259, 264 Chronic hepatitis, 115 Cold spring harbor symposia on Cladogenesis, 22, 36, 38, 48 Quantitative Biology, 33 Clark University, vii Colombians, 147, 149-150, 151, 152, 153, Cognitive and emotional evolution. See also 154, 155, 156, 157-158, 160, 163, 164 Brain evolution; reasoning about Color vision, 288 social exchanges Comparative primate morphology. See also abstract reasoning, 207 257, 258-259, individual species 262-263, 269-272, 321 anatomically modern Homo, 2, 8, 9, 10- blank-slate theory, 208, 294 11, 13 body size and, 39, 49 apomorphies (derived characters), 32, childhood period and life span and, 44, 45 257, 263-264, 265, 266, 273 autapomorphy, 13, 45 coevolution of cognition, language, and body mass estimates, 15, 20 sociality, 207, 253-254 257, 265-267, body plan, 35-40 269-272 cranial anatomy, 1, 2, 10, 11, 12-13, 14, cognitive niche theory, 207, 257, 259-269 15, 16-17, 18-19, 20, 23, 25, 28, 36, 39, cooperation among nonkin and, 257- 40-46, 320 259, 260-261, 262-263, 264, 265-267 dietary adaptations, 12, 14, 20, 23, 35 cooperative breeding and, 228-229, 235, dwarfing, 13 236, 254, 263-264 gross, 7 cultural adaptation to constrained homology vs. homoplasy, 2, 19, 21, 23, cognition, 235 24-25 cultural divergence, 264 imaging technologies, 2, 24-25 Darwin’s views, 49, 54, 205, 258 and language, 14, 320 diet and, 265 limb proportions, 12, 14 extinction effects of, 260 mandibular and dental features, 11, 12, evolutionary arms races and, 259, 260 13, 14, 15, 16-17, 18, 19, 20-21, 24-25, fire use and, 234, 252 28, 254, 320 gene-culture coevolution, 246-247, 250, megadont archaic hominins, 8, 9, 17-19, 253-254, 255 23 grammatical language, 207, 208-209, opposing thumbs, 117, 54, 320 253-254, 261-263, 267, 268, 270, 277, panins, 5, 15, 20, 21-23, 39 281, 282, 290-292, 300 plesiomorphies, 32 habitats and food ranges and, 257, 263 possible hominins, 2, 8, 9, 19-21

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Index /  postcranial skeletons, 12, 13, 35-40, 41, natural theology and argument from 45-46 design, 104, 185, 188-189, 190, 195, posture and locomotion, 12, 14, 15-16, 324 17, 20, 23, 34-35, 320 in public school curricula, 186-188 premodern Homo, 8, 9, 11-13 theological enigmas posed by, 185, 190- sexual dimorphism, 15, 16, 18 192, 193, 203-204 species concepts, 2, 22 Cubans, 149 and tool-making ability, 1, 17, 54 Culture and cultural evolution. See also transitional hominins, 8, 9, 13-14, 28, 34 Gene–culture coevolution; language Complement factor h, 107 development/lingistics Complex biological traits adaptive rates, 233 genetic mechanisms, 186 art, 84, 99, 232, 237, 248, 250, 253, 321, imperfections in, 188; see also human 331 genomic flaws complexity of social organizations, 321 origin of, 102, 127, 133, 128-129, 199-201 defined, 232, 321 Computed tomography, 24 demography and, 237 Confocal microscopy, 24 environmental influences, 321, 233-234 Contactin-associated protein-like 2 epigenetic rules, 235 (CNTNAP2) gene, 241 and gene flows, 85-91 Convergent adaptive evolution, 2, 47, 48, genetic evolution compared with, 59, 60. 102, 107, 126, 135-136, 249-250 232-235 Coop, Graham, 3, 63-79 moral codes, 319, 326, 328, 336-337, Cooper’s Cave fossils, 17 338-339 Cooperation and resource sharing, 217, 235, religion, 244 236, 257-259, 260-261, 264, 265-267, social cooperation and resource sharing, 275, 299, 317, 321, 332 217, 235, 236, 257-259, 260-261, 264, Copernicus, nicolaus, xv 265-267, 275, 299, 317, 321, 332 Cosmides, leda, 207, 293-318 tool use and tool making, 1, 17, 54, 205, Costa ricans, 149 206, 208, 237, 238, 247, 248, 250, 251, Cranial anatomy. See also Brain evolution 252, 259, 260, 262, 264, 265, 266-267, analytical approach, 40-46 280, 321, 329, 331, 332 body size and, 39 Cushitic languages and speakers, 82, 85, endocranial volume, 11, 12, 14, 15, 18, 87, 88 39-40 Cyanobacteria, 129, 133 hominins, 1, 2, 10, 11, 12-13, 14, 15, 18, Cystinuria, 193 19, 20, 23, 25, 36, 39, 40 Cytidine monophosphate N- homoplasies, 23 acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase paleontological species definition by, (CMAh), 105, 108, 111, 112, 117, 124 40-46 Cytokine storm, 115 Cytosolic β-glucosidase (GBA3) gene, 70 panins, 21, 39, 41 premodern Homo, 11 transitional form, 25, 28 D Creationism counterargument, see human genomic Dali, 12 flaws Dart, raymond, 32 intelligent design version, xv, 104, 185, Darwin, Charles, 1 186, 187-188, 189-190, 195, 196, 197, on African origins of humans, 28-29, 31, 199, 200, 201, 204, 257, 277, 279, 284 48-49 irreducible complexity argument, 186, aversion to slavery, 168 190 on cognitive abilities of human mind, landmark court cases, 186-187 49, 54, 59, 205, 258

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 / Index on human evolution, xvi, 168 methylation, 132, 137-138, 171, 179, 181, influence of, 9 198 legacy, xv-xvi, 27-31, 48-49 recovery from fossils, 12 on moral sense, 323-327, 333, 336 Dobzhansky, Theodosius, xiii, xiv, 32, 36, natural selection theory, xv, 48, 50, 104, 129, 205, 331 128, 132, 143, 182, 189 Dog, 288 and natural theology, 103-104, 189, 192 Domestication, 288-290 on phylogenetic relationships of Dominican republic and Dominicans, 147, primates, xvi, 2, 27-31, 47, 48-50, 52, 149-150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 106, 214 158, 159, 160, 161, 164 sexual-selection hypothesis for skin Drimolen Cave fossils, 14, 17 pigmentation, 103, 168, 169 Drosophila melanogaster, 143 and Wallace, 127, 143 Dry ecoregions Darwin’s finches, 132 selection for, 67, 68, 74 Darwinian revolution, xvi, 189 Uv radiation, 176 Datog people, 87 Dryopithecus of lartet, 29 de Chardin, Teilhard, 205 Dubois, eugène, 9-10, 12 Deacon, Terrence, 207-208, 275-292 Duplicons, 201-202, 286 Dembski, William, 190 Di rienzo, Anna, 3, 63-79 E Diabetes, 64, 71, 72, 74, 119, 135, 137, 142, 149, 173, 193 early iron Age, 90-91 Diet early Pleistocene, 36-37, 40, 42, 45, 46, 242 cereals/plant-based, 67, 69, 71, 72, 74 east Africa and east Africans, 10-11, 15, 16, and cognitive evolution, 265 18, 23, 35, 38, 83, 86, 87, 89-90, 91, 93, fats, meat, and milk, 65, 67, 72, 73, 76, 94, 97, 98-99 88-89, 90, 105-106, 117-119, 120-121, east Africa and Uganda natural history 134, 138, 140, 236, 251, 253, 265 society, 9 genetic adaptations, 64, 65, 66-74, 76, 88, east Asia and east Asian people, 68, 93, 244, 253, 287-288 172, 173 metabolic incorporation of neu5Gc, Echinops telfairi (lesser hedgehog tenrec), 105-106, 117-119, 120-121 58-59 morphology and, 8, 12, 14 ecoregion pressures. See also Polar roots and tubers, 64, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, ecoregions 72, 73-74, 76 cultural adaptations to, 234 DiGeorge syndrome, 199 dry regions, 67, 68, 74 Dikika fossils, 15 energy metabolism, 64 Discovery institute, 190 genome-wide scan for selection, 65-70 Discovery of fossil hominins humid temperate regions, 67, 74-75, 76 earliest discoveries and expeditions, humid tropical regions, 67, 72, 75 8-10 polar regions, 60, 67, 70, 71, 74, 76 landsat thematic mapping and large- ecuadorians, 147, 149-150, 151, 152, 153, format camera high-resolution 154-155, 156, 158-159, 160, 163, 164 images, 10 ehler, edvard, 3, 63-79 Dmanisi fossils, 38, 42 electrocardiographic traits, 71, 72 DnA-DnA hybridization data, 51-52 elephants, 48, 58-59, 267 DnA. See also Mitochondrial DnA; nuclear energy metabolism. See also Bioenergetics DnA biogenergetic regulation of, 139 introns (noncoding regions), 88, 195- brain evolution, 3, 47-48, 56-59 196, 201, 202-203 carbohydrates and fats, 134, 139 junk, 196, 201 climate-related adaptations, 70-71, 74

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Index /  diet/subsistence strategy and, 64, 65, religion and, 244-245 70-71 skin pigmentation and, 171, 173, 181 mitochondrial DnA, 56-59, 70-71, 127- Florisbad fossils, 10-11 128, 130, 131, 133-135, 137-139, 142 Folate phenotypes, 71, 72, 78-79 deficiency and birth defects, 69, 171-172 engis cave fossils, 11, 25 and DnA, 171, 172, 179 england, fossil sites, 11-12, 45, 46 dietary availablity, 67, 69, 70, 74 Escherichia coli, 121 metabolism/biosynthesis, 69, 70, 71, 74, ethiopia 171, 172 fossil record, 10, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20-21, skin pigmentation and, 167, 171-172, 34-35, 38, 39 179 language, 99 Uv exposure and, 167, 171-172, 179 lowland Amhara, 65 Food poisoning, 121 pastoralism, 89 Foraging, 64, 67, 68, 72, 73, 74, 76, 88, 214- proto-Cushitic culture and language, 85 215, 224, 232, 236, 237, 259, 262, 295, euarchontoglires, 58-59 296; see also hunter-gatherers eukaryotes, 48, 129, 131, 133, 200 Forbes’ Quarry fossils, 9, 28 europe and europeans. See also individual Forensic Data Bank, 41 Forkhead Box P2 (FOXP2) gene, 56, 239, countries fossil record, 11, 12, 83 241, 249, 254, 268 hispanic/latino ancestors, 103, 147, Fossil record. See also Discovery of fossil 148, 149, 150-151, 152-153, 154, 155, homonins; specific fossil sites 156, 158, 159-161, 162, 163, 164, anagenetic (gradualistic) interpretation, 165-166 22 lactase persistence, 88-89, 95 cladogenetic (punctuated equilibrium) Middle Ages, 162 interpretation, 23, 41-42 skin pigmentation, 173 human clade, 7-8, 23 views on human origins in, 28-29 Foundation for Thought and ethics, evolutionary arms races, 102, 107, 116, 259, 189-190 260, 279 FoXo transcription factor, 139, 140 extinctions, 135, 260 Framingham heart study, 244 France and French people, 68, 151, 154, 155, 157 F Fulani people, 89, 93, 94-96 Fejej fossils, 10, 15 Fertility G age-specific rates, 223 chimpanzee, 216, 222-225, 254 GAA gene, 70 cooperative breeding and, 228-229 Galactolipids, 69 cryptic ovulation, 120 Galectins, 55 cultural changes and, 229, 244, 263-264 Galileo, xv frailty differences and, 206, 224 Garrod, Archibald, 193 gene-culture coevolution, 244, 254 GBE1 gene, 70 genomic imperfections and, 202-203 Gebremedhin, Amha, 3, 63-79 grandmother hypothesis, 215, 217 GenBank, 164 heterogeneity hypothesis, 214, 222-225, Gene–culture coevolution 226-227 agricultural subsistence systems and, hunter-gatherers, 223-225 3-4, 67, 73, 74, 76, 88, 231, 236, 240, juvenile mortality and, 225 245, 247, 255 and longevity, 211, 213, 219, 222-225, autosomal DnA analysis, 238, 249 229 Baldwin effect, 234, 235, 243, 281-282

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00 / Index behavioral traits, 246-247, 250 Genome-wide scans of snPs. See also single chimpanzees, 252-253 nucleotide polymorphisms clothing and, 174, 180, 234, 249 assessing evidence for excess of cooperative breeding and, 228-229, 235, functional snPs, 66-67, 77-78 236, 254 Bayes factor, 65, 66, 75, 77 cognitive evolution, 246-247, 250, 253- Bayesian linear model method, 65, 75, 254, 255 77 commensal and parasite evolution, canonical pathway analysis, 71-72, 78 249 ecoregion, subsistence, and dietary culture-led, 231-255 adaptations, 3, 66-76 current selection, 231, 243-245 environmental contrast analysis, 70, 77, demography and, 236, 237-239, 243, 244, 78 245, 248, 249, 255 environmental variables, 76 dietary adaptations, 65, 72, 88-89, 95, FrAPPe analysis, 147, 150, 154-155, 165 239-240, 245, 253 FsT-based analyses of population disease-related adaptations, 231, 240, distances, 69-70, 75, 78, 155, 160-161 244, 245 GWAs results compared with, 71, 72, evidence and problems to solve, 243-255 78-79 fertility, 244-245, 254 hispanic/latino ancestry, 147-166 fire use and, 252-253 linkage disequilibria patterns, 77-78, genome-wide scans of snPs, 240, 248 88-89, 147-148, 153-154 genomic tools applied to, 206, 232, locus-specific ancestry, 148, 153, 154- 238-241 158, 165 holocene, 231, 235, 236, 238, 245-247, polygenic selection model, 64-65 249, 250, 254, 255 sTrUCTUre analysis, 92, 93, 94, 99, in hominin history, 206, 235-238 147, 153, 154-155, 158, 165 language and social organization, Genomes Project (1000), 248 236-237, 239, 241, 246-247, 249, 252, Geographic ranges and locations, 16, 42. 253-255 See also specific continents, countries, late Pleistocene, 235, 242, 245, 247, 248- and fossil sites 251, 254 linguistic affiliation of population late Pliocene to Middle Pleistocene, clusters, 93-95 251-253 Geological society of london, 132 linkage disequilibrium patterns, 231, Geometric Kebaran artifacts, 85 240, 241, 255 Georgia, republic of, fossil sites, 38, 42 and moral sense, 334-335 Germany, fossil sites, 11, 12, 42, 45, 237 mtDnA analysis, 238, 249, 251, 255 Gestation periods, 55, 59 paleoenvironmental change and, 231- Gibbons, 29, 30, 31, 32, 50, 53 232, 235, 241-242, 249, 250, 251 Gibraltar scientific society, 9 Plio-Pleistocene, 247-248, 255 Gladysvale cave fossils, 15 symbiosis in, 234-235 Gluconeogenesis, 70, 71 tool making and use and, 237, 238, 247, Glucose metabolism, 72 248, 250, 251, 252 GlUD-encoding (GLUD2) gene, 57 Gene duplications, 201-202, 285-287 Glutamate, 57 Gene therapy, 115 Glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GLUD1) gene, Genetic drift, 75, 83, 91, 95-96, 98, 111, 135, 57 191, 199, 233, 238, 239, 246-247, 285, Glycans, cell-surface, 101, 105, 106, 107, 287, 290 121, 123-124 Genome sequencing, 7, 52, 53, 54, 101, 192. Glycogen, 70 See also human genomic flaws Glycolysis, 70, 71, 138, 139, 140, 141 Genome-wide association studies, 71, 72, Goat’s hole Cave fossils, 8, 10 78-79, 64, 81, 94 Gompertz, B., 217

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Index / 0 Gona study area fossils, 19, 39 data quality control, 164 Gondolin Cave fossils, 17 datasets, 149-150, 154, 164 Goodman, Morris, 2-3, 32, 47-61 defined, 148 Gorilla gorilla (gorilla), 7, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, disease-associated variants, 149, 163 39, 41, 49, 50, 51-52, 53, 106, 258, 320 Dominicans, 147, 149-150, 151, 152, 153, Gran Dolina fossils, 13, 42, 45-46 154, 155, 156, 158, 159, 160, 161, 164 Grandmother hypothesis, 206, 213, 214-216, ecuadorians, 147, 149-150, 151, 152, 153, 227-228 154-155, 156, 158-159, 160, 163, 164 Great apes. See also Bonobos; Chimpanzees; european ancestry, 103, 147, 148, 149, Gibbons, Gorillas; nonhuman 150-151, 152-153, 154, 155, 156, 158, hominids; orangutans 159-161, 162, 163, 164, 165-166 evolutionary rates, 52 FrAPPe results, 147, 150, 154-155, 165 morphological differences, 7 FsT-based analysis of population Greece, fossil sites, 12, 45, 46 distances, 155, 160-161 Gujarati people, 65, 68, 76 linkage disequilibria patterns, 147-148, 1-Gulono-gamma lactone oxidase (GULO) 153-154 gene, 287-288 locus-specific ancestry, 148, 153, 154- 158, 165 Mexicans, 147, 149-150, 151, 152, 153, H 154, 155, 156, 158-159, 160, 161, 164, 165-166 hadar fossils, 14, 15, 16 mtDnA variation, 147, 159, 160, 161, hadza people and language, 83, 93, 94, 95, 162 97, 98-99, 215, 216, 217, 221, 223, 227 native American ancestry, 103, 147, haeckel, ernst, 9-10 148, 149, 150-152, 153, 154, 155, hairlessness, 170-171 156, 157-159, 160-161, 162, 163, 164, hamilton, W. D., 211, 212-214, 217, 218, 165-166 227, 228 population structure, 150-154, 165-166 hammer, Michael, 102-103, 147-166 principal component analysis, 147, 151- hancock, Angela M., 3, 63-79 152, 153, 155, 165 hapMap Phase ii populations, 65 Puerto ricans, 147, 149-150, 151, 152, harvard University, vii-viii 153, 154, 155, 156, 158, 159-160, 161, hathnora fossils, 12 162, 164 hausa people, 89, 96 sex bias in ancestry contributions, 103, hawkes, Kristen, 206, 211-229 147, 148-149, 158-160, 161-162 hemoglobin, 32, 51, 285-286 sTrUCTUre results, 147, 153, 154-155, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, 121 158, 165 hennig, W., 31 study design implications, 163 henrich, Joseph, 206, 231-255 Uruguayans, 149 henry, Francis, 189 West African ancestry, 103, 147, 148, herto fossils, 38 149, 150-152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 158, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 72 159-162, 163, 164, 165 hippocrates, 168 X-chromosome variation, 147, 148, 152, hispanic/latino population genomics 153, 158-159, 160, 161, 162, 165 Argentinians, 149 y-chromosome variation, 147, 159-160, autosomal variation, 147, 148, 151, 152, 161, 162 153, 158, 159, 161, 162 homeobox-containing genes, 287 Brazilians, 149 hominidae, 7, 50, 51 Colombians, 147, 149-150, 151, 152, 153, hominina, 8 154, 155, 156, 157-158, 160, 163, 164 homininae, 7 Costa ricans, 149 hominini, 8 Cubans, 149

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0 / Index hominins/homininans hooker, J. D., 28 cranian anatomy, 1, 2, 10, 11, 12-13, 14, horticulture, 67, 73, 74, 76, 302 15, 18, 19, 20, 23, 25, 36, 39, 40 howells, W. W., 34, 41 classifying, 8 hrdy, s. B., 228 defined, 8 human Genome Diversity Project Panel, gene–culture coevolution, 206, 235-238 65, 150, 151, 154, 155, 164, 165 species recognition, 22 human genomic flaws Homo antecessor, 9, 13, 42, 45 compilations of genetic disorders, Homo cepranensis, 45-46 193-195 duplicons and pseudogenes, 201-202 Homo erectus brain size, 28, 39, 40, 45, 251, 252 evolutionary explanations for, 191, 199 classification, 9 gene regulation and nucleic acid cranial features, 12, 13, 39, 44 surveillance, 196-199 diet, 12 gratuitous complexities, 195-201 discovery, 10 mobile elements, 202-203 geographic locations, 12, 39, 40, 43 mtDnA, 199-201 mandibular and dental features,12, 13 protein-coding DnA sequences, 193-195 posture and locomotion, 11 repetitive DnA elements, 201-203 postcranial skeletal features/stature, 12, split genes, 185-196 36-38, 39, 251 theodicy dilemma, 185, 190-192, 193, temporal range, 12, 40, 42 203-204 tool making and subsistence activities, hume, David, 192, 323 251, 252 hunter-gatherers type specimen, 12 analytical reasoning, 262-263 Homo ergaster, 9, 13, 38, 39 fertility, 223-225 Homo floresiensis, 8, 9, 13, 36, 40 history of African populations, 83, 98-99 Homo georgicus, 28 longevity, 212, 214-216, 217, 219, 221, Homo habilis, 9, 13-14, 18, 36, 38, 39, 323, 223-224, 225 334, 335 social exchange, 296 Homo heidelbergensis, 9, 10, 11, 12-13, 42, huxley, Thomas henry, 6-7, 8, 25, 28, 29, 249, 252 30, 31, 106 Homo helmei Dreyer 1935, 11 hylobates, 29 Homo mauritanicus, 42 Homo neanderthalensis. See I neantherthal/neandertal Homo rhodesiensis, 13 iberian Jews and Muslims, 162 Homo rudolfensis, 9, 14-15, 38 illumina humanhap650y platform, 77, Homo sapiens 78-79 “archaic,” 11, 41 illumina 610-Quad platform, 147, 150, 154, brain evolution, 54-57 155, 156, 164, 165 chimpanzee kinship with, 47, 50, 52-53 immunology, comparative. See also sialic Darwin’s observations, xvi acids; siglecs earliest fossils, 10-11 molecular methods, 7, 50-51 evolutionary rate, 52 nuttall’s blood sera experiments, 47, 50 genome sequencing, 53 tolerance at maternal-fetal interface, 55 gorilla kinskip with, 51, 52-53 imprinting diseases, 138-139 mophology, 10-11 india, fossil sites, 10, 12, 172 neurocranial anatomy, 39 indonesia, fossil sites, 10, 12, 40 protein coding genes, 143 influenza, 109, 226 recent/last common ancestor, 13, 41-42 insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene, subpopulation radiation, 133 139

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Index / 0 intelligence. See also Cognitive and Kromdraai B fossils, 17 emotional evolution; reasoning !Kung people, 65, 76, 218, 223 about social exchanges Kuseralee Dora fossils, 19 content-independent inferential methods, 294-295 L costs of, 264-265 domain-general inferential methods, la naulette fossils, 18 294 lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, 88 evolutionary game theory, 296, 299 lactose tolerance polymorphism, 65, 72, exaptations, 332 88-89, 95, 239-240, 245 modular accounts of, 316-317 laetoli fossils, 10, 11, 15, 16, 18 moral behavior and, 314, 326, 327, 328- lake Chad Basin, 86 330, 334-335 lamarckian inheritance, 279, 281, 283, 333 orthogenetic theory, 264 laminin A/C (LMNA) gene, 139 social contract theory, 296 laminopathies, 139 social exchange algorithms, 296-300 language development/linguistics. See also specializations in reasoning, 295-296 specific languages intelligent design, xv, 104, 185, 186, 187- African language family classification, 188, 189-190, 195, 196, 197, 199, 200, 82-83 201, 204, 257, 277, 279, 284 Afroasiatic speakers, 82, 85, 86, 89, 93, international hapMap Project, 65, 150, 164 94, 95, 96, 97 inuit, 263 Baldwin effect, 281-282 invasive hemochorial placentation, 54 Chomsky’s nonadaptationist view, italy and italians 277-278 fossil sites, 45 and cognitive development, 207, 208- hispanic/latino ancestors, 68, 151, 154, 209, 253-254, 261-263, 267, 268, 270, 155, 157 277, 281, 282, 290-292, 300 cultural adaptations and, 235, 253-254 external redundancy and, 287-288 J genetic correlates, 56, 92-99, 253-254 Jablonski, nina G., 103, 167-183 global external redundancy and, Jacovec Cavern fossils, 15 288-290 Java, fossil sites, 1, 10, 28, 38, 39, 43 internal redundancy (gene duplication) Jebel irhoud fossils, 10 paradigm, 285-287 Jinniushan fossils, 12, 38 intraorganismic morphogenetic processes, 275, 282-287 Khoesan speakers, 82-83, 95, 97, 98, 99 K morphological evidence, 14, 253 mutational accident and, 280 Kapsomin fossils, 20 natural selection and, 277, 278, 280, 281 Karafet, Tatiana, 102-103, 147-166 neurology of, 290 Karitiana, 68, 151, 156 niche construction theory, 281-282 Kedung Brubus fossils, 10, 12 niger-Kordofanian speakers, 82, 91, 93- Kenya, fossil sites, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 89, 94, 95, 96, 97 151, 155, 156 nilo-saharan speakers, 82, 86, 89-90, Kenyanthropus platyops, 9, 16-17 93-94, 95, 96, 97 Kesem-Kebena basin fossils, 10 population clusters, 92-93 Kirkwood, T. B. l., 213 relaxation of selective pressures and, Kleine Feldhofer Grotte fossils, 11, 25, 28 208, 275, 282-292 Konso fossils, 18 sexual selection and, 207, 275, 278-280, Koobi Fora fossils, 14, 15, 16, 18 288

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0 / Index and social organization, 253-255 low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 72, 120 subsistence technology and, 85 Loxodonta africana (African savanna symbolic, 246, 321 elephant), 58-59 Wallace’s creationist view of, 279 luhya people, 65 lantian fossils, 13 luo people, 97 last common ancestor, 21, 42, 48, 51, 52, 53- 54, 55, 56, 57, 98, 125, 235-236, 237, M 241, 243, 250 last Glacial Maximum, 85 Maasai people, 65 late iron Age, 90 Macaca (macaques), 52, 60 late Pleistocene, 36, 40, 42, 235, 242, 245, M. fascicularis (cynomolgus macaque), 53 247, 248-251, 254 M. mulatta (rhesus macaque), 53 laurasiatherians, 59 Maka fossils, 15 le Gros Clark, W. e., 32 Makapansgat cave fossils, 16 leakey, louis, 18 Malaria, 65, 108-109, 111, 231, 240, 245 levant fossils (The), 11, 86 Malawi, fossil sites, 14, 18 liang Bua cave fossils, 13 Mandenka, 68, 151, 154, 156 life expectancy, 212, 216, 217, 225, 227 Maritime Chukchee, 65, 66 life spans, 47-48, 58, 59, 194, 215, 228, 264, Martineau, harriet, 323, 324 265, 273. See also longevity Mauer fossils, 12, 46 linnaean hierarchy, 7-8, 33, 51, 52-53 Maya, 68, 151, 154, 155, 156 little ice Age, 177 Mayr, ernst, 32, 36 locomotion. See Posture and locomotion Mbuti Pygmies, 68, 93, 99, 151, 154, 156 longevity, human vs. chimpanzees Megadont archaic hominins, 8, 9, 17-19, 23 age structures, 211, 216-217 Melanoma, 170, 179 demographic aging rates and, 212, 217- Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, 172, 218, 219, 220, 221, 227 178 disposable soma model, 213, 218 Melema fossils, 18 fertility and, 211, 213, 219, 222-225, 229 Melka Kunturé fossils, 12 frailty and, 206, 211, 214, 220, 221, 224- Metabolic syndrome, 135 225, 226, 227-228 Methionine synthase, 69 Gompertz model, 217-218, 219, 220, 221, Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) 228 gene, 69 grandmother hypothesis, 206, 213, 214- Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) 216, 227-228 gene, 139 heterogeneity hypothesis, 206, 211, 214, Methylation, 132, 137-138, 171, 179, 181, 198 218-227 Mexicans, 147, 149-150, 151, 152, 153, 154, hunter-gatherers, 212, 214-216, 217, 219, 155, 156, 158-159, 160, 161, 164, 221, 223-224, 225 165-166 infant and fetal origins of adult disease Micro-rnAs, 198, 199 hypothesis, 225-227 Microcebus murinus (mouse lemur), 53 life history evolution and, 206, 213, 214- Microcephalin (MCPH1) gene, 55-56 218, 219 Microcephaly, 55-56, 252, 269 mtDnA mutations and, 136, 227 MicroCT, 24 postmenopausal female role, 206, 211, Middle Awash study area fossils, 16, 19, 212, 213, 217, 222, 227, 228-229 20-21, 34-35 resource allocation theories, 206, 211, Middle east and Middle eastern people, 217, 219-220 68, 83, 85, 86, 87, 88-89, 94-95, 159, senescence theories, 206, 211, 212-214, 162 215-216, 218, 228 Middle Pleistocene, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, strehler–Mildvan correlations, 218, 220, 242, 251-253 227

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Index / 0 Middle stone Age, 84 altruism and, 261, 266, 268, 298, 321-322, Migrations 332-333, 334, 335 from Africa, 73, 83, 84-91, 96-97, 136, in animals, 333-335, 337-338 238-239, 248, 249, 250 and cooperation, 261 sex-biased, 91, 96 codes of, 319, 327, 328, 335-337, 338 Miller, Kenneth, 186 conditions for ethical behavior, 328-330, Miocene, 29, 242 333-334 Mitchell, John, 168 consequentialism, 330 Mitochondrial DnA (mtDnA) cultural evolution, 319, 326, 328, 336- African populations, 83, 84, 86, 91, 93, 337, 338-339 94, 95, 98-99, 136 Darwin on moral sense, 324, 323-327, Bantu expansion, 91 333, 336 bioenergetic genes, 56-59, 70-71, 127- empathy, 335 128, 130, 131, 133-135, 137-139, 142 free will and, 330, 332-333 cold tolerance and, 70-71 group selection based on altruism, 332- coupling efficiency, 134 334, 336-337 disease mutations, 135-137, 138, 200-201 intellectual capacities for ethics, 314, domestic goat, 86 326, 328-330, 334-335 epigenomic regulation, 137-139, 142 metaethics, 322-323 first sequences, 12, 102 moral behavior, 321-322, 327, 328-330 heteroplasmy, 135 moral judgment, 328, 332, 337-339 hispanic/latino population moral norms, 325, 326, 328, 336, 337-339 admixtures, 147, 159, 160, 161, 162 and natural selection, 320, 326, hunter-gatherer populations, 98-99 336-339 intraovarian selection, 135, 142 normative ethics, 322, 323 lactose tolerance, 95 practical ethics, 322, 323 linguistic distances, 93, 94, 95, 98 rationality of, 328-330 molecular supermatrix analysis, 7, 83 theories of, 322-323 mutations, 70-71, 127-128, 133, 135, 142, theory of sociobiology, 334 200 utilitarianism, 330 and origin of complexity, 133, 199-201 Moreno-estrada, Andres, 102-103, 147-166 reconstruction of modern human Morphology. See Comparative primate origins, 83-84 morphology self-destruct system, 134 Mouse, 58, 59, 112-113, 116, 117-118, 119, sequence evolution rate, 133 124 structure and function, 102 Multicellularity, advent of, 133 TMrCA estimates, 84 Multiple sclerosis, 173 Mitochondrial malic enzymes, 70, 71 Mus musculus, 143 Molecular clock model, 51, 52 Mushabian artifacts, 85 Molecular evolution. See DnA; Genome Mutualistic sharing, 261, 297, 337 entries; Mitochondrial DnA; Phylogenomic perspective; Proteins N nuttall’s blood sera experiments, 47, 50 rates, 51, 52 N-acetylneuraminic acid (neu5Ac), 105, Molecular signatures Database, 78 108, 109, 110, 111-112, 113, 114, 115, Molecular supermatrix analysis (mtDnA/ 118, 120, 122, 123, 124 nry/autosomal), 7, 83 N-glycolylneuraminic acid (neu5Gc) Monophyletic species concept, 22 brain expression of, 124 Moorish Muslims, 162 and cancer, 108, 117, 119, 120 Morality and cardiovascular disease, 117, 119, adaptation vs. exaptation, 319, 330-332 120-121

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0 / Index CMAH gene inactivation, 105, 108, 111, near east, fossil sites, 11, 12 112, 117 neural tube defects, 55-56, 69, 171-172, 252, contamination of biotechnology 269 products with, 117, 122 neurexin superfamily, 241 in fetal tissues, 108, 118 neurodegenerative disease, 135 food sources, 118-119, 121 new World primates, 52, 288 metabolic incorporation of dietary new york University, vii sources, 15-106, 117-119, 120-121, 123 newton, isaac, xv, 182 and red meat aggravation of diseases, ngandong fossils, 40 118-119, 121 niger-Congo speakers, 93 serum sickness reactions, 107-108 nigeria, 90, 96, 155 xeno-autoantigen phenomenon, 105- nilotic languages, 82, 87, 97 106, 118, 119, 120-121, 123 Nomascus leucogenys (gibbon), 53 nAD+, 132, 134, 140 nonrecombinant portion of y chromosome. nahua, 151, 154, 155, 156, 158, 161 See nry analysis NAT2 drug metabolizing enzyme gene, 74 nonulosonic acids, 107 national human Genome research north Africa and north Africans, 10, 41, institute, 53 85-86, 87, 95, 100, 159, 162, 248 native Americans nry analysis hispanic/latino ancestors, 103, 147, African population history, 83-84, 86, 148, 149, 150-152, 153, 154, 155, 87, 91, 93, 94, 95, 98-99 156, 157-159, 160-161, 162, 163, 164, TMrCA estimates, 84 165-166 nuclear DnA linguistic analysis, 68, 93 bioenergetics, 127, 128, 130-131, 136, naukan yup’ik, 65, 66 137, 139, 142 neantherthal/neandertal (Homo deleterious mutations, 142-143 neanderthalensis) intersymbiont reorganization and, 133 autapomorphies, 45 mutation rate, 130, 142-143 brain size, 11, 39, 40, 250-251 sequence evolution rate, 133 “classic,” 11-12, 42 nuttall, George, 47 cranial features, 11, 25, 27-28, 39, 41, 44, 45 O Darwin’s observations, 27-28 fossil sites, 1, 9, 11, 12, 42 obesity, 137 FOXP2 gene, 56, 239, 241, 249-250 oceania and oceanic people, 68, 93 genetic diversity, 12 old World primates, 52, 60, 116, 288 genome sequencing, 12, 41, 53, 56, 239, oldowan traditions, 252 241, 249-250 olduvai Gorge fossils, 12, 14, 18, 36 introgression between modern humans omo Kibish fossils, 10, 38 and, 249-250 omo shungura fossils, 14, 18 language and culture, 56, 250 orangutans, 7, 29, 30, 32, 41, 50, 51, 52, 53, last common ancestor, 13, 41-42, 249 106 mandibular and dental features, 11, 28, orcadians, 68, 151, 154, 157 42, 45 Orrorin, 34 origin, 27 O. tugenensis, 9, 20, 36 posture and locomotion, 11 ostrer, harry, 102-103, 147-166 skeletal features (postcranial), 11, 38, 40, Otolemur garnettii (bushbaby), 53 45, 251 oxidation-reduction systems, 132, 140, skin depigmentation, 173 141 taxonomy, 9, 25 oxidative phosphorylation, 56, 57, 58, 199 temporal range, 11, 46 oXPhos, 133, 134, 136, 138, 139, 140, 141 type specimen, 9

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Index / 0 P gross morphology, 6-7 human clade, 2, 5, 7-8, 19-20, 21, 29-30, Paleoanthropological inventory of 32, 52 ethiopia, 10 huxley’s views, 29 Paley, William, 103-104, 188-189, 190, 323, le Gros Clark’s views, 32 324 linnaean hierarchy, 7-8, 33, 51, 52-53 Pan paniscus (bonobo), 53 monophyletic, 22 Pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (PLRP2) panin clade, 5, 8, 21, 52 gene, 69 parallel evolution, 30 Papio hamadryas (baboon), 53 schultz’s view, 32 Papua new Guinea, 83 simpson’s views, 32-33 Parallel adaptive evolution, 30, 47, 60, 249, species concepts, 2, 22 250, 253 transitional form (“missing link”), 28, Paranthropus 32, 34 P. aethiopicus, 9, 18-19, 23 Phylogenetic species concept, 22 P. boisei, 9, 14, 18, 19, 23, 39 Phylogenomic perspective P. crassidens, 17-18 antigenic divergences, 50-51 P. robustus, 9, 17-18, 23 brain evolution, 54-60 Paraustralopithecus, 17, 18 Darwinian framework, 48, 59-60 Pastoralism and pastoralist populations distantly related mammalian taxa, 47, African history of, 3-4, 87-90 48, 53-54, 58-59 cattle milking, 87-88 divergence dates, 52 gene flows between, 3-4, 84-85, 94-95 ecoregion, subsistence, and dietary genetic adaptations, 67, 72, 73, 74, 76, adaptations, 60, 64, 65, 66-76, 88 88-90 energy metabolism, 3, 47-48, 57-59, 64 lactase persistence in, 88-90 genome-wide association studies in linguistic analysis, 87-90 humans, 71, 72, 78-79, 64, 81 Pathogens lineages of interest, 54 sialic acid evolution, 101, 102, 105, 107, linguistic analysis of African 108-109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 116, populations, 92-99 121, 122, 124 molecular methods, 7, 50-53 Peking University, viii primate sequencing projects, 53 Peninj fossils, 18 research opportunities, 59-60 Pentosuria, 193 Pigmentation. See skin pigmentation Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor α Pima, 68, 151, 156, 161 (PPArα) gene, 136-137 Pinker, steven, 207, 257-273, 320, 338 Personal Genome Project, 192 Pithecanthropus erectus. See homo erectus Petralona fossils, 12, 45, 46 Pituitary homeobox transcription factor 1 Phenetic species concept, 22 (Pitx1) gene, 132 Phosphorylation, 56, 57, 58, 132, 139, 199 Plasma eosinophil count, 72 Phyletic evolution, 33, 35-36 Plasmodium falciparum, 65, 109 Phylogenetic relationships of primates. Platyrrhines, 60 See also Comparative primate Pleistocene, 11, 332. See also early morphology; reconstruction of Pleistocene; late Pleistocene; Middle human evolution Pleistocene; Plio-Pleistocene African ape clade, 27, 28-29, 31, 32 Plio-Pleistocene branching structure, 5, 6-7 fossil sources, 10 cranial analysis, 40-46 gene–culture coevolution, 247-248, 255 Darwin’s views, 27-31, 48-50, 52-53 Pliocene, 242, 251, 264 divergence dates, 52 Polar ecoregions grade concept and, 8-21, 30, 32, 33, 36, 38 cultural adaptations, 234, 235 great apes clade, 32 selection for, 60, 67, 70, 71, 74, 76

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0 / Index Q Polygenic selection model, 64-65 Pongidae, 7, 32, 33, 51 Quantum evolution, 33-35 Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan), 53 Quechua, 151, 156, 158 Population bottlenecks, 84, 92, 98, 238-239, 251 Population reference sample (PoPres), R 150, 155, 164 Portugal and Portuguese, 155 ramification (branching) evolution, 35 Possible hominins, 2, 8, 9, 19-21 reactive oxygen species (ros), 131, 132, Postcranial skeletons, 11, 38, 40, 45, 251 134, 140, 141, 171, 172, 179 Postnatal development period, 48, 54, 60 reasoning about social exchanges. See also Posture and locomotion, 8 Cognitive and emotional evolution; facultative bipedalism (arboreal), 15, 16, intelligence 17, 23, 34 benefits, intentions, and ability varied, homoplasy in, 23 311-313 long-distance travel, 13, 16 cheater detection, 296-298, 299-300, 305- nonbipedal adaptive type, 34 309, 311-313, 314, 316-317 obligate bipedalism, 11, 12, 15, 34 cognitive defense against cheaters, quantum evolution, 34-35 296-297 PPArγ-coactivator 1α (PCG-1α) gene, 136- as computational problem, 296-300 137, 139, 140, 141 cue-based activation, 299-300 Prader-Willi syndrome, 138, 202 deontic theory, 303-305, 313-314 Preeclampsia, 105, 111, 114-116 economic and utility consequences, 298- Premodern Homo, 8, 9, 11-13. See also 299, 314-317 neanderthal experimental tests, 300-305 Prenatal development period, 48, 54 intentional violations vs. innocent Principle of parsimony, 7, 111, 116-117, 273 mistakes, 309-313 Princeton University, vii intentionality without benefits, 310-311 Principal component analyses, 39, 147, 151- interpretation of rules and, 314 152, 153, 155, 165 permission rules without benefits, Pritchard, Jonathan, 3, 63-79 305-309 Prokaryotic evolution, 48 permission schema theory, 304, 306, 308, Proline, 71 309, 314 Pronatalist culture, 244-245 person categorization, 296-298 Protein kinases, 109, 137, 139-140, 197-199 selection pressures for, 296 Proteins social contract algorithms for, 296, amino acid sequencing, 3, 7, 51 303-305 antigenic divergencies, 32, 50-51, 55 social contract theory and, 299, 300-305, galectins, 55 306, 309 hemoglobin analysis, 32, 51 and theory of mind, 317 α-Protobacterium, 133 reciprocation and reciprocal altruism, 261, Protomitochondrion, 133 266, 296, 297, 298-299, 312 Proto-nucleus-cytosol, 133 reconquista, 162 Pseudogenes, 105, 111, 114, 116, 121, 185, reconstruction of human evolution. See also 201-202, 286, 287 Comparative primate morphology; Puerto ricans, 147, 149-150, 151, 152, 153, Phylogenetic relationships 154, 155, 156, 158, 159-160, 161, 162, achievements, 6-21 164 data capture advances and, 5, 24-25 Pygmy populations, 39, 93, 99, 151, 154, grade concept, 8-21, 30, 32, 33, 36, 38 156, 219 interpretation challenges, 5, 21-23 Pyruvate metabolism, 70, 71, 140, 141 modern human genetic data and, 83

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Index / 0 molecular supermatrix analysis, 7 biological roles, 105, 107 mtDnA, nry, and autosomal data cell-surface landscape and, 123-124 analysis, 83-84 CMAH gene, 105, 108, 111, 112, 117, 124 opportunities in, 24-25 Cmah-null mice, 117-118, 119, 123, 124 temporal ranges of taxa, 2, 11, 12, 13, 14, and disease propensities, 117, 118-119, 15, 16, 17, 18-19, 42, 137 121 reilingen fossils, 46 evolutionary “hotspot” for genetic and reticulate evolution, 47 physiological changes, 106, 116-117, rett syndrome, 139 121 reynolds, Andy, 102-103, 147-166 heart disease, 120-121 rheumatoid arthritis, 115 influenza, 109 richerson, Peter J., 206, 231-255 malaria, 108-109 rickets, 173 neu5Ac expression, 105, 108, 109, 110, robinson, John, 18 111-112, 113, 114, 115, 118, 120, 122, rock of Gibraltar fossils, 1, 8-9, 28 123, 124 russians, 68, 151, 154, 157 pathogen interactions, 101, 102, 105, 107, 108-109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 121, 122, 124 S recognition by siglecs, 107, 110-112, 113 research opportunities, 121-124 S-adenosylmethionine (sAM), 132, 137-138 scenario for genetic changes, 110-112 sackler, Arthur M., vii-viii. See also Arthur SIGLEC gene changes, 105 M. sackler Colloquium siberia, indigenous people, 65, 66 sackler, Jillian, vii, viii sickle cell trait, 65, 231, 240, 245 sagantole fossils, 19 siglecs sahel, neolithic in, 86 and bacterial pathogenesis, 121 Sahelanthropus, 34 CD33-related, 105, 110, 111, 112, 113, S. tchadensis, 9, 20, 36 114-115, 116 Saimiri sp. (squirrel monkey), 53 conserved arginine residue, 111, 113 sambungmachan fossils, 12 gene conversion on siglec-11 sandawe people and language, 83, 93, 94, human–nonhuman hominid differences, 95, 97, 98-99 109-110 sangiran fossils, 12 neu5Ac-binding, 112, 113, 114 sardinians, 68, 151, 154, 157 placental expression of siglec-6 in scheinfeldt, laura B., 3-4, 81-100 preeclampsia, 105, 111, 114-116 schultz, Adolph h., 32 population genetics and selective sweeps, 239, 250 polymorphisms, 121 semitic languages amd speakers, 82, 96 pseudogenization of activatory siglecs, senescence. See also longevity 105, 111, 114, 116, 121 hamiltonian theory, 211, 212-214, 217, recognition of sias, 110-112, 113 218, 227, 228 research opportunities, 122 Williams theory, 212, 213, 214, 218 sialoadhesin on macrophages, 112-113 sephardic Jews, 162 T-cell expression, 115 sex-biased gene flow, 91, 103, 147, 148-149, sima de los huesos fossils, 11-12, 13, 38, 39, 158-160, 161-162 40, 42-45, 46 shiwiar, 302 sima del elefante fossils, 42 sialic acids, human–nonhuman simpson, George Gaylord, 32-34 hominid differences. See also N- single nucleotide polymorphisms (snPs). glycolylneuraminic acid; siglecs See also Genome-wide scans of snPs α2–6-linked sia expression, 105, 109, 111 biological relevance, 70-71 anti-cancer potential, 119 disease/trait associations, 64, 71, 72, anti-neu5Gc antibodies, 118, 119, 123 78-79

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0 / Index at energy metabolism genes, 64 spliceosomes, 195, 196 genic, 63, 66-70, 71, 75, 77-78 starch and sucrose metabolism, 64, 65, 70, nongenic, 66, 67, 70, 77-78 71, 74, 231, 245 nonsynonymous, 63, 66-70, 75, 77-78 state University of new york at stony sirtuin-mediated deacetylation, 132, 140 Brook, viii siwalik hills fossils, 10 steinheim fossils, 11-12, 46 skin cancer, 170-171, 179, 180, 181 sterkfontein fossils, 14, 15 skin evolution sterner, Kirstin n., 2-3, 47-61 epidermal differentiation, 170-171 stickleback fish, 132 hairlessness, 170 strait of Gibraltar, 86 skin pigmentation strepsirrhines, 52 Aristote’s climate theory, 168 Streptococcus Group B, 112 Darwin’s sexual selection hypothesis, sub-saharan Africa/Africans, 68, 73, 89, 103, 168, 169 91, 100 early views of, 168-169 sudan, 86, 89, 93 folate metabolism and, 167, 171-172, 179 sudanic languages and speakers, 82, 87, 96 geographic variation in Uvr and, 103, sukernik, rem, 3, 63-79 167, 172-173, 174-177 surui, 68, 151, 156 infants, 181 swanscombe fossils, 11-12, 45, 46 model system for teaching evolution, swartkrans fossils, 14, 17, 18 181-182 symbiotic origin of eukaryotes, 48, 129, reflectance measure, 170 131, 133, 200 seasonal variation in Uvr and, 167, 170 selective pressures, 167, 169, 170, 171- T 172, 177-178, 179, 249 sexual dimorphism, 170, 179 Tabarin, 19 skin cancer relevance, 170-171, 179, 180, Tanzania, fossil sites, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 18, 181 36, 88, 89, 98, 223 tanning, 103, 167-168, 178, 180-181 Tarsius syrichta (tarsier), 53 vitamin D photosynthesis and, 103, 167, Taung child, 10, 15, 28, 32 170-171, 172-174, 178, 179, 180, 181, Taxonomy 249 anatomically modern Homo, 2, 8, 9, slavery and slave trade, 148, 160, 168 10-11 slow loris, 54 archaic hominins, 15-17, 23 synchroton radiation microtomography, 24 grade concept, 8-10, 30, 32, 33, 36, 38 smith, samuel stanhope, 168-169, 170 interpretation challenges, 5, 21-23 social contract theory, 300-305 megadont archaic hominins, 17-19 socrates, 103, 188 possible hominins, 19-21 sodium homeostasis, 65 premodern Homo, 11-13 soi, sameer, 3-4, 81-100 transitional hominins, 13-14 south Africa, fossil sites, 15, 17, 36, 65, 76, Temporal ranges of taxa, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 98 16, 17, 18-19, 42, 137 southern African Khoesan (sAK) languages Tenrecs, 58-59 and speakers, 83, 93, 94, 95, 98, 99 Thalassemias, 65, 198-199 southwest Asia, 83 Thermoregulation, 170-171 spain and spainards Thiol-disulfide regulation, 132, 140, 141 fossil sites, 11-12, 13, 38, 39, 40, 43-44, Time to the most recent ancestor (TMrCA), 45, 46 84, 98, 99 hispanic/latino ancestors, 155 Tishkoff, sarah A., 3-4, 81-100 speciation, 32, 35 Tooby John, 207, 293-318 spina bifida, 69

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Index /  W Tool use and tool making, 1, 17, 54, 205, 206, 208, 237, 238, 247, 248, 250, 251, Wales, fossil sites, 8, 10 252, 259, 260, 262, 264, 265, 266-267, Wallace, Albert russel, 128, 132, 143-144, 280, 321, 329, 331, 332 257, 258-259, 264, 267, 269, 272, 277, Toros-Menalla, 20 279, 281 Total ozone Mapping spectrometer, Wallace, Douglas C., 102, 127-145 182-183 Washburn, sherwood l., 34, 247 Transitional hominins, 8, 9, 13-14, 28, 34 Weismann, August, 283 Tree of life. See Phylogenetic relationships Wenner-Gren Foundation, 32 Trinil fossils, 10, 12 West Africa and West Africans, 95, 103, 147, Tuberous sclerosis protein complex, 139 148, 149, 150-152, 153, 154, 155, 156, Turkana Boy (KnM-WT 15000), 38 158, 159-162, 163, 164, 165 Tuscans, 65, 68, 151, 157 West Turkana fossils, 15, 17, 18 White-backed munia, 288 White sands fossils, 15 U Williams, G. C., 212, 213, 214, 218 Ultraviolet radiation. See also skin Wilm’s tumor, 138-139 pigmentation Witonsky, David B., 3, 63-79 data sources, 182-183 Wood, Bernard, 1-2, 5-25 geographic variation, 103, 167, 172-173, 174-177 X seasonal variation, 167, 170, 178, 180-181 X-chromosome variation in hispanic/ selective pressures of, 167, 169, 170, 171- latino population ancestry, 147, 148, 172, 177-178, 179 152, 153, 158-159, 160, 161, 162, 165 solar irradiance and insolation, 177 Xujiayao fossils, 12 Uraha fossils, 14 Urinary bladder cancer, 72 Uruguayans, 149 Y Utah Population Data Base, 224 Utermann, Gerd, 3, 63-79 y-chromosome variationn hispanic/latino population ancestry, 147, 159-160, 161, 162 V yanomamö, 262-263 yoruba, 68, 151, 154, 155, 156 varki, Ajit, 101-102, 105-125 yunxian fossils, 12 velez, Christopher, 102-103, 147-166 vindija fossils, 12 vitamin D photosynthesis, 103, 167, 170- Z 171, 172-174, 178, 179, 180, 181, 249 Zambia, fossil sites, 45 Zhoukoudian fossils, 12, 38, 40, 42, 43 Zuttiyeh fossils, 12 Zinjanthropus, 17, 18

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