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International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages: Dimensions and Sources Biographical Sketches of Contributors Dawn Alley completed her Ph.D. in gerontology at the University of Southern California, Davis, School of Gerontology, followed by postdoctoral studies as a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health and Society Scholar at the University of Pennsylvania. She is currently an assistant professor of epidemiology and preventive medicine at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, where her research focuses on obesity, biomarkers, and health disparities among older adults. Her work on obesity has appeared in the Journal of the American Medical Association and Archives of Internal Medicine. Mauricio Avendano is assistant professor at the Erasmus University Medical Center and research fellow at the Center for Population and Development studies at Harvard University. His current research focuses on the role of national institutions and policies in shaping the pathways and magnitude of the socioeconomic status (SES) gradient in health in the United States and Europe. He has been awarded several grants to explore how social and economic aspects of life relate to health outcomes, and how these processes occur differently across various societies. He has been closely involved in the design, data collection, and analysis of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). He is also involved in the European Global Burden of Disease Study, aimed at quantifying mortality attributable to SES. He has published in major epidemiological and medical journals, including Lancet, American Journal of Public Health, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, American Journal of Epidemiology, and Stroke.
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International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages: Dimensions and Sources James Banks is professor of economics at the University of Manchester and deputy research director of the Institute for Fiscal Studies, where he also directs the Centre for Economic Research on Ageing. His research focuses on empirical modeling of individual economic behavior over the life cycle, with particular focus on consumption and spending patterns, saving and asset accumulation, housing dynamics, and retirement and pension choices. Recent work has also begun to look at broader issues in the economics of aging, such as health, physical, and cognitive functioning and their association with labor market status; the dynamics of work disability; and the nature of expectations of retirement, health, and longevity. He is also coprincipal investigator of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing and has become actively involved in designing economic measures for survey data. He holds a Ph.D. in economics from University College London. Magali Barbieri has a joint position as an associate researcher at the Institut National d’Études Démographiques (INED) in Paris, France, and at the Department of Demography, University of California, Berkeley, where she is in charge of coordinating the Human Mortality Database project. She conducts research on a wide range of topics, including infant and child mortality in both developed and developing countries; changes in the structure of mortality by cause over time and across countries; and health in colonial Vietnam. Her most recent publications in English include a coedited volume on changes in the Vietnamese family after 20 years of socioeconomic reforms; a long coauthored article on 50 years of demographic trends in East and Southeast Asia; and an article on the mortality consequences of the 2003 heat wave in France. Lisa F. Berkman is director, Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies and Thomas D. Cabot Professor of Public Policy, Epidemiology and Population and International Health within the Harvard School of Public Health. She is a social epidemiologist whose work is oriented toward understanding social inequalities in health and aging related to socioeconomic status, labor policy, and social networks and social isolation. She has recently started research on labor issues related to job design and flexibility. The majority of her work is devoted to identifying the role of social networks and support in predicting declines in physical and cognitive functioning, onset of disease, and mortality, especially related to cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease. She has a Ph.D. in epidemiology from the University of California, Berkeley. Carl Boe is research demographer with the Center on the Economics and Demography of Aging at the University of California, Berkeley. His research focuses on stochastic forecasting of mortality and population, biodemogra-
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International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages: Dimensions and Sources phy, and life table calculations for the Human Mortality Database. He holds an M.A. in statistics and a Ph.D. in demography, both from the University of California, Berkeley. Kaare Christensen is a professor of epidemiology at the Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, and a senior research scientist at the Terry Sanford Institute, Duke University, North Carolina. Christensen is the director of the Danish Twin Registry and the Danish Aging Research Centre, and he has conducted a long series of studies among twins and the oldest-old in order to shed light on the importance of genes and environment in aging and longevity. Furthermore, he has a longstanding interest in the relation between early life events and later life health outcome. He is engaged in interdisciplinary aging research combining methods from epidemiology, genetics, and demography. Professor Christensen received his Ph.D. at Odense University in 1994 and DMSc at the University of Southern Denmark in 1999. Barney Cohen is director of the Committee on Population of the National Academies/NRC. His work at the NRC has encompassed a wide variety of domestic and international projects, including studies on fertility, morbidity, mortality, housing, urbanization, migration, aging, and HIV/AIDS. Currently, he is also serving as the liaison of the National Academies to the Academy of Science of South Africa and the Ghanaian Academy of Arts and Sciences as part of a larger project aimed at supporting the development of academies of science in Africa. Cohen holds an M.A. in economics from the University of Delaware and a Ph.D. in demography from the University of California, Berkeley. Eileen M. Crimmins is AARP chair in gerontology and professor of gerontology and sociology at the University of Southern California (USC). She is also director of the USC/University of California, Los Angeles, Center on Biodemography and Population Health. Her research is on health trends, health change with age healthy life expectancy, and health differences in the population. She also examines how social, psychological, and biological factors affect health. Dr. Crimmins is a coprincipal investigator on the Health and Retirement Survey. She has served on a number of National Institute on Aging monitoring committees and on the board of counselors of the National Center for Health Statistics. She has a Ph.D. in demography from the University of Pennsylvania. Michael Davidsen is a senior researcher at the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark. His main topic is design and analysis of public health surveys with a special focus on health and morbidity.
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International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages: Dimensions and Sources Krista Garcia is currently a Ph.D. student at the University of Southern California (USC) Davis School of Gerontology whose research is done within the USC/University of California, Los Angeles, Center on Biodemography and Population Health. Her research focuses on cross-country comparisons in health outcomes and secondary prevention strategies. Joop Garssen studied geography and non-Western demography at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands, and community health at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. From 1978 to 1993, he was involved in demographic and health research in the South Pacific, and West and East Africa. Since 1993, he has been employed as editor and senior researcher at the department of demography, Statistics Netherlands. Dana A. Glei is a senior research investigator at Georgetown University. Since 2001, she has worked on the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (Taiwan). During 2001-2009, she also served as project coordinator for the Human Mortality Database project (http://www.mortality.org), a joint collaboration between researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, and the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research. Her current research focuses on the effects of smoking on mortality and sex differences in mortality, the impact of stressors on subsequent health, and the role of bioindicators in mediating the relationship between psychosocial factors and health outcomes. She has an M.A. in sociology from the University of Virginia and a Ph.D. in sociology from Princeton University. M. Maria Glymour is an assistant professor in the Department of Society, Human Development, and Health at the Harvard School of Public Health. Her research focuses on social determinants of cognitive aging; social inequalities in stroke; and adapting methodological innovations to overcome causal inference problems in social epidemiology. Noreen Goldman is the Hughes-Rogers Professor of Demography and Public Affairs at the Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University. She conducts research in areas of demography and epidemiology, and her current research examines the role of social and economic factors on adult health and the physiological pathways through which these factors operate. She has designed several large-scale health surveys in Latin America and Taiwan. She has been a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, served on the Institute of Medicine’s Board on Global Health, the National Research Council’s Committee on National Statistics, and the Population Research Subcommittee of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. She has a D.Sc. in population studies from Harvard University.
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International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages: Dimensions and Sources Jessica Ho is currently a graduate student in the Graduate Group in Demography at the University of Pennsylvania. Her recent research has focused on health and mortality. She holds a B.A. in economics and health and societies from the University of Pennsylvania. Knud Juel received his Ph.D. from the University of Copenhagen in 1996. His field of research includes life expectancy, mortality, impact of risk factors on health, and smoking. He is currently the programme director of the Research Programme on Public Health in Denmark at the National Institute of Public Health University of Southern Denmark. Ichiro Kawachi is professor of social epidemiology, and chair of the Department of Society, Human Development and Health at the Harvard School of Public Health. Kawachi received both his medical degree and Ph.D. (in epidemiology) from the University of Otago, New Zealand. He has taught at the Harvard School of Public Health since 1992. Kawachi has published widely on the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disease, as well as the broader social and economic determinants of population health. He was the coeditor (with Lisa Berkman) of the first textbook on Social Epidemiology, published by Oxford University Press in 2000. His books include The Health of Nations (The New Press, 2002) and Social Capital and Health (Springer, 2008). Kawachi currently serves as the senior editor (Social Epidemiology) of the international journal Social Science & Medicine, as well as an editor of the American Journal of Epidemiology. He has served as a consultant to the World Health Organization and the World Bank. Jung Ki Kim is a research assistant professor at the Andrus Gerontology Center of the University of Southern California. She received a Ph.D. in gerontology/public policy at the University of Southern California and a dual master’s in gerontology and social work. Her dissertation was on the effect of marital status on health outcomes among older people, particularly how different marital status, changes of marital status, duration of widowhood, and living arrangements affect health outcomes. She has done research on health and health-related issues in large national data sets. Her current and future research interests include work on socioeconomic status and biological risk, social support and health among older people, and cross-country comparison of health status. Renske Kok is a consultant for Strategies in Regulated Markets (SiRM), a Dutch consulting firm with a major focus on health care. She uses econometric and epidemiological research techniques in cross-country comparisons of health and health care in Europe. Recent projects have dealt with evaluations of quality indicators and market analysis of curative care.
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International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages: Dimensions and Sources Previously she worked as a scientific researcher in the Department of Public Health at Erasmus University, where she was closely involved in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), a comparative study of 15 countries. The project was designed to study the interaction between health and the social and economic dimensions of life in European countries. Kok was also part of the SHARELIFE project group, an extension of SHARE that aims to understand aging from a life-course perspective. Her current work involves the study of socioeconomic disparities in depression across European countries and the influence of reporting differences in these disparities. She has an M.Sc. in economics from Tilburg University and an M.Sc. in health economics from Erasmus University. Anton Kunst is associate professor at the Department of Public Health, Academic Medical Centre (AMC), University of Amsterdam. Until 2009, he was also senior researcher at the Erasmus MC Rotterdam. His research focuses on geographic, socioeconomic, and ethnic inequalities in mortality, disability, diseases, and their risk factors including smoking and obesity. In addition to research focusing on the Netherlands, he has performed comparative studies at European and global levels. He has coordinated several European projects on socioeconomic inequalities in health, often with an emphasis on mortality. Currently, he also evaluates the population health impact of social policies at national and local levels. He has published on these topics in more than 150 papers in international journals. Jennifer Lloyd is a doctoral student in the Doctoral Program in Gerontology at the University of Maryland, Baltimore. She currently works as a graduate assistant for the Peter Lamy Center for Drug Therapy and Aging, where she works with data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, and for the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, where she works on a study related to caregivers of hip fracture patients. Johan P. Mackenbach is chair of the Department of Public Health and Professor of Public Health at Erasmus University in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. He is also a registered epidemiologist and public health physician. His research interests include social epidemiology, medical demography, and health services research. He has coauthored about 350 papers in international, peer-reviewed scientific journals, as well as a number of books, and many book chapters and papers in Dutch-language journals. He is the editor in chief of the European Journal of Public Health, and he has coordinated a number of international-comparative studies funded by the European Commission. His current research focuses on socioeconomic inequalities in health, on issues related to aging and compression of morbidity, and on the effectiveness and quality of health services. He is actively engaged in
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International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages: Dimensions and Sources exchanges between research and policy, among others as a member of several government advisory councils in the Netherlands (the Health Council, and the Council for Public Health and Health Care). He is a member of the Dutch Royal Academy of Sciences. He has both an M.D. and Ph.D. in public health from Erasmus University. France Meslé was director of research at INED (National Institute for Demographic Studies in Paris) in the Mortality, Health, and Epidemiology research unit from 2003 to 2008. She was editor of the European Journal for Population from 2001 to 2005 and in charge of the INED web site in 1997-2000. Her research is mainly devoted to mortality and causes of death, especially long-term trends in causes of death, health crisis in Eastern Europe, and trends in mortality at old ages. She is leading a collaborative project on cause-of-death trends in the former USSR, which gathers several research teams from Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic countries, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, and Moldova. She has an M.A. in demography from the University of Paris 1 and an M.D. from the University of Paris 6. Laust H. Mortensen is a postdoctoral student at the unit of epidemiology at the University of Southern Denmark. He holds a Ph.D. in epidemiology from the University of Copenhagen. Fred Pampel is professor of sociology and research associate of the Population Program at the University of Colorado, Boulder. He has served as sociology program officer at the National Science Foundation and associate vice chancellor for research at the University of Colorado, Boulder. His research focuses on cross-national patterns of tobacco use and on disparities in use by socioeconomic, gender, and race groups. He also examines the contribution of these smoking patterns to recent changes in the sex differential in mortality, widening of socioeconomic status disparities in health and mortality, and diverging patterns of mortality across developed and developing countries. Samuel H. Preston is professor of demography, School of Arts and Sciences, the University of Pennsylvania. He has been a member of the sociology department since 1979. His research focuses on the causes and consequences of population change, with special attention to mortality. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and Institute of Medicine, as well as the American Philosophical Society. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Statistical Association. He holds a Ph.D. in economics from Princeton University.
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International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages: Dimensions and Sources Roland Rau is junior professor of demography at the University of Rostock, Germany, and research fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, Germany. His research focuses on human mortality in highly developed countries. Before working for 2 years at Duke University’s Population Research Institute as a research scholar, Rau received in 2006 the Otto-Hahn-Medal of the Max Planck Society for his doctoral dissertation on seasonal fluctuations in human mortality. He has a Ph.D. in demography from the University of Rostock, Germany. Michelle Shardell is an assistant professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine at the University of Maryland, School of Medicine. She received her Ph.D. in biostatistics from Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health. Her research interests include the use of proxy data in studies of older adults, as well as determinants of health decline and recovery in older persons. James P. Smith holds the RAND Chair in Labor Markets and Demographic Studies and was the director of RAND’s Labor and Population Studies Program from 1977-1994. He has led numerous projects, including studies of immigration, the economics of aging, black-white wages and employment, wealth accumulation and savings behavior, the relation of health and economic status, the impact of the Asian economic crisis, and the causes and consequences of economic growth. Smith has worked extensively in Europe and Asia for 30 years. He currently serves as chair of the National Institute on Aging Data Monitoring Committee for the Health and Retirement Survey and was chair of the National Science Foundation Advisory Committee for the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. He has served as an international advisor on implementing health and retirement surveys in China, continental Europe, England, Korea, and Thailand. He was the public representative appointed by the governor on the California Occupational Health and Safety Board. He has twice received the National Institutes of Health MERIT Award, the most distinguished honor the National Institutes of Health grants to a researcher. He has a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Chicago. Andrew Steptoe is British Heart Foundation professor of psychology at University College London (UCL). He graduated from Cambridge in 1972 and completed his doctorate at Oxford University in 1975. He moved to St. George’s Hospital Medical School in 1977, becoming professor and chair of the department in 1988, where he remained until his appointment in 2000 to UCL. He is a past president of the International Society of Behavioral Medicine and of the Society for Psychosomatic Research. He was elected to fellowship of the Academy of Medical Sciences in 2008. He was founding editor of the British Journal of Health Psychology, an associate editor of
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International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages: Dimensions and Sources Psychophysiology, the Annals of Behavioral Medicine, the British Journal of Clinical Psychology, the International Journal of Rehabilitation and Health, and the Journal of Psychosomatic Research, and he is on the editorial boards of seven other journals. He is author or editor of 16 books, including Psychosocial Processes and Health (Cambridge University Press, 1994) and Depression and Physical Illness (Cambridge University Press, 2006). His main research interests are in psychosocial aspects of physical illness, health behavior, psychobiology, and aging. Steptoe joined the management group of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) in 2008, and he is coprincipal investigator of the UCL ELSA group. Jacques Vallin is emeritus research director at the Institut National d’Études Démographiques. His research interests include health transition, inequalities in death, causes of death, life expectancy and life span, population and development, consequences of global population growth, and population of the Maghreb. He is a coeditor of Demography Analysis and Synthesis, a four-volume treatise of demography recently published by Academic Press. He taught postgraduate courses at the Institut d’Études Politiques de Paris. He is honorary president of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, and he is also member of the Population Association of America, the European Association for Population Studies, and the Union for African Population Studies. He has a Ph.D. in demography from the University of Paris. James W. Vaupel is the founding director of the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, Germany, as well as director of Duke University’s Population Research Institute. He oversees research projects in China, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, and the United States. He is best known for his research on mortality, morbidity, population aging, and biodemography (for which he received the Irene Taeuber Award from the Population Association of America), as well as for research on population heterogeneity, population surfaces, and other aspects of mathematical and statistical demography (for which he received the Mindel Sheps Award from the Population Association of America). He is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science as well as a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has a B.A. in mathematical statistics (with highest honors) and an M.P.P. and Ph.D. in public policy analysis, all from Harvard University. Anna Wikman is a research fellow in the psychobiology group in the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health at University College London. She has a master’s in health psychology (King’s College London), and a master’s in research methods (Goldsmith’s College London). She completed her
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International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages: Dimensions and Sources Ph.D. in health psychology (University College London) studying patients’ psychological reactions and adaptation following acute cardiac events, with a particular focus on the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Her current work involves working on the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, investigating adaptation to chronic physical illness. John R. Wilmoth is associate professor, Department of Demography, and researcher, Center on the Economics and Demography of Aging, University of California, Berkeley. In 2009-2010, he was a consultant to the World Health Organization to develop the United Nation’s maternal mortality estimates. Prior to this, he worked for the Population Division of the United Nations in New York City (2005-2007). His research interests include causes of the historical mortality decline, future trends in human mortality and life expectancy at birth, exceptional longevity and possible limits to the human life span, and mortality differentials among social groups within populations. He is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Population Association of America, and the Gerontological Society of America. He serves on the editorial boards of several journals including Demographic Research and European Journal of Population. He has a Ph.D. in statistics and demography from Princeton University.