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Statements of Task for the Astro2010 Panels

COSMOLOGY AND FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS STATEMENT OF TASK

The Cosmology and Fundamental Physics (CFP) Panel will identify and articulate the scientific themes that will define the frontier in CFP research in the 2010-2020 decade. Its scope will encompass cosmology and fundamental physics, including the early universe, the microwave background, the reionization and galaxy formation up to virialization of protogalaxies, large scale structure, the intergalactic medium, the determination of cosmological parameters, dark matter, dark energy, tests of gravity, astronomically determined physical constants, and high energy physics using astronomical messengers. Its assessment will play a key role in the Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010 study, which will survey the field of space- and ground-based astronomy and astrophysics, recommending priorities for the most important scientific and technical activities of the decade 2010-2020. The CFP Panel will prepare a report that will identify the scientific drivers of the field and the most promising opportunities for progress in research in the next decade, taking into consideration those areas where the technical means and the theoretical foundations are in place for major steps forward.

More broadly, this panel will be charged (as will each of the five science panels) with the following tasks:

  1. Identify new scientific opportunities and compelling scientific themes that have arisen from recent advances and accomplishments in astronomy and astrophysics;



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A Statements of Task for the Astro2010 Panels COSMOLOGY AND FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS STATEMENT OF TASK The Cosmology and Fundamental Physics (CFP) Panel will identify and ar- ticulate the scientific themes that will define the frontier in CFP research in the 2010-2020 decade. Its scope will encompass cosmology and fundamental physics, including the early universe, the microwave background, the reionization and galaxy formation up to virialization of protogalaxies, large scale structure, the in- tergalactic medium, the determination of cosmological parameters, dark matter, dark energy, tests of gravity, astronomically determined physical constants, and high energy physics using astronomical messengers. Its assessment will play a key role in the Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010 study, which will survey the field of space- and ground-based astronomy and astrophysics, recommending priorities for the most important scientific and technical activities of the decade 2010-2020. The CFP Panel will prepare a report that will identify the scientific drivers of the field and the most promising opportunities for progress in research in the next decade, taking into consideration those areas where the technical means and the theoretical foundations are in place for major steps forward. More broadly, this panel will be charged (as will each of the five science panels) with the following tasks: 1. Identify new scientific opportunities and compelling scientific themes that have arisen from recent advances and accomplishments in astronomy and astrophysics; 503

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Panel rePorts—new worlds, new HorIzons 504 2. Describe the scientific context of the importance of these opportunities, including connections to other parts of astronomy and astrophysics and, where appropriate, to the advancement of our broader scientific understanding; 3. Describe the key advances in observation and theory necessary to realize the scientific opportunities within the decade 2010-2020; and 4. Considering the relative compelling nature of the opportunities identified and the expected accessibility of the measurement regimes required, call out up to four central questions that are ripe for answering and one general area where there is unusual discovery potential and that define the scientific frontier of the next decade in the SFP’s sub-field of astronomy and astrophysics. In completing this task, each Science Frontiers Panel will provide the Astron- omy and Astrophysics 2010 Committee’s Subcommittee on Science with its inputs in the Spring of 2009 and complete its panel report thereafter. The panel reports will be published following the release of the main survey committee’s report in 2010. The Subcommittee on Science will issue a request for community input to ensure broad community participation in the process of identifying the scientific frontiers. GALACTIC NEIGHBORHOOD STATEMENT OF TASK The Galactic Neighborhood (GAN) Panel will identify and articulate the scien- tific themes that will define the frontier in GAN research in the 2010-2020 decade. Its scope will encompass the galactic neighborhood, including the structure and properties of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, and their stellar populations and evolution, as well as interstellar media and star clusters. Its assessment will play a key role in the Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010 study, which will survey the field of space- and ground-based astronomy and astrophysics, recommending priorities for the most important scientific and technical activities of the decade 2010-2020. The GAN Panel will prepare a report that will identify the scientific drivers of the field and the most promising opportunities for progress in research in the next decade, taking into consideration those areas where the technical means and the theoretical foundations are in place for major steps forward. More broadly, this panel will be charged (as will each of the five science panels) with the following tasks: 1. Identify new scientific opportunities and compelling scientific themes that have arisen from recent advances and accomplishments in astronomy and astrophysics; 2. Describe the scientific context of the importance of these opportunities, including connections to other parts of astronomy and astrophysics and, where appropriate, to the advancement of our broader scientific understanding;

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aPPendIx a 505 3. Describe the key advances in observation and theory necessary to realize the scientific opportunities within the decade 2010-2020; and 4. Considering the relative compelling nature of the opportunities identified and the expected accessibility of the measurement regimes required, call out up to four central questions that are ripe for answering and one general area where there is unusual discovery potential and that define the scientific frontier of the next decade in the SFP’s sub-field of astronomy and astrophysics. In completing this task, each Science Frontiers Panel will provide the Astron- omy and Astrophysics 2010 Committee’s Subcommittee on Science with its inputs in the Spring of 2009 and complete its panel report thereafter. The panel reports will be published following the release of the main survey committee’s report in 2010. The Subcommittee on Science will issue a request for community input to ensure broad community participation in the process of identifying the scientific frontiers. GALAXIES ACROSS COSMIC TIME STATEMENT OF TASK The Galaxies across Cosmic Time (GCT) Panel will identify and articulate the scientific themes that will define the frontier in GCT research in the 2010-2020 decade. Its scope will encompass galaxies across cosmic time, including the for- mation, evolution, and global properties of galaxies and galaxy clusters, as well as active galactic nuclei and QSOs, mergers, star formation rate, gas accretion, and supermassive black holes. Its assessment will play a key role in the Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010 study, which will survey the field of space- and ground-based astronomy and astrophysics, recommending priorities for the most important sci- entific and technical activities of the decade 2010-2020. The GCT Panel will prepare a report that will identify the scientific drivers of the field and the most promising opportunities for progress in research in the next decade, taking into consideration those areas where the technical means and the theoretical foundations are in place for major steps forward. More broadly, this panel will be charged (as will each of the five science panels) with the following tasks: 1. Identify new scientific opportunities and compelling scientific themes that have arisen from recent advances and accomplishments in astronomy and astrophysics; 2. Describe the scientific context of the importance of these opportunities, including connections to other parts of astronomy and astrophysics and, where appropriate, to the advancement of our broader scientific understanding; 3. Describe the key advances in observation and theory necessary to realize the scientific opportunities within the decade 2010-2020; and

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Panel rePorts—new worlds, new HorIzons 506 4. Considering the relative compelling nature of the opportunities identified and the expected accessibility of the measurement regimes required, call out up to four central questions that are ripe for answering and one general area where there is unusual discovery potential and that define the scientific frontier of the next decade in the SFP’s sub-field of astronomy and astrophysics. In completing this task, each Science Frontiers Panel will provide the Astron- omy and Astrophysics 2010 Committee’s Subcommittee on Science with its inputs in the Spring of 2009 and complete its panel report thereafter. The panel reports will be published following the release of the main survey committee’s report in 2010. The Subcommittee on Science will issue a request for community input to ensure broad community participation in the process of identifying the scientific frontiers. PLANETARY SYSTEMS AND STAR FORMATION STATEMENT OF TASK The Planetary Systems and Star Formation (PSF) Panel will identify and ar- ticulate the scientific themes that will define the frontier in PSF research in the 2010-2020 decade. This panel will consider science opportunities and themes surrounding planetary systems and star formation, including solar system bodies (other than the Sun) and extrasolar planets, debris disks, exobiology, the formation of individual stars, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, molecular clouds and the cold ISM, dust, and astrochemistry. Its assessment will play a key role in the Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010 (Astro2010) study, which will survey the field of space- and ground-based astronomy and astrophysics, recommending priorities for the most important scientific and technical activities of the decade 2010-2020. The PSF Panel will prepare a report that will identify the scientific drivers of the field and the most promising opportunities for progress in research in the next decade, taking into consideration those areas where the technical means and the theoretical foundations are in place for major steps forward. More broadly, this panel will be charged (as will each of the five science panels) with the following tasks: 1. Identify new scientific opportunities and compelling scientific themes that have arisen from recent advances and accomplishments in astronomy and astrophysics; 2. Describe the scientific context of the importance of these opportunities, including connections to other parts of astronomy and astrophysics and, where appropriate, to the advancement of our broader scientific understanding; 3. Describe the key advances in observation and theory necessary to realize the scientific opportunities within the decade 2010-2020; and 4. Considering the relative compelling nature of the opportunities identified

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aPPendIx a 507 and the expected accessibility of the measurement regimes required, call out up to four central questions that are ripe for answering and one general area where there is unusual discovery potential and that define the scientific frontier of the next decade in the SFP’s sub-field of astronomy and astrophysics. In completing this task, each Science Frontiers Panel will provide the Astron- omy and Astrophysics 2010 Committee’s Subcommittee on Science with its inputs in the Spring of 2009 and complete its panel report thereafter. The panel reports will be published following the release of the main survey committee’s report in 2010. The Subcommittee on Science will issue a request for community input to ensure broad community participation in the process of identifying the scientific frontiers. STARS AND STELLAR EVOLUTION STATEMENT OF TASK The Stars and Stellar Evolution (SSE) Panel will identify and articulate the scientific opportunities and themes that will define the frontier in SSE research in the 2010-2020 decade. Its scope will encompass stars and stellar evolution, includ- ing the Sun as a star, stellar astrophysics, the structure and evolution of single and multiple stars, compact objects, supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, solar neutrinos, and extreme physics on stellar scales. Its assessment will play a key role in the Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010 study, which will survey the field of space- and ground-based astronomy and astrophysics, recommending priorities for the most important scientific and technical activities of the decade 2010-2020. The SSE Panel will prepare a report that will identify the scientific drivers of the field and the most promising opportunities for progress in research in the next decade, tak- ing into consideration those areas where the technical means and the theoretical foundations are in place for major steps forward. More broadly, this panel will be charged (as will each of the five science panels) with the following tasks: 1. Identify new scientific opportunities and compelling scientific themes that have arisen from recent advances and accomplishments in astronomy and astrophysics; 2. Describe the scientific context of the importance of these opportunities, including connections to other parts of astronomy and astrophysics and, where appropriate, to the advancement of our broader scientific understanding; 3. Describe the key advances in observation and theory necessary to realize the scientific opportunities within the decade 2010-2020; and 4. Considering the relative compelling nature of the opportunities identified and the expected accessibility of the measurement regimes required, call out up to four central questions that are ripe for answering and one general area where

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Panel rePorts—new worlds, new HorIzons 508 there is unusual discovery potential and that define the scientific frontier of the next decade in the SFP’s sub-field of astronomy and astrophysics. In completing this task, each Science Frontiers Panel will provide the Astron- omy and Astrophysics 2010 Committee’s Subcommittee on Science with its inputs in the Spring of 2009 and complete its panel report thereafter. The panel reports will be published following the release of the main survey committee’s report in 2010. The Subcommittee on Science will issue a request for community input to ensure broad community participation in the process of identifying the scientific frontiers. ELECTROMAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS FROM SPACE STATEMENT OF TASK The Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010 Program Prioritization Panel on Elec- tromagnetic Observations from Space (EOS) will identify and recommend a priori- tized program of federal investment in research activities that involve space-based observations of astrophysical phenomena primarily by means of electromagnetic radiation. In formulating its conclusions, the EOS panel will draw on several sources of information: (1) the science forefronts identified by the Astro2010 sci- ence frontiers panels, (2) input from the proponents of research activities, and (3) independent cost and technical readiness assessments. The EOS panel’s recommen- dations will be integrated into a program for all of astronomy and astrophysics by the Astro2010 Committee. In particular the Astro2010 Programmatic Prioritization Panel on Electromag- netic Observations from Space will: 1. Report on the status of existing EOS research activities to set the context for future research activities, incorporating findings of the Study Groups. 2. Preview and compare proposed EOS research activities including those car- ried forward from previous surveys that have not been given a formal construction start. 3. State the relative importance of (a) smaller projects and generic research programs that involve competitive peer review and (b) programs that leverage public and private infrastructure investments, where appropriate. 4. Assess and describe best available estimates of the construction costs and lifetimes for each recommended research activity together with their full running costs (operations, science, and upgrades). 5. Identify particular risks for each research activity that would adversely affect the projected cost, technical readiness, or schedule of the activity. Identify those factors that could change an activity’s priority and/or scope. 6. Informed by (a) the recommendations of the science frontier panels and (b) the panel’s own research activity assessments, recommend a prioritized, bal-

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aPPendIx a 509 anced, and integrated research program which includes a rank ordering of re- search activities and a balanced technology development program. A preliminary recommended program will be used to identify activities that will be subject to an independent technical evaluation and cost estimate. The panel’s final recom- mendation to the Survey Committee will include consideration of the results of the independent technical evaluation and cost estimate. In completing this task, each PPP will provide the Astronomy and Astrophys- ics 2010 Committee’s Subcommittee on Programs with an interim internal and confidential summary report of its recommended program in the Fall of 2009 and complete its panel report thereafter. The panel reports will be published following the release of the survey committee’s report in 2010. OPTICAL AND INFRARED ASTRONOMY FROM THE GROUND STATEMENT OF TASK The Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010 Program Prioritization Panel (PPP) on Optical and Infrared Astronomy from the Ground (OIR) will identify and recom- mend a prioritized program of federal investment in research activities that involve observations of astrophysical phenomena primarily by means of optical and infra- red measurements from the ground. In formulating its conclusions, the OIR panel will draw on several sources of information: (1) the science forefronts identified by the Astro2010 science frontiers panels, (2) input from the proponents of research activities, and (3) independent cost and technical readiness assessments. The OIR panel’s recommendations will be integrated into a program for all of astronomy and astrophysics by the Astro2010 Committee. In particular, the Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010 Program Prioritization Panel on Optical and Infrared Astronomy from the Ground will: 1. Report on the status of existing OIR research activities from the ground to set the context for future research activities, incorporating findings of the Study Groups. 2. Preview and compare proposed OIR research activities from the ground including those carried forward from previous surveys that have not been given a formal construction start. 3. State the relative importance of (a) smaller projects and generic research programs that involve competitive peer review and (b) programs that leverage public and private infrastructure investments, where appropriate. 4. Assess and describe best available estimates of the construction costs and lifetimes for each recommended research activity together with their full running costs (operations, science, and upgrades).

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Panel rePorts—new worlds, new HorIzons 510 5. Identify particular risks for each research activity that would adversely affect the projected cost, technical readiness, or schedule of the activity. Identify those factors that could change an activity’s priority and/or scope. 6. Informed by (a) the recommendations of the science frontier panels and (b) the panel’s own research activity assessments, recommend a prioritized, bal- anced, and integrated OIR research program which includes a rank ordering of research activities and a balanced technology development program. A preliminary recommended program will be used to identify activities that will be subject to an independent technical evaluation and cost estimate. The panel’s final recommen- dation to the Survey Committee will include consideration of the results of the independent technical evaluation and cost estimate. In completing this task, each PPP will provide the Astronomy and Astrophys- ics 2010 Committee’s Subcommittee on Programs with an interim internal and confidential summary report of its recommended program in the Fall of 2009 and complete its panel report thereafter. The panel reports will be published following the release of the survey committee’s report in 2010. PARTICLE ASTROPHYSICS AND GRAVITATION STATEMENT OF TASK The Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010 Program Prioritization Panel on Par- ticle Astrophysics and Gravitation (PAG) will identify and recommend a priori- tized program of federal investment in research activities exploring areas at the interface of physics and astronomy such as gravitational radiation, TeV gamma-ray astronomy, and free-flying space missions testing fundamental gravitational phys- ics. In formulating its conclusions, the PAG panel will draw on several sources of information: (1) the science forefronts identified by the Astro2010 science frontiers panels, (2) input from the proponents of research activities, and (3) independent cost and technical readiness assessments. The PAG panel’s recommendations will be integrated into a program for all of astronomy and astrophysics by the Astro2010 Committee. In particular, Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010 Program Prioritization Panel on Particle Astrophysics and Gravitation will: 1. Report on the status of existing PAG research activities to set the context for future research activities, incorporating findings of the Study Groups. 2. Preview and compare proposed PAG research activities including those car- ried forward from previous surveys that have not been given a formal construction start. 3. State the relative importance of (a) smaller projects and generic research programs that involve competitive peer review and (b) programs that leverage public and private infrastructure investments, where appropriate.

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aPPendIx a 511 4. Assess and describe best available estimates of the construction costs and lifetimes for each recommended research activity together with their full running costs (operations, science, and upgrades). 5. Identify particular risks for each research activity that would adversely affect the projected cost, technical readiness, or schedule of the activity. Identify those factors that could change an activity’s priority and/or scope. 6. Informed by (a) the recommendations of the science frontier panels and (b) the panel’s own research activity assessments, recommend a prioritized, bal- anced, and integrated research program which includes a rank ordering of re- search activities and a balanced technology development program. A preliminary recommended program will be used to identify activities that will be subject to an independent technical evaluation and cost estimate. The panel’s final recom- mendation to the Survey Committee will include consideration of the results of the independent technical evaluation and cost estimate. In completing this task, each PPP will provide the Astronomy and Astrophys- ics 2010 Committee’s Subcommittee on Programs with an interim internal and confidential summary report of its recommended program in the Fall of 2009 and complete its panel report thereafter. The panel reports will be published following the release of the survey committee’s report in 2010. RADIO, MILLIMETER, AND SUBMILLIMETER ASTRONOMY FROM THE GROUND STATEMENT OF TASK The Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010 Program Prioritization Panel on Radio, Millimeter, and Submillimeter (RMS) Astronomy from the Ground will identify and recommend a prioritized program of federal investment in ground-based re- search activities that primarily operate in the radio, millimeter, and submillimeter portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. In formulating its conclusions, the RMS panel will draw on several sources of information: (1) the science forefronts identi- fied by the Astro2010 science frontiers panels, (2) input from the proponents of research activities, and (3) independent cost and technical readiness assessments. The RMS panel’s recommendations will be integrated into a program for all of astronomy and astrophysics by the Astro2010. In particular, the Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010 Program Prioritization Panel on Radio, Millimeter, and Submillimeter (RMS) Astronomy from the Ground will: 1. Report on the status of existing RMS research activities to set the context for future research activities, incorporating findings of the Study Groups. 2. Preview and compare proposed RMS research activities including those car-

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Panel rePorts—new worlds, new HorIzons 512 ried forward from previous surveys that have not been given a formal construc- tion start. 3. State the relative importance of (a) smaller projects and generic research programs that involve competitive peer review and (b) programs that leverage public and private infrastructure investments, where appropriate. 4. Assess and describe best available estimates of the construction costs and lifetimes for each recommended research activity together with their full running costs (operations, science, and upgrades). 5. Identify particular risks for each research activity that would adversely affect the projected cost, technical readiness, or schedule of the activity. Identify those factors that could change an activity’s priority and/or scope. 6. Informed by (a) the recommendations of the science frontier panels and (b) the panel’s own research activity assessments, recommend a prioritized, bal- anced, and integrated RMS research program which includes a rank ordering of research activities and a balanced technology development program. A preliminary recommended program will be used to identify activities that will be subject to an independent technical evaluation and cost estimate. The panel’s final recommen- dation to the Survey Committee will include consideration of the results of the independent technical evaluation and cost estimate. In completing this task, each PPP will provide the Astronomy and Astrophys- ics 2010 Committee’s Subcommittee on Programs with an interim internal and confidential summary report of its recommended program in the Fall of 2009 and complete its panel report thereafter. The panel reports will be published following the release of the survey committee’s report in 2010.