Appendix F
Characteristics of Doctorates



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appendix f Characteristics of doctorates 

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TABLE F-1 Characteristics of Doctorates in the Biomedical Sciences, 1970-2008 8 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 Total Doctorates 2,882 3,132 3,116 3,135 3,013 3,085 3,150 3,050 3,118 3,212 3,396 3,356 3,444 3,338 3,399 3,313 3,369 3,465 3,769 Male 2,420 2,572 2,530 2,474 2,340 2,347 2,424 2,351 2,311 2,351 2,440 2,383 2,417 2,224 2,315 2,192 2,197 2,214 2,377 Female 462 560 586 661 673 738 726 699 807 861 956 973 1,027 1,114 1,084 1,121 1,172 1,251 1,392 Citzens 2,385 2,591 2,573 2,582 2,381 2,556 2,610 2,528 2,628 2,738 2,905 2,898 2,927 2,854 2,868 2,727 2,751 2,670 2,858 Permanent residents 160 198 215 231 209 194 165 169 147 133 147 125 114 108 109 113 118 153 176 Temporary residents 312 266 256 253 283 256 277 261 259 253 273 248 294 291 308 364 343 455 515 Unknown 25 77 72 69 140 79 98 92 84 88 71 85 109 85 114 109 157 187 220 Minorities N/A N/A N/A 80 84 86 80 78 108 79 83 91 94 86 99 104 119 128 123 Postdoctoral training in U.S. Postdoctoral fellowship 772 739 739 731 607 804 896 911 1034 1048 1079 1036 1057 1025 1096 1086 1122 1196 1285 Postdoctoral research 243 300 295 330 376 402 406 408 402 386 470 474 452 516 451 477 518 495 540 Postdoctoral traineeship 60 74 71 40 29 47 46 66 65 88 87 56 65 65 54 55 51 56 69 Other training 70 67 110 125 139 165 167 114 117 174 175 193 234 201 190 157 160 173 179 Total Postdoctorates 1,145 1,180 1,215 1,226 1,151 1,418 1,515 1,499 1,618 1,696 1,811 1,759 1,808 1,807 1,791 1,775 1,851 1,920 2,073 Percent planning 56.3% 56.6% 59.4% 58.9% 60.1% 68.0% 70.1% 73.4% 75.9% 75.3% 76.1% 76.1% 76.6% 77.2% 78.1% 77.7% 79.5% 80.2% 80.4% Employment in U.S. 839 854 790 812 719 633 615 525 496 544 546 541 534 514 479 489 457 453 483 Other 48 49 42 44 44 33 31 19 19 12 23 11 19 21 23 20 21 20 22 Ph.D. with plans 2,032 2,083 2,047 2,082 1,914 2,084 2,161 2,043 2,133 2,252 2,380 2,311 2,361 2,342 2,293 2,284 2,329 2,393 2,578 Time to degree 6.00 6.00 6.16 6.17 6.25 6.17 6.17 6.17 6.25 6.25 6.25 6.33 6.50 6.67 6.92 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 Age at time of degree 28.92 29.00 29.42 29.58 29.42 29.25 29.25 29.34 29.38 29.41 29.25 29.33 29.59 29.83 30.25 30.42 30.59 30.50 30.83

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TABLE F-1 Characteristics of Doctorates in the Biomedical Sciences, 1970-2008 (continued) 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Total Doctorates 3,793 3,992 4,294 4,442 4,794 4,863 5,079 5,366 5,459 5,465 5,340 5,547 5,397 5,375 5,412 5665 6091 6521 6798 7095 Male 2,348 2,477 2,655 2,740 2,864 2,887 2,955 3,102 3,110 3,113 3,074 3,060 2,984 3,015 2,960 3075 3187 3393 3550 3584 Female 1,445 1,515 1,639 1,702 1,930 1,976 2,124 2,264 2,349 2,352 2,266 2,478 2,403 2,358 2,439 2590 2896 3130 3248 3511 Citizens 2,850 2,899 3,050 3,072 3,264 3,203 3,278 3,291 3,451 3,492 3,438 3,620 3,623 3,563 3,534 3728 3849 3972 4140 4339 Permanent Residents 173 183 210 240 296 641 831 801 562 533 477 364 341 315 266 228 253 303 282 271 Temporary Residents 570 814 987 1,078 1,165 980 918 1,173 1,233 1,213 1,224 1,336 1,202 1,222 1,341 1405 1644 1893 1956 2080 Unknown 200 96 62 66 98 57 73 121 243 241 218 227 231 275 366 49 62 45 47 82 Minorities 135 135 159 162 190 223 243 246 261 277 308 315 364 367 358 400 448 474 537 571 Postdoctoral training in U.S. Postdoctoral fellowship 1322 1336 1434 1496 1614 1577 1630 1708 1685 1682 1629 1718 1590 1655 1635 1717 1892 1977 1931 1858 Postdoctoral research 511 593 592 629 662 685 684 696 674 743 679 653 645 634 664 731 767 778 986 981 Postdoctoral traineeship 54 58 71 63 76 89 79 87 65 52 63 124 81 82 146 41 33 49 27 35 Other training 229 193 238 247 262 250 271 325 175 224 407 320 346 240 276 387 437 420 174 116 Total Postdoctorates 2,116 2,180 2,335 2,435 2,614 2,601 2,664 2,816 2,599 2,701 2,778 2,815 2,662 2,611 2,721 2,876 3,129 3,224 3,118 2,990 Percent planning 79.4% 81.9% 81.9% 81.4% 81.8% 82.6% 83.7% 83.1% 76.3% 77.4% 80.8% 78.7% 76.9% 76.0% 79.9% 84.1% 83.9% 79.9% 81.7% 79.9% Employment in U.S. 534 457 489 541 559 532 497 550 730 746 647 743 785 796 661 528 586 791 683 745 Other 16 24 27 14 22 16 23 21 76 41 15 20 15 27 25 14 15 20 16 8 Ph.D. with plans 2,666 2,661 2,851 2,990 3,195 3,149 3,184 3,387 3,405 3,488 3,440 3,578 3,462 3,434 3,407 3,418 3,730 4,035 3,817 3,743 Time to degree 7.00 7.25 7.00 7.25 7.25 7.33 7.33 7.25 7.08 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 6.91 6.58 6.67 6.67 6.67 6.58 Age at time of degree 30.92 31.17 31.08 31.17 31.17 31.17 31.25 31.25 31 30.92 30.83 30.91 30.83 30.67 30.58 30.5 30.41 30.41 30.41 30.41 SOURCE: NSF. 2008. Surey of Earned Doctorates. Washington, DC: NSF. 

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TABLE F-2 Employment Characteristics of Biomedical Doctorates from U.S. Institutions, 1973-2006 80 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 Total employed in S&E 34,367 39,661 43,411 48,591 53,357 56,481 61,810 65,800 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Minority 848 1,124 1,213 1,405 1,594 1,597 1,870 1,973 2.5% 2.8% 2.8% 2.9% 3.0% 2.8% 3.0% 3.0% Citizens and permanent residents 32,095 37,271 40,526 45,010 50,285 53,753 58,840 62,509 93.4% 94.0% 93.4% 92.6% 94.2% 95.2% 95.2% 95.0% Temporary residents 793 777 1,055 1,645 503 331 473 581 2.3% 2.0% 2.4% 3.4% 0.9% 0.6% 0.8% 0.9% Total academics 23,423 27,219 29,889 33,188 36,165 36,797 39,307 41,027 68.2% 68.6% 68.9% 68.3% 67.8% 65.1% 63.6% 62.4% Faculty with rank appointments 20,138 22,898 24,572 26,064 27,868 28,510 30,454 31,280 58.6% 57.7% 56.6% 53.6% 52.2% 50.5% 49.3% 47.5% Tenured faculty 4,567 13,376 14,345 15,636 17,836 18,884 20,114 19,157 13.3% 33.7% 33.0% 32.2% 33.4% 33.4% 32.5% 29.1% Tenure-track faculty (not tenured) 15,571 8,854 9,170 5,952 6,446 5,673 6,644 6,149 45.3% 22.3% 21.1% 12.2% 12.1% 10.0% 10.7% 9.3% Academic postdoctorates 1,713 2,615 3,507 4,358 4,722 4,405 4,450 4,784 5.0% 6.6% 8.1% 9.0% 8.8% 7.8% 7.2% 7.3% Other academic appointments 1,572 1,706 1,810 3,092 3,575 3,882 4,403 4,963 4.6% 4.3% 4.2% 6.4% 6.7% 6.9% 7.1% 7.5% Industry (non-postdoctorate) 4,470 5,273 5,543 6,286 7,881 9,589 11,841 13,366 13.0% 13.3% 12.8% 12.9% 14.8% 17.0% 19.2% 20.3% Industrial postdoctorates 27 53 40 27 70 46 126 222 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% Government (non-postdoctorate) 3,675 3,785 3,914 4,449 4,545 4,843 5,026 5,725 10.7% 9.5% 9.0% 9.2% 8.5% 8.6% 8.1% 8.7% Government postdoctorates 156 245 336 327 286 444 373 529 0.5% 0.6% 0.8% 0.7% 0.5% 0.8% 0.6% 0.8% Other sectors 2,539 3,055 3,436 4,103 4,303 4,657 5,043 4,847 7.4% 7.7% 7.9% 8.4% 8.1% 8.2% 8.2% 7.4% Doctorates w/ fed. research support 19,841 22,152 23,884 26,183 26,640 29,439 27,377 38,171 57.7% 55.9% 55.0% 53.9% 49.9% 52.1% 44.3% 58.0%

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TABLE F-2 Employment Characteristics of Biomedical Doctorates from U.S. Institutions, 1973-2006 (continued) 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2006 Total employed in S&E 70,593 71,962 76,449 79,077 88,481 95,780 100,224 97,903 104,585 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Minority 2,379 2,833 2,945 3,352 3,904 4,721 5,345 3,338 3,787 3.4% 3.9% 3.9% 4.2% 4.4% 4.9% 5.3% 3.4% 3.6% Citizens and permanent residents 66,944 68,184 71,599 72,948 80,826 85,107 97,126 94,589 100,350 94.8% 94.8% 93.7% 92.2% 91.3% 88.9% 96.9% 96.6% 96.0% Temporary residents 884 945 1,410 1,251 1,376 2,680 3,098 3,314 4,235 1.3% 1.3% 1.8% 1.6% 1.6% 2.8% 3.1% 3.4% 4.0% Total academics 43,572 40,581 45,258 48,622 53,026 55,682 57,227 59,150 61,745 61.7% 56.4% 59.2% 61.5% 59.9% 58.1% 57.1% 60.4% 59.0% Faculty with rank appointments 31,862 28,672 32,180 33,496 36,122 36,987 38,299 40,027 40,223 45.1% 39.8% 42.1% 42.4% 40.8% 38.6% 38.2% 40.9% 38.5% Tenured faculty 19,755 17,106 19,070 19,516 20,326 21,535 21,695 21,208 21,106 28.0% 23.8% 24.9% 24.7% 23.0% 22.5% 21.6% 21.7% 20.2% Tenure-track faculty (not tenured) 5,872 7,556 7,722 8,259 8,974 8,909 8,784 9,518 9,612 8.3% 10.5% 10.1% 10.4% 10.1% 9.3% 8.8% 9.7% 9.2% Academic postdoctorates 5,993 4,819 6,431 7,701 9,620 10,145 9,692 8,777 11,244 8.5% 6.7% 8.4% 9.7% 10.9% 10.6% 9.7% 9.0% 10.8% Other academic appointments 5,717 7,090 6,647 7,436 7,296 8,550 9,236 11,623 11,778 8.1% 9.9% 8.7% 9.4% 8.2% 8.9% 9.2% 11.9% 11.3% Industry (non-postdoctorate) 15,376 18,309 19,538 18,949 21,643 26,216 28,935 25,869 28,297 21.8% 25.4% 25.6% 24.0% 24.5% 27.4% 28.9% 26.4% 27.1% Industrial postdoctorates 206 204 376 531 561 591 293 702 1582 0.3% 0.3% 0.5% 0.7% 0.6% 0.6% 0.3% 0.7% 1.5% Government (non-postdoctorate) 5,776 6,157 6,143 6,074 7,212 7,240 7,886 7,649 8,034 8.2% 8.6% 8.0% 7.7% 8.2% 7.6% 7.9% 7.8% 7.7% Government postdoctorates 514 432 1,057 1,111 1,437 1,180 1,050 766 1,151 0.7% 0.6% 1.4% 1.4% 1.6% 1.2% 1.0% 0.8% 1.1% Other sectors 5,034 5,984 4,077 3,790 4,602 4,871 4,213 3,759 3,776 7.1% 8.3% 5.3% 4.8% 5.2% 5.1% 4.2% 3.8% 3.6% Doctorates w/ fed. research support 40,655 38,490 - 31,513 34,678 41,707 42,012 43,113 46,428 57.6% 53.5% 0.0% 39.9% 39.2% 43.5% 41.9% 44.0% 44.4% SOURCE: NSF. Surey of Doctorate Recipients, ­00. Washington, DC: NSF. 8

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TABLE F-3 Characteristics of Doctorates in the Behavioral and Social Sciences, 1970-2008 8 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 Total doctorates 2,683 3,094 3,220 3,433 3,661 3,835 4,047 4,098 4,082 4,120 4,015 4,339 4,023 4,263 4,141 3,964 3,979 3,988 3,844 Male 2,079 2,352 2,391 2,452 2,549 2,611 2,733 2,634 2,554 2,445 2,315 2,461 2,240 2,265 2,087 1,993 1,962 1,912 1,749 Female 604 742 829 981 1,112 1,224 1,314 1,464 1,528 1,675 1,700 1,878 1,783 1,998 2,054 1,971 2,017 2,076 2,095 Citizens 2,458 2,812 2,928 3,128 3,231 3,461 3,722 3,724 3,676 3,728 3,630 3,935 3,600 3,799 3,662 3,487 3,426 3,352 3,232 Permanent residents 78 88 96 89 85 92 85 92 95 92 98 85 82 90 75 91 108 111 107 Temporary residents 121 150 140 157 165 214 183 167 152 161 152 173 151 182 190 179 185 180 194 Unknown 26 44 56 59 180 68 57 115 159 139 135 146 190 192 214 207 260 345 312 Minorities N/A N/A N/A 84 115 172 202 234 235 266 244 256 269 271 272 261 278 255 266 Postdoctoral training in U.S. Postdoctoral fellowship 150 156 144 149 128 151 205 214 246 225 278 284 232 283 262 279 297 289 289 Postdoctoral research 44 43 48 53 61 64 53 67 77 80 69 96 80 75 64 79 85 112 109 Postdoctoral traineeship 17 33 23 25 34 46 32 45 70 55 67 69 55 66 65 69 70 48 52 Other training 12 21 26 31 43 35 56 50 43 37 39 41 28 42 35 28 43 39 32 Total postdoctoral 223 253 241 258 266 296 346 376 436 397 453 490 395 466 426 455 495 488 482 Percent planning 11.4% 11.3% 10.8% 10.9% 11.1% 11.9% 13.4% 14.9% 18.0% 15.7% 17.8% 17.7% 16.3% 18.5% 17.5% 19.0% 20.1% 20.9% 20.4% Employment in U.S. 1694 1942 1931 2069 2074 2134 2175 2102 1934 2094 2058 2233 2000 2008 1974 1906 1937 1815 1844 Other 39 43 58 50 52 49 54 43 49 33 36 42 34 45 29 33 30 34 33 Ph.D. with plans 1,956 2,238 2,230 2,377 2,392 2,479 2,575 2,521 2,419 2,524 2,547 2,765 2,429 2,519 2,429 2,394 2,462 2,337 2,359 Time to degree 6.25 6.25 6.50 6.50 6.67 6.75 6.75 6.92 7.00 7.25 7.50 7.91 8.00 8.17 8.50 8.67 8.91 9.00 9.09 Age at time of degree 29.66 29.58 29.75 30.08 30.08 30.25 30.25 30.58 30.59 31.16 31.33 31.92 32.08 32.5 32.75 33.08 33.58 33.75 34.33

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TABLE F-3 Characteristics of Doctorates in the Behavioral and Social Sciences, 1970-2008 (continued) 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Total doctorates 3,975 4,064 4,087 4,080 4,289 4,185 4,162 4,224 4,371 4,481 4,466 4,507 4,230 4,064 4,139 4287 4124 4126 4213 4,281 Male 1,796 1,745 1,624 1,745 1,720 1,671 1,606 1,555 1,565 1,595 1,596 1,595 1,475 1,411 1,411 1511 1408 1332 1332 1,403 Female 2,179 2,319 2,463 2,335 2,569 2,514 2,556 2,669 2,806 2,886 2,870 2,908 2,751 2,649 2,724 2777 2716 2793 2881 2,878 Citizens 3,221 3,497 3,560 3,490 3,702 3,623 3,587 3,644 3,608 3,757 3,797 3,821 3,548 3,400 3,426 3441 3370 3374 3360 3,454 Permanent residents 95 107 124 132 146 155 177 170 151 142 119 135 114 113 97 97 116 113 116 124 Temporary residents 244 267 296 334 329 311 303 307 292 315 265 310 276 265 323 332 350 359 376 399 Unknown 415 193 112 133 123 104 101 111 360 285 301 241 292 286 293 27 17 18 25 39 Minorities 267 320 339 321 349 340 394 419 428 494 534 545 537 544 553 551 523 571 543 633 Postdoctoral training in U.S. Postdoctoral fellowship 304 313 389 386 464 459 491 524 492 608 675 671 694 676 707 721 764 752 802 809 Postdoctoral research 73 96 94 93 97 113 107 122 123 132 129 142 155 132 158 166 155 184 194 204 Postdoctoral traineeship 69 69 45 54 45 55 59 50 39 49 34 55 41 47 56 27 23 11 25 19 Other training 33 25 31 30 44 34 28 47 15 21 56 30 38 30 33 93 96 106 89 93 Total Postdoctorates 479 503 559 563 650 661 685 743 669 810 894 898 928 885 954 1,007 1,038 1,053 1,110 1,125 Percent planning 20.1% 20.6% 22.6% 23.4% 26.6% 27.4% 29.8% 31.2% 29.7% 33.7% 36.0% 33.8% 36.1% 35.9% 38.7% 42.5% 43.1% 41.8% 45.5% 46.1% Employment in U.S. 1876 1902 1892 1810 1758 1717 1574 1601 1546 1553 1555 1713 1607 1548 1488 1336 1352 1444 1305 1296 other 32 37 19 31 39 36 38 40 40 38 34 46 37 31 24 24 18 21 25 19 Ph.D. with plans 2,387 2,442 2,470 2,404 2,447 2,414 2,297 2,384 2,255 2,401 2,483 2,657 2,572 2,464 2,466 2,367 2,408 2,518 2,440 2,440 Time to degree 9.00 9.17 9.00 9.00 8.91 8.59 8.58 8.33 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.25 8.17 8.00 8.00 7.96 7.83 7.58 Age at time of degree 34.33 34.42 34.66 34.67 34.58 34.17 34.25 33.83 33.42 33.24 33.00 32.84 32.75 32.75 32.82 33.00 32.83 32.75 32.58 32.42 SOURCE: NSF. 2008. Surey of Earned Doctorates. Washington, DC: NSF. 8

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TABLE F-4 Employment Characteristics of Behavioral and Social Sciences Doctorates from U.S. Institutions, 1973-2006 8 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 Total employed in S&E 27,356 34,360 39,237 45,532 51,743 58,458 64,616 68,852 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Minority 544 861 1,088 1,587 2,081 2,553 2,908 3,174 2.0% 2.5% 2.8% 3.5% 4.0% 4.4% 4.5% 4.6% Citizens and permanent residents 26,751 33,692 38,589 44,376 50,593 57,205 63,160 67,473 97.8% 98.1% 98.3% 97.5% 97.8% 97.9% 97.7% 98.0% Temporary residents 107 172 122 369 168 247 156 59 0.4% 0.5% 0.3% 0.8% 0.3% 0.4% 0.2% 0.1% Total academics 18,178 22,333 24,287 26,972 29,995 32,267 34,985 34,911 66.4% 65.0% 61.9% 59.2% 58.0% 55.2% 54.1% 50.7% Faculty with rank appointments 17,095 20,937 22,623 23,888 25,364 27,442 29,079 28,678 62.5% 60.9% 57.7% 52.5% 49.0% 46.9% 45.0% 41.7% Tenured faculty 3,560 11,606 13,139 14,812 16,982 19,302 19,833 18,761 13.0% 33.8% 33.5% 32.5% 32.8% 33.0% 30.7% 27.2% Tenure-track faculty (not tenured) 13,535 8,311 8,244 5,336 5,204 4,963 5,623 4,989 49.5% 24.2% 21.0% 11.7% 10.1% 8.5% 8.7% 7.2% Academic postdoctorates 205 481 594 836 775 798 901 664 0.7% 1.4% 1.5% 1.8% 1.5% 1.4% 1.4% 1.0% Other academic appointments 878 915 1,070 3,141 3,856 4,027 5,005 5,569 3.2% 2.7% 2.7% 6.9% 7.5% 6.9% 7.7% 8.1% Industry (non-postdoctorate) 2,682 3,666 4,883 6,695 9,357 12,891 15,469 17,621 9.8% 10.7% 12.4% 14.7% 18.1% 22.1% 23.9% 25.6% Industrial postdoctorates 0 0 4 0 0 4 80 14 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% Government (non-postdoctorate) 2,680 2,603 3,216 3,718 3,938 4,627 4,632 5,390 9.8% 7.6% 8.2% 8.2% 7.6% 7.9% 7.2% 7.8% Government postdoctorates 22 15 53 49 88 85 22 51 0.1% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.0% 0.1% Other sectors 3,760 5,700 6,582 7,780 8,259 8,500 9,382 10,719 13.7% 16.6% 16.8% 17.1% 16.0% 14.5% 14.5% 15.6% Doctorates w/ fed. research support 10,881 12,965 13,790 15,213 15,689 16,648 13,651 21,864 39.8% 37.7% 35.1% 33.4% 30.3% 28.5% 21.1% 31.8%

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TABLE F-4 Employment Characteristics of Behavioral and Social Science Doctorates from U.S. Institutions, 1973-2006 (continued) 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2006 Total employed in S&E 74,570 75,420 81,126 84,408 91,662 95,909 99,154 91,941 95,564 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Minority 3,738 4,561 5,012 5,649 6,561 7,140 8,534 5,447 5,991 5.0% 6.0% 6.2% 6.7% 7.2% 7.4% 8.6% 5.9% 6.3% Citizens and permanent residents 73,054 73,534 79,280 82,526 89,186 93,155 98,725 91,263 94,811 98.0% 97.5% 97.7% 97.8% 97.3% 97.1% 99.6% 99.3% 99.2% Temporary residents 194 164 190 195 329 378 429 678 753 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.7% 0.8% Total academics 36,961 33,280 37,617 39,905 43,736 45,402 47,206 44,961 47,153 49.6% 44.1% 46.4% 47.3% 47.7% 47.3% 47.6% 48.9% 49.3% Faculty with rank appointments 30,239 26,852 29,402 30,787 32,941 33,837 34,491 34,352 35,862 40.6% 35.6% 36.2% 36.5% 35.9% 35.3% 34.8% 37.4% 37.5% Tenured faculty 20,041 18,201 19,858 20,720 22,266 22,032 22,196 21,226 20,824 26.9% 24.1% 24.5% 24.5% 24.3% 23.0% 22.4% 23.1% 21.8% Tenure-track faculty (not tenured) 5,379 5,400 5,956 5,991 6,032 6,364 6,510 6,713 7,684 7.2% 7.2% 7.3% 7.1% 6.6% 6.6% 6.6% 7.3% 8.0% Academic postdoctorates 993 416 534 1,329 1,641 1,458 1,543 1,064 1,868 1.3% 0.6% 0.7% 1.6% 1.8% 1.5% 1.6% 1.2% 2.0% Other academic appointments 5,729 6,012 7,681 7,789 9,154 10,136 11,194 10,853 10,576 7.7% 8.0% 9.5% 9.2% 10.0% 10.6% 11.3% 11.8% 11.1% Industry (non-postdoctorate) 19,998 23,995 27,236 27,348 28,735 31,318 32,561 31,457 32,494 26.8% 31.8% 33.6% 32.4% 31.3% 32.7% 32.8% 34.2% 34.0% Industrial postdoctorates 5 20 50 151 462 211 201 458 297 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.5% 0.2% 0.2% 0.5% 0.3% Government (non-postdoctorate) 5,557 5,565 8,867 9,310 9,692 9,696 9,877 8,588 8,558 7.5% 7.4% 10.9% 11.0% 10.6% 10.1% 10.0% 9.3% 9.0% Government postdoctorates 11 84 147 176 267 210 165 252 139 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.1% Other sectors 11,863 11,931 7,209 7,518 8,770 9,072 8,960 6,050 6,923 15.9% 15.8% 8.9% 8.9% 9.6% 9.5% 9.0% 6.6% 7.2% Doctorates w/ fed. research support 23,831 20,902 - 15,385 16,308 20,487 22,549 20,643 22,372 32.0% 27.7% 0.0% 18.2% 17.8% 21.4% 22.7% 22.5% 23.4% SOURCE: NSF. Surey of Doctorate Recipients, ­00. Washington, DC: NSF. 8

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TABLE F-5 Characteristics of Doctorates in the Clinical Sciences, 1970-2008 8 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 Total Doctorates 273 329 306 323 339 340 357 385 387 432 464 524 575 526 621 619 677 699 788 Male 218 271 245 249 252 233 248 266 256 271 273 303 319 249 262 244 259 290 302 Female 55 58 61 74 87 107 109 119 131 161 191 221 256 277 359 375 418 409 486 Citizens 210 263 219 250 239 258 273 296 305 339 370 429 457 401 492 458 489 527 573 Permanent residents 19 20 40 34 37 35 32 41 26 39 32 33 33 30 36 32 30 33 38 Temporary residents 37 30 29 31 33 35 40 42 38 37 53 48 64 70 66 85 93 84 108 Unknown 7 16 18 8 30 12 12 6 18 17 9 14 21 25 27 44 65 55 69 Minorities N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 22 N/A 22 N/A 19 30 23 34 31 32 38 50 Postdoctoral training in U.S. Postdoctoral fellowship 16 17 26 19 10 24 26 34 24 37 37 35 34 25 47 34 35 48 40 Postdoctoral research 2 4 11 16 21 11 6 16 15 16 11 16 20 12 13 17 18 17 26 Postdoctoral traineeship 1 2 1 . 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 5 3 3 4 1 4 4 6 Other training 7 4 6 11 6 4 5 7 6 10 15 13 4 3 8 1 9 11 10 Total postdoctoral 26 27 44 46 38 40 38 60 48 66 66 69 61 43 72 53 66 80 82 Percent planning 15.5% 13.2% 23.8% 22.2% 17.4% 16.5% 20.4% 23.6% 20.6% 19.6% 17.0% 13.6% 18.6% 14.1% 16.8% 18.1% 17.5% Employment in U.S. 137 170 135 153 153 183 185 172 185 204 250 277 287 264 306 321 319 349 375 Other 5 8 6 8 8 7 7 3 2 10 5 6 11 10 10 3 7 13 11 Ph.D. with plans 168 205 185 207 199 230 230 235 235 280 321 352 359 317 388 377 392 442 468 Time to degree 7.59 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.92 7.79 7.75 7.50 7.67 7.75 7.92 8.50 8.79 9.41 9.29 10.08 10.25 10.09 10.58 Age at time of degree 31.21 29.96 30.33 30.59 30.67 31.83 31.58 30.75 31.67 31.75 32.00 32.37 32.87 34.08 34.33 35.58 35.92 35.92 36.42

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TABLE F-5 Characteristics of Doctorates in the Clinical Sciences, 1970-2008 (continued) 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Total doctorates 881 840 950 1022 1100 1208 1225 1237 1354 1425 1338 1527 1558 1579 1574 1642 1727 1810 2036 2002 Male 313 322 333 363 396 420 456 435 469 474 480 518 566 510 528 520 563 598 644 638 Female 568 518 617 659 704 788 769 802 885 951 858 1007 981 1069 1039 1122 1161 1209 1382 1364 Citizens 656 630 706 739 803 897 857 865 911 1003 925 1070 1036 1058 1115 1133 1153 1182 1319 1299 Permanent residents 29 34 58 48 63 91 102 87 77 85 81 74 76 63 60 68 81 86 83 102 Temporary residents 118 145 161 213 202 214 236 253 256 266 250 275 293 300 299 335 374 388 427 425 Unknown 78 31 29 30 44 15 41 41 126 77 92 108 153 158 100 19 29 21 33 36 Minorities 38 41 56 49 79 70 90 83 85 97 105 116 112 106 137 165 177 169 192 172 Postdoctoral training in U.S. Postdoctoral fellowship 39 52 50 69 62 97 76 97 88 93 88 95 142 147 154 182 177 201 212 215 Postdoctoral research 21 35 23 34 27 21 37 39 47 38 38 38 45 45 57 55 56 70 88 102 Postdoctoral traineeship 4 6 2 10 5 5 6 4 6 6 12 12 6 11 18 9 12 6 7 12 Other training 10 13 10 15 14 9 10 14 7 8 29 17 14 10 21 27 30 33 13 15 Total postdoctoral 116 165 141 192 185 226 236 239 225 230 167 162 207 213 250 273 275 310 320 344 Percent planning 13% 20% 15% 19% 17% 19% 19% 19% 17% 16% 12% 11% 13% 19% 27% 29% 27% 29% 28% 30% Employment in U.S. 459 373 468 491 525 503 489 531 589 606 591 732 643 733 666 652 719 760 799 782 Other 8 9 11 9 12 11 11 18 17 26 12 17 15 31 19 12 11 15 13 17 Ph.D. with plans 583 547 620 692 722 740 736 788 831 862 770 911 865 977 935 937 1,005 1,085 1,132 1,143 Time to degree 11.00 11.17 11.41 11.67 11.75 11.41 11.25 11.59 11.50 11.50 10.92 11.25 10.09 11.25 10.50 9.58 9.59 9.50 9.50 9.25 Age at time of degree 36.75 37.17 37.83 37.75 38.42 37.79 38.08 38.46 38.58 38.25 37.24 38.33 36.92 38.17 37.08 36.67 36.17 36.24 35.75 35.42 SOURCE: NSF. 2008. Surey of Earned Doctorates. Washington, DC: NSF. 8

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TABLE F-6 Employment Characteristics of Clinical Doctorates from U.S. Institutions, 1973-2006 88 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 Total employed in S&E 2,682 3,475 3,748 4,489 5,312 6,003 7,188 7,669 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Minority 105 153 163 203 208 250 307 342 3.9% 4.4% 4.3% 4.5% 3.9% 4.2% 4.3% 4.5% Citizens and permanent residents 2,462 3,236 3,454 4,105 4,914 5,668 6,776 7,614 91.8% 93.1% 92.2% 91.4% 92.5% 94.4% 94.3% 99.3% Temporary residents 69 83 86 133 44 8 79 55 2.6% 2.4% 2.3% 3.0% 0.8% 0.1% 1.1% 0.7% Total academics 1,478 1,856 2,064 2,564 2,963 3,225 3,938 4,164 55.1% 53.4% 55.1% 57.1% 55.8% 53.7% 54.8% 54.3% Faculty with rank appointments 1,359 1,671 1,852 2,259 2,642 2,922 3,413 3,675 50.7% 48.1% 49.4% 50.3% 49.7% 48.7% 47.5% 47.9% Tenured faculty 276 931 1,031 1,271 1,424 1,516 1,968 1,960 10.3% 26.8% 27.5% 28.3% 26.8% 25.3% 27.4% 25.6% Tenure-track faculty (not tenured) 1,083 684 743 565 780 921 1,002 931 40.4% 19.7% 19.8% 12.6% 14.7% 15.3% 13.9% 12.1% Academic postdoctorates 40 107 108 105 139 100 177 90 1.5% 3.1% 2.9% 2.3% 2.6% 1.7% 2.5% 1.2% Other academic appointments 79 78 104 231 182 203 348 399 2.9% 2.2% 2.8% 5.1% 3.4% 3.4% 4.8% 5.2% Industry (non-postdoctorate) 536 739 733 992 1,259 1,485 1,793 1,940 20.0% 21.3% 19.6% 22.1% 23.7% 24.7% 24.9% 25.3% Industrial postdoctorates 0 0 0 0 0 8 5 14 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% Government (non-postdoctorate) 383 491 462 446 527 585 689 745 14.3% 14.1% 12.3% 9.9% 9.9% 9.7% 9.6% 9.7% Government postdoctorates 5 9 8 11 35 34 14 8 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.7% 0.6% 0.2% 0.1% Other sectors 280 380 455 436 501 645 749 760 10.4% 10.9% 12.1% 9.7% 9.4% 10.7% 10.4% 9.9% Doctorates w/ fed. research support 1,416 1,804 1,836 2,041 2,179 2,416 2,307 3,275 52.8% 51.9% 49.0% 45.5% 41.0% 40.2% 32.1% 42.7%

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TABLE F-6 Employment Characteristics of Clinical Doctorates from U.S. Institutions, 1973-2006 (continued) 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2006 Total employed in S&E 8,991 9,251 10,748 11,996 14,069 15,268 17,180 16,550 19,750 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Minority 533 614 766 899 1,113 1,357 1,497 1,057 1,330 5.9% 6.6% 7.1% 7.5% 7.9% 8.9% 8.7% 6.4% 6.7% Citizens and permanent residents 8,522 8,726 10,142 11,253 13,128 13,930 16,822 16,005 19,036 94.8% 94.3% 94.4% 93.8% 93.3% 91.2% 97.9% 96.7% 96.4% Temporary residents 72 65 175 58 194 335 358 545 714 0.8% 0.7% 1.6% 0.5% 1.4% 2.2% 2.1% 3.3% 3.6% Total academics 4,959 4,706 5,827 6,684 7,609 8,855 9,730 10,037 11,856 55.2% 50.9% 54.2% 55.7% 54.1% 58.0% 56.6% 60.6% 60.0% Faculty with rank appointments 4,371 4,077 5,084 5,705 6,325 7,374 8,124 8,536 10,084 48.6% 44.1% 47.3% 47.6% 45.0% 48.3% 47.3% 51.6% 51.1% Tenured faculty 2,191 1,890 2,341 2,770 3,081 3,507 3,647 3,629 3,989 24.4% 20.4% 21.8% 23.1% 21.9% 23.0% 21.2% 21.9% 20.2% Tenure-track faculty (not tenured) 1,337 1,426 1,784 1,988 1,878 2,138 2,384 2,505 3,371 14.9% 15.4% 16.6% 16.6% 13.3% 14.0% 13.9% 15.1% 17.1% Academic postdoctorates 152 116 144 342 416 324 321 349 516 1.7% 1.3% 1.3% 2.9% 3.0% 2.1% 1.9% 2.1% 2.6% Other academic appointments 436 513 599 637 868 1,157 1,285 1,313 1,514 4.8% 5.5% 5.6% 5.3% 6.2% 7.6% 7.5% 7.9% 7.7% Industry (non-postdoctorate) 2,307 2,564 2,869 2,923 3,568 3,731 4,413 4,258 5,088 25.7% 27.7% 26.7% 24.4% 25.4% 24.4% 25.7% 25.7% 25.8% Industrial postdoctorates 3 4 4 17 49 10 21 27 198 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 1.0% Government (non-postdoctorate) 916 1,064 1,144 1,309 1,467 1,250 1,604 1,513 1,917 10.2% 11.5% 10.6% 10.9% 10.4% 8.2% 9.3% 9.1% 9.7% Government postdoctorates 2 16 67 101 47 50 30 74 156 0.0% 0.2% 0.6% 0.8% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.4% 0.8% Other sectors 778 847 837 962 1,329 1,372 1,339 641 535 8.7% 9.2% 7.8% 8.0% 9.4% 9.0% 7.8% 3.9% 2.7% Doctorates w/ fed. research support 3,951 4,125 3,016 3,323 3,849 5,172 5,822 6,192 7,551 43.9% 44.6% 28.1% 27.7% 27.4% 33.9% 33.9% 37.4% 38.2% SOURCE: NSF. Surey of Doctorate Recipients, ­00. Washington, DC: NSF. 8

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