References

AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science). 2010. AAAS Report XXXV: Research and Development FY 2011. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Alsema, E.A. 2000. Energy pay-back time and CO2 emissions of PV systems. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 8: 17–25.

Alsema, E.A., and M.J. de Wild-Scholten. 2006. Environmental impacts of crystalline silicon photovoltaic module production. Presented at the 13th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Leuven, May 31–June 2, 2006.

Asia Society and Pew Center on Global Climate Change. 2009. Common Challenge, Collaborative Response: A Roadmap for U.S.-China Cooperation on Energy and Climate Change. Produced by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change and Asia Society’s Center on U.S.-China Relations. Arlington, Va.: Pew Center on Global Climate Change. Available online at http://www.pewclimate.org/US-China.

ASES (American Solar Energy Society). 2007. Tackling Climate Change in the United States: Potential Carbon Emission Reductions from Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by 2030. Boulder, Colo.: ASES.

ASES. 2009. Green Collar Jobs in the U.S. and Colorado: Economic Drivers for the 21st Century. Boulder, Colo.: ASES.

AWEA (American Wind Energy Association). 2009. Annual Wind Industry Report: Year Ending 2008. Washington, D.C.: AWEA. Available online at http://bit.ly/bRnf5U.

AWEA. 2010. Annual Wind Industry Report: Year Ending 2009. Washington, D.C.: AWEA.

AWS Wind LLC and NREL. 2010. Estimates of Windy Land Area and Wind Energy Potential by State for Areas 30 percent Capacity Factor at 80m. Available online at http://www.windpoweringamerica.gov/wind_maps.asp. Spreadsheet with data for individual states available online at http://bit.ly/94oRm6.

Bai, X. 2007. Rizhao: Solar-Powered City. In State of the World 2007: Our Urban Future. Washington, D.C.: Worldwatch Institute.

Bai, X., B. Roberts, and J. Chen. 2010. Urban sustainability experiments in Asia: patterns and pathways. Environmental Science and Policy 13(4):312–325.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 191
References AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science). 2010. AAAS Report XXXV: Re - search and Development FY 2011. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advance - ment of Science. Alsema, E.A. 2000. Energy pay-back time and CO2 emissions of PV systems. Progress in Photovolta- ics: Research and Applications 8: 17–25. Alsema, E.A., and M.J. de Wild-Scholten. 2006. Environmental impacts of crystalline silicon photo - voltaic module production. Presented at the 13th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Leuven, May 31–June 2, 2006. Asia Society and Pew Center on Global Climate Change. 2009. Common Challenge, Collaborative Response: A Roadmap for U.S.-China Cooperation on Energy and Climate Change. Produced by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change and Asia Society’s Center on U.S.-China Rela - tions. Arlington, Va.: Pew Center on Global Climate Change. Available online at http://www. pewclimate.org/US-China. ASES (American Solar Energy Society). 2007. Tackling Climate Change in the United States: Po - tential Carbon Emission Reductions from Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by 2030. Boulder, Colo.: ASES. ASES. 2009. Green Collar Jobs in the U.S. and Colorado: Economic Drivers for the 21st Century. Boulder, Colo.: ASES. AWEA (American Wind Energy Association). 2009. Annual Wind Industry Report: Year Ending 2008. Washington, D.C.: AWEA. Available online at http://bit.ly/bRnf5U. AWEA. 2010. Annual Wind Industry Report: Year Ending 2009. Washington, D.C.: AWEA. AWS Wind LLC and NREL. 2010. Estimates of Windy Land Area and Wind Energy Potential by State for Areas 30 percent Capacity Factor at 80m. Available online at http://www.windpower ingamerica.go/wind_maps.asp. Spreadsheet with data for individual states available online at http://bit.ly/4oRm6. Bai, X. 2007. Rizhao: Solar-Powered City. In State of the World 2007: Our Urban Future. Washington, D.C.: Worldwatch Institute. Bai, X., B. Roberts, and J. Chen. 2010. Urban sustainability experiments in Asia: patterns and path - ways. Environmental Science and Policy 13(4):312–325. 

OCR for page 191
 REFERENCES Bain, R.L., W.A. Amos, M. Downing, and R.L. Perlack. 2003. Biopower Technical Assessment: State of the Industry and Technology. NREL/TP-510-33123. Golden, Colo.: NREL. Baldinger, P., and J.L. Turner. 2002. Crouching Suspicions, Hidden Potential: United States Environ - mental and Energy Cooperation with China. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Barrie, D.B., and D.B. Kirk-Davidoff. 2010. Weather response to a large wind turbine array. Atmo - spheric Chemistry and Physics 10: 769–775. Bertani, R. 2005. World Geothermal Generation in the period 2001–2005. Geothermics 34(6): 651–690. Bezdek, R.H., and R.M. Wendling. 2003. A half century of long-range energy forecasts: errors made, lessons learned, and implications for forecasting. Journal of Fusion Energy 21(3/4): 155–172. Bezdek, R.H., and R.M. Wendling. 2006. The U.S. Energy Subsidy Scorecard. Issues in Science and Technology 22(3): 83–85. Bezdek, R.H., and R.M. Wendling. 2007. A half century of federal energy incentives: value, distribu - tion, and policy implications. International Journal of Global Energy Issues 27(1): 42–60. Bird, L., C. Kreycik, and B. Friedman. 2009. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2008 data). NREL/TP-6A2-46581. Golden, Colo.: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. BLM (Bureau of Land Management). 2005. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement on Wind Energy Development on BLM-Administered Lands in the Western United States. Wash - ington, D.C.: BLM. 2008. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Geothermal Leasing in the Western United States. Available online at http://bit.ly/bW6Cho. Boyd, T.L., D. Thomas, and A.T. Gill. 2002. Hawaii and geothermal: what has been happening? GHC Bulletin, 23(3): 11–21. Brown, E., and S. Busche. 2008. State of the States 2008: Renewable Energy Development and the Role of Policy. Technical Report NREL/TP-670-43021. Golden, Colo.: NREL. Burnham, M. 2009. China’s A-Power to Build U.S. Wind Turbine Factory. New york Times, Novem- ber 17, 2009. Available online at http://nyti.ms/pzto. CAE/NAE/NRC (Chinese Academy of Engineering/National Academy of Engineering/National Research Council). 2003. Personal Cars and China. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. Campbell, R.J. 2010. China and the United States—A Comparison of Green Energy Programs and Policies. CRS Report for Congress R41287. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Campbell, T. 2009. Learning Cities: Knowledge, Capacity, and Competitiveness. Habitat International 33: 195–201. Canfa, W. 2007. Chinese Environmental Law Enforcement: Current Deficiencies and Suggested Reforms. Vermont Journal of Environmental Law 8(2): 159–194. Carmody, M., S. Mallick, J. Margetis, R. Kodama, T. Biegala, D. Xu, P. Bechmann, J.W. Garland, and S. Sivananthan. 2010. Single-crystal II-VI on Si single-junction and tandem solar cells. Applied Physics Letters 96: 153502. Crachilov, C., R.S. Hancock, and G. Sharkey. 2009. The China Greentech Report 2009. Beijing: The China Greentech Initiative. September. CAE (Chinese Academy of Engineering). 2008. Strategic Research on Renewable Energy Develop - ment in China. Beijing, China: China Electric Power Press. CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences). 2007. Addressing the Challenge: Developing a Sustainable Energy System. Beijing, China: CAS. CEC (China Electricity Council). 2010. National Statistics for the Power Industry 2009. Beijing, China: CEC. Cha, A.E. 2008. Solar energy firms leave waste behind in China. Washington Post, March 9, 2008. Chaudhari, M., L. Frantzis, and T.E. Holff. 2004. PV Grid Connected Market Potential Under a Cost Breakthrough Scenario. San Francisco, Calif.: Energy Foundation and Navigant Consulting.

OCR for page 191
 REFERENCES Christensen, C.M. 1997. The Innovator’s Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Business Press. CMA (China Meteorological Administration). 2006. The Report of Wind Energy Resource Assess - ment in China. Beijing, China: CMA. CMA. 2008. The Report on Solar Energy Resource Assessment in China. Beijing: China Meteoro - logical Administration. CNCIC (China National Chemical Information Center). 2009. CNCIC website, http://www.cheminfo. go.cn, (last accessed April 23, 2009). Council on Foreign Relations. 2007. U.S.-China Relations: An Affirmative Agenda, A Responsible Course. New York: Council on Foreign Relations. CREDSRG (China Renewable Energy Development Strategy Research Group). 2008. China Renew - able Eenrgy Development Strategy Research Series. Beijing, China: China Electric Power Press. CREIA (Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association). 2009. http://www.creia.net. Cross, J., and J. Freeman. 2009. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report. NREL Report No. TP-6A2-46022; DOE/GO-102009-2864. Golden, Colo.: NREL. CWEA (Chinese Wind Energy Association). 2010. Wind Energy, Vols. 8–9. Beijing, China: CWEA. CWERA/CMA (Center for Wind and Solar Energy Resources Assessment/China Meteorological Administration). 2010. Wind Energy Resource Assessment in China, 2009. Beijing, China: China Meteorological Press. Denholm, P.L., and G. Kulcinski. 2003. Net Energy Balance and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Re- newable Energy Storage Systems. ECW Report Number 223-1. Madison, Wis.: Energy Center of Wisconsin. Available online at http://www.cee.org/eal/db_pdf/7.pdf. Dimroth, F., W. Guter, J. Schöne, E. Welser, M. Steiner, E. Oliva, A. Wekkeli, G. Siefer, S.P. Philipps, and A.W. Bett. 2009. Metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge Triple-Junction Solar Cells with > 41% Efficiency. In Proceedings of the 34th IEEE PV Specialists Conference, Philadelphia, Pa., June 7–12, 2009. DiPippo, R. 2008. Geothermal Power Plants: Principles, Applications, Case Studies and Environmen- tal Impact, 2nd Ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier. DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 2006a. Energy Demands on Water Resources: Report to Congress on the Interdependency of Energy and Water. December. Washington, D.C.: DOE. DOE. 2006b. Fact Sheet: U.S. Department of Energy Cooperation with the People’s Republic of China. Washington, D.C.: DOE. DOE. 2007a. Enhanced Geothermal Systems Reservoir Creation Workshop. Summary Report, En - hanced Geothermal Systems Reservoir Creation Workshop, Houston, Tex. Washington, D.C.: DOE. DOE. 2007b. National Solar Technology Roadmap: Thin Film-Silicon PV. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Washington, D.C.: DOE. DOE. 2007c. National Solar Technology Roadmap: Wafer-Silicon PV. Energy Efficiency and Renew - able Energy. Washington, D.C.: DOE. DOE. 2008a. 20% Wind Energy by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy’s Contribution to U.S. Electricity Supply. Washington, D.C.: DOE. Available online at http://bit.ly/aU0nL. DOE. 2008b. Solar Energy Technologies Program: Multi Year Program Plan, 2008–2012. Washington, D.C.: DOE. Available online at http://bit.ly/cbt7KS. DOE. 2008c. United States—Wind Resource Map. Washington, D.C.: DOE. Available online at http://bit.ly/wdyj. DOE. 2009. Solar Energy Development Programmatic EIS Information Center. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewables and U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management. Available online at solareis.anl.go/index.cfm. Dooley, J.J. 2008. U.S. Federal Investments in Energy R&D: 1961–2008. Report PNNL-17952. Richland, Wash.: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

OCR for page 191
4 REFERENCES Duderstadt, J.J., M. Muro, G. Was, A. Sarzynski, R. McGrath, M. Corradini, L. Katehi, and R. Shangraw. 2009. Energy Discovery-Innovation Institutes: A Step Towards America’s Energy Sustainability. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. Edelson, D. 2009. Requirements and Expectations for a Quality Wind Forecast. Wind Energy Produc - tion Forecasting Webinar. New York Independent System Operator, February 9. EIA (Energy Information Agency). 2007a. Annual Energy Outlook 2007 with Projections to 2030. Report No. DOE/EIA-0383. Washington, D.C.: EIA. Available online at http://tonto.eia.doe. go/ftproot/forecasting/08(007).pdf. EIA. 2007b. Renewable Energy Annual, 2005. Washington, D.C.: EIA. EIA. 2009a. Annual Energy Outlook. Table 7-1, Figures 7-1, 7-2. Washington, D.C.: EIA. EIA. 2009b. Country Analysis Briefs: Electricity in China. Washington, D.C.: EIA. Available online at http://bit.ly/byqiR. EIA. 2009c. Electric Power Annual: Electric Power Industry 2008: Year in Review. Washington, D.C.: EIA. Available online at http://bit.ly/cOANrL. Table available online at http://bit.ly/bbZDGf. EIA. 2009d. International Energy Outlook 2009. Tables h15–h18. Available online at http://www.eia. doe.go/oiaf/ieo/. EIA. 2009e. Renewable Energy Annual, 2007 Edition. Washington, D.C.: EIA. Available online at http://bit.ly/bmqdQp. EIA. 2010a. Annual Energy Outlook. Washington, D.C.: EIA. Available online at http://www.eia. doe.go/oiaf/aeo/. EIA. 2010b. Electric Power Monthly with Data for July 2010. Washington, D.C.: EIA. EIA. 2010c. International Energy Statistics. Available online at http://bit.ly/GmNqp. EIA. 2010d. Renewable Energy Consumption and Electricity Preliminary Statistics, 2009. Washing - ton, D.C.: EIA. ELI (Environmental Law Institute). 2009. Estimating U.S. Government Subsidies to Energy Sources: 2002–2008. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Law Institute. Elliott, D., M. Schwarz, S. Haymes, D. Heimiller, G. Scott, L. Flowers, M. Brower, E. Hale, and B. Phelps. 2010. 80 and 100 meter Wind Energy Resource Potential for the United States. Report NREL/PO-550-48036. Available online at http://www.nrel.go/wind/pdfs/4806.pdf. Elliott, D.L., L.L. Wendell, and G.L. Gower. 1991. An Assessment of the Available Windy Land Area and Wind Energy Potential in the Contiguous United States. Richland, Wash.: Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Emery, F., and E. Trist. 1965. The causal texture of organizational environments. Human Relations 18: 21–32. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2010. Energy Projects and Candidate Landfills. Landfill Methane Outreach Program. Available online at http://www.epa.go/lmop/projects-candidates/ index.html. EPA. 2009. National Emissions Inventory Air Pollutant Emissions Trends Data, updated June 2009. Available online at http://www.epa.go/ttn/chief/trends/. EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute). 2005. Final Summary Report: Project Definition Study: Offshore Wave Power Feasibility Demonstration Project. Palo Alto, Calif.: EPRI. EPRI. 2007. Assessment of Waterpower Potential and Development Needs. Final Report. March. Palo Alto, Calif.: EPRI. EWEA (European Wind Energy Association). 2009. Wind at Work: Wind Energy and Job Creation in the EU. Available online at http://bit.ly/azZ. Fang, X. 2008. From Imitation to Innovation: A Strategic Adjustment in China’s S&T Development. Presentation at U.S.-China Symposium on Science and Technology Strategic Policy, April 15, 2008, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. Feeley III, T.J., T.J. Skone, G.J. Stiegel, A. McNemar, M. Nemeth, B. Schimmoller, J.T. Murphy, and L. Manfredo. 2008. Water: a critical resource in the thermoelectric power industry. Energy 33(1): 1–11.

OCR for page 191
5 REFERENCES Feller, I. 2009. Industry-University R&D Partnerships in the United States. Pp. 169–185 in 21st Cen - tury Innovation Systems for Japan and the United States: Lessons from a Decade of Change, Report of a Symposium. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission). 2010. Issued Hydrokinetic Preliminary Permits. October. Washington, D.C.: FERC. Frandsen, S., R. Barthelmei, O. Rathmann, H.E. Jorgensen, J. Badger, K. Hansen, S. Ott, P.E. Rethore, S.E. Larsen, and L.E. Jensen. 2007. Summary Report: The Shadow Effect of Large Wind Farms: Measurements, Data Analysis and Modeling. Riso National Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark, Riskilde, Denmark. Fredriksen, K.A. 2008. Acting Assistant Secretary, Office of Policy and International Affairs, U.S. DOE, Statement before the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, August 13, 2008. Available online at http://www.pi.energy.go/documents/FredriksenTestimony.pdf. Fthenakis, V. 2009. Sustainability of photovoltaics: the case for thin-film solar cells. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13(9): 2746–2750. Fthenakis, V.M., H.C. Kim, and E. Alsema. 2008. Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles. Environ - mental Science and Technology 42(6): 2168–2174. FWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). 2003. Service Interim Guidance on Avoiding and Minimizing Wildlife Impacts from Wind Turbines. May 13. Available online at http://www.fws.go/habitat conseration/wind.pdf. Gagnon, L., and J.F. van de Vate. 1997. Greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower: the state of research in 1996. Energy Policy 25(1): 7–13. GEA (Geothermal Energy Association). 2009. U.S. Geothermal Power Production and Development Update: March 2009. Washington, D.C.: GEA. Gleick, P. 1994. Water and energy. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 19: 267–299. Green, M.A., K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and W. Warta. 2010. Solar cell efficiency tables (version 36). Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 18(5): 346–352. Green, D., and R.G. Nix. 2006. Geothermal—The Energy Under Our Feet: Geothermal Resource Estimates for the United States. Technical Report NREL/TP-840-40665. Golden, Colo.: NREL. Available online at http://www.eere.energy.go/geothermal/pdfs/40665.pdf. Grimm, N.B., S.H. Faeth, N.E. Golubiewski, C.L. Redman, J. Wu, X.M. Bai, and J.M. Briggs. 2008. Global change and the ecology of cities. Science 319: 756–760. Gronowska, M., S. Joshi, and H.L. MacLean. 2009. A Review of U.S. and Canadian Biomass Supply Curves. BioResources 4(1): 341–369. Gu, L. 2008. Pollution and energy consumption: soft spot of polysilicon. Guangdong Science & Technology 15: 91–93 (in Chinese). Guter, W., J. Schoene, S.P. Philipps, M. Steiner, G. Siefer, A. Wekkeli, E. Welser, E. Oliva, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth. 2009. Current-matched triple-junction solar cell reaching 41.1% conversion ef - ficiency under concentrated sunlight. Applied Physics Letters 94(22): 223504/1–3. GWEC (Global Wind Energy Council). 2010. Global Wind 2009 Report. Brussels, Belgium: GWEC. Hall, D.G., K.S. Reeves, J. Brizzee, R.D. Lee, G.R. Carroll, and G.L. Sommers. 2006. Feasibility Assessment of the Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants. Report DOE/ID 11263. Available online at http://bit. ly/buOxn. Haq, Z., and J. Easterly. 2006. Agricultural Residue Availability in the United States. Applied Bio - chemistry and Biotechnology 129(1-3): 3–21. Holmes, K.J., J.A. Graham, T. McKone, and C. Whipple. 2009. Regulatory models and the environ - ment: practice, pitfalls, and prospects. Risk Analysis 29(9): 159–170. Holt, E., and L. Bird. 2005. Emerging Markets for Renewable Energy Certificates: Opportunities and Challenges. NREL/TP-620-37388. January. Golden, Colo.: NREL.

OCR for page 191
6 REFERENCES Holt, E., and R. Wiser. 2007. The Treatment of Renewable Energy Certificates, Emissions Allowances, and Green Power Programs in State Renewables Portfolio Standards. Report LBNL-62574. April. Berkeley, Calif.: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Hondo, H. 2005. Life cycle GHG emission analysis of power generation systems: Japanese case. Energy 30(11-12): 2042–2056. Hu, Y. The main problems in China’s polysilicon industry. Solar Energy 8: 63–64 (in Chinese). Huang, X. 2006. Environmental Impacts Report of Different Generation Electricity Technologies. China Huadian Engineering Co., Ltd. (CHEC). Huo, H., Q. Zhang, M.Q. Wang, D.G. Streets, and K.B. He. 2010. Environmental Implication of Electric Vehicles in China. Environmental Science and Technology 44(13):4856–4861. IEA (International Energy Agency). 2008. IEA WIND ENERGY, Annual Report 2008. Available online at http://www.ieawind.org/AnnualReports_PDF/008/008%0AR_small.pdf. IEA. 2009. IEA Ocean Energy: Global Technology Development Status. IEA-OES Document No. T0104. Available online at http://iea-oceans.org/_fich/6/ANNEX__Doc_T004.pdf. IEA. 2010a. Energy Technology Perspectives 2010: Scenarios and Strategies to 2050. Paris: OECD/IEA. IEA. 2010b. Global Gaps in Clean Energy RD&D. IEA Report for the Clean Energy Ministerial. Paris: OECD/IEA. IEA. 2010c. Opportunities to Transform the Electricity Sector in Major Economies. IEA Report for the Clean Energy Ministerial. Paris: OECD/IEA. IEA. 2010d. SolarPACES International Project Database. Available online at http://www.solarpaces. org/News/Projects/projects.htm. (See also IEA SolarPACES Annual Report 2008, published in May 2009, edited by C. Richter. Available online at http://www.solarpaces.org/Library/ AnnualReports/docs/ATR008.pdf.) IEA. 2010e. Transforming Global Markets for Clean Energy Products: Energy Efficient Equip- ment, Vehicles and Solar Photovoltaics. IEA Report for the Clean Energy Ministerial. Paris: OECD/IEA. Jacobsson, S., and A. Johnson. 2000. The diffusion of renewable energy technology: an analytical framework and key issues for research. Energy Policy 28(9): 625–640. Jones, J.L. 2008. Open Letter on Securing America’s Energy Future. July 16, 2008. Available online at http://bit.ly/gbAZq. JRC (Joint Research Center). 2009. PV Status Report 2009: Research, Solar Cell Production and Market Implementation of Photovoltaics. JRC Scientific and Technical Report EUR 24027 EN. Ispra, Italy: European Commission JRC, Institute for Energy. JRC. 2010. PV Status Report 2010: Research, Solar Cell Production and Market Implementation of Photovoltaics. JRC Scientific and Technical Report EUR 24344 EN. Ispra, Italy: European Commission JRC, Institute for Energy. Junginger, M., P. Lako, S. Lensink, W. van Sark, and M. Weiss. 2008. Climate Change Scientific As - sessment and Policy Analysis: Technological Learning in the Energy Sector. Report 500102017. Bilthoven: Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency. Kammen, D.M., and G.F. Nemet. 2005. Reversing the incredible shrinking energy R&D budget. Is- sues in Science and Technology 22(1): 84–88. Keith, D.W., J.F. DeCarolis, D.C. Denkenberger, D.H. Lenschow, S.L. Malyshev, S. Pacala, and P.J. Rasch. 2004. The influence of large scale wind power on global climate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101(46): 16115–16120. Kirk-Davidoff, D.B., and D. Keith. 2008. On the climate impact of surface roughness anomalies. Journal of Atmospheric Science 85: 2215–2234. Kroposki, B. 2007. Renewable Energy Interconnection and Storage. Presentation at the First Meeting of the Panel on Electricity from Renewables, September, 18, 2008. Washington, D.C.

OCR for page 191
7 REFERENCES Kunz, T.H., E.B. Arnett, W.P. Erickson, A.R. Hoar, G.D. Johnson, R.P. Larkin, M.D. Strickland, W.R. Thresher, and M.D. Tuttle. 2007. Ecological impacts of wind energy development on bats: questions, research needs and hypotheses. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5(6): 315–324. Lechón, Y., C. de la Rúa, and R. Sáez. 2008. Life cycle environmental impacts of electricity produc - tion by solar thermal power plants in Spain. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering 130: 1–7. Lewis, N.S., and D.G. Nocera. 2006. Powering the planet: chemical challenges in solar energy utiliza - tion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103(43): 15729–15735. Li, J., and L. Ma. 2009. Background Paper: Chinese Renewables Status Report. Paris, France: Renew- able Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century. Available online at http://bit.ly/JVbT7. Long, G., B. Wu, S. Hai, and K. Qiu. 2008. Development status and prospect of solar grade sili - con production technology. Chinese Journal of Nonferrous Metals 18 (E01): 386–392 (in Chinese). Lu, X., M.B. McElroy, and J. Kiviluoma. 2009. Global potential for wind-generated electricity. Pro - ceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 10933–10938. Macdonald, D.H., A. Cuevas, M.J. Kerr, C. Samundsett, D. Ruby, S. Winderbaum, and A. Leo. 2004. Texturing industrial multicrystalline silicon solar cells. Solar Energy 76(1-3): 277–283. Mancini, T. 2009. Sandia National Laboratories, personal communication, February 2, 2009. Mancini, T., P. Heller, B. Bulter, B. Osborn, S. Wolfgang, G. Vernon, R. Buck, R. Diver, C. Andraka, and J. Moreno. 2003. Dish Stirling Systems: an overview of development and status. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering 125(2): 135–151. Margolis, R., and D. Kammen. 1999. Evidence of under-investment in energy R&D in the United States and the impact of federal policy. Energy Policy 27(10): 575–584. McKinsey & Company. 2009. China’s Green Revolution: Prioritizing Technologies to Achieve En - ergy and Environmental Sustainability. Shanghai, China: McKinsey & Company Greater China Office. McVeigh, J., D. Burtraw, J. Darmstadter, and K. Palmer. 2000. Winner, loser, or innocent victim? Has renewable energy performed as expected? Solar Energy 68(3): 237–255. Milbrandt, A. 2005. A Geographic Perspective on the Current Biomass Resource Availability in the United States. Golden, Colo.: NREL. Miles, A.C. 2008. Hydropower at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Presentation at the Third Meeting of the Panel on Electricity from Renewables, Washington, D.C., January 16, 2008. Miller, R., and M. Winters. 2009. Opportunities in Pumped Storage Hydropower: Supporting Attain - ment of Our Renewable Energy Goals. National Hydropower Association White Paper. April. Milly, P.C.D., K.A. Dunne, and A.V. Vecchia. 2005. Global pattern of trends in streamflow and water availability in a changing climate. Nature 438(7066): 347–350. Minerals Management Service. 2006. Wave Energy Potential on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf, Technology White Paper. Washington, D.C.: Renewable Energy and Alternate Use Program, U.S. Department of the Interior. MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). 2006. The Future of Geothermal Energy: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st Century. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Mosey, G., D. Heimiller, D. Dahle, L. Vimmerstedt, and L. Brady-Sabeff. 2007. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites. Environmental Protection Agency Report No. 600/R/08/023, NREL Report No. TP-640-41522. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Protection Agency. Mu, R.P. 2007. Research and Commercialization Infrastructure. In The Dragon and the Elephant: Understanding the Development of Innovation Capacity in China and India—Summary of a Conference. NRC, 2010. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. Murphy, L.M., and P.L. Edwards. 2003. Bridging the Valley of Death: Transitioning from Public to Private Sector Financing. NREL/MP-720-34036. Golden, Colo.: NREL.

OCR for page 191
8 REFERENCES Musial, W., and S. Butterfield. 2004. Future for Offshore Wind Energy in the United States. Preprint. NREL/CP-500-36313. Golden, Colo.: NREL. Available online at http://bit.ly/btRInE. NAE (National Academy of Engineering)/NRC (National Research Council)/CAE/CAS. 2007. En - ergy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. NAS (National Academy of Sciences)/NAE/NRC. 2009a. America’s Energy Future: Technology and Transformation. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. NAS/NAE/NRC. 2009b. Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass: Technological Status, Costs, and Environmental Impacts. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. NAS/NAE/NRC. 2010a. Electricity from Renewable Resources: Status, Prospects, and Impediments. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. NAS/NAE/NRC. 2010b. Real Prospects for Energy Efficiency in the United States. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. NAS/NAE/IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. NCI (Navigant Consulting, Inc.). 2010. Jobs Impact of a National Renewable Electricity Standard: Final Report. Prepared for the RES Alliance for Jobs, February 2. Washington, D.C.: NCI. NDRC (National Development and Reform Commission). 2007. Medium and Long-Term Develop- ment Plan for Renewable Energy. Beijing: National Development and Reform Commission. Nemet, G.F. 2006. Beyond the learning curve: factors influencing cost reductions in photovoltaics. Energy Policy 34(17): 3218–3232. Nemet, G.F. 2009. Interim monitoring of cost dynamics for publicly supported energy technologies. Energy Policy 37(3): 825–835. Nemet, G.F., and D.M. Kammen. 2007. U.S. energy R&D: declining investment, increasing need, and the feasibility of expansion. Energy Policy 35(1): 746–755. NEA (National Energy Administration-China). 2010. China Energy Development Report 2010, edited by G.B. Zhang. Beijing, China: Economic Science Press. NETL (National Energy Technology Laboratory). 2007. The NETL Modern Grid Initiative: A Vision for the Modern Grid. March. Pittsburgh, Pa.: NETL. Available online at http://bit.ly/bqrMRO. NHA (National Hydropower Association). 2010. Converting America’s Nonpowered Dams: Tapping Our Unrealized Energy Resources. Washington, D.C.: NHA. North Carolina Solar Center and U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renew - able Energy. 2009. Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency. Available online at http://dsireusa.org/. Accessed June 2009. Norton, B., P.S. Eames, and N.G. Lo. 1998. Full-energy-chain analysis of greenhouse gas emissions for solar thermal electric power generation systems. Renewable Energy 15: 131–136. NRC (National Research Council). 1990. Surface Coal Mining Effects on Ground Water Recharge. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2000. Renewable Power Pathways: A Review of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Renewable Energy Programs. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2007. Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. NRC. 2008. Transitions to Alternative Transportation Technologies: A Focus on Hydrogen. Washing - ton, D.C.: National Academies Press. NRC. 2009a. Assessing Economic Impacts of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. NRC. 2009b. Persistent Forecasting of Disruptive Technologies. Washington, D.C.: National Acad - emies Press. NRC. 2010a. Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use. Wash- ington, D.C.: National Academies Press.

OCR for page 191
 REFERENCES NRC. 2010b. Toward Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the 21st Century. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. NRC. 2010c. Transitions to Alternative Transportation Technologies: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. NRC/CAS/CAE (National Research Council/Chinese Academy of Sciences/Chinese Academy of Engineering). 2000. Cooperation in the Energy Futures of China and the United States. Wash - ington, DC: National Academy Press. NRC/NAE/CAS/CAE (National Research Council/National Academy of Engineering/Chinese Acad - emy of Sciences/Chinese Academy of Engineering). 2004. Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollu- tion in China: The Challenges Ahead: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory). 2010a. FY 2009 National Renewable Energy Laboratory Annual Report: A Year of Energy Transformation. NREL/MP-6A4-45629. January. Golden, Colo.: NREL. NREL. 2010b. The Open PV Mapping Project. Available online at http://openp.nrel.go/. NSB (National Science Board). 2009. Building a Sustainable Energy Future: U.S. Actions for an Ef - fective Energy Economy Transformation. NSB-09-55. August 3. Arlington, Va.: NSB. NSB. 2010. Science and Engineering Indicators: 2010. NSB 10-01. Arlington, Va.: NSB. O’Donnell, C., P. Baumstark, V. Nibler, K. Corfee, and K. Sullivan. 2009. Renewable Energy Cost of Generation Update. PIER Interim Project Report. CEC-500-2009-084. August. Sacramento, Calif.: California Energy Commission. OHA (Office of Hawaiian Affairs). 2007. Protection of Wao Kele O Puna celebrated, Aug. 27, 2007. Available online at http://www.oha.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=iew&id=8&Itemid=. OPS (Office of the Press Secretary). 1999. Fact Sheet: U.S.-China Forum on Environment and Development. Available online at http://clinton6.nara.go//04/-04-08-fact-sheet-on- ice-president-and-premeir-zhrongji-forum.html. OPS. 2009a. Fact Sheet: U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center. Available online at http://www. energy.go/news00/documents00/U.S.-China_Fact_Sheet_CERC.pdf. OPS. 2009b. Fact Sheet: U.S.-China Cooperation on 21st Century Coal. Available online at http:// www.energy.go/news00/documents00/US-China_Fact_Sheet_Coal.pdf. OPS. 2009c. Fact Sheet: U.S.-China Electric Vehicles Initiative. Available online at http://www.energy. go/news00/documents00/US-China_Fact_Sheet_Electric_ Vehicles.pdf. OPS. 2009d. Fact Sheet: U.S.-China Energy Efficiency Action Plan. Available online at http://www. energy.go/news00/documents00/US-China_Fact_Sheet_Efficiency_ Action_Plan.pdf. OPS. 2009e. Fact Sheet: U.S.-China Renewable Energy Partnership. Available online at http://www. energy.go/news00/documents00/US-China_Fact_Sheet_Renewable_ Energy.pdf. OPS. 2009f. Fact Sheet: U.S.-China Shale Gas Resource Initiative. Available online at http://www. energy.go/news00/documents00/US-China_Fact_Sheet_Shale_Gas.pdf. Oregon Historical Quarterly. 2007. Significant events in the history of Celilo Falls. Oregon Historical Quarterly 108(4). Available online at http://www.historycooperatie.org/journals/ohq/08.4/ editor.html. ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory). 1993. Hydropower: Licensed to Protect the Environment. ORNL Review 26(3&4). Available online at http://www.ornl.go/info/ornlreiew/re6-4/text/ hydmain.html. Palmer, K., and D. Burtraw. 2005. Cost-effectiveness of renewable electricity policies. Energy Eco - nomics 27(6): 873–894. Pasternak, A. 2009. “Chinese” Wind Farm in Texas: Green Jobs Fail? Available online at http://www. treehugger.com/files/00//chinese-wind-farm-texas-green-jobs-fail.php. Pehnt, M. 2006. Dynamic life cycle assessment (LCA) of renewable energy technologies. Renewable Energy 31: 55–71.

OCR for page 191
00 REFERENCES Perlack, R.D., L.L. Wright, A.F. Turhollow, R.L. Graham, B.J. Stokes, and D.C. Erbach. 2005. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply. Sponsored by the USDA and DOE. Available online at http://bit.ly/bQSjUu. Pernick, R., and C. Wilder. 2008. Utility Solar Assessment (USA) Study: Reaching Ten Percent Solar by 2025. Washington, D.C.: Clean Edge Inc. and Co-op America Foundation. Pew Charitable Trusts. 2010. Who’s Winning the Clean Energy Race? Growth, Competition, and Opportunities in the World’s Largest Economies. Philadelphia, Pa., and Washington, D.C.: The Pew Charitable Trusts. Pletka, R., and Finn, J. 2009. Western Renewable Energy Zones, Phase 1: QRA Identification Techni - cal Report. NREL/SR-6A2-46877. Golden, Colo.: NREL. Price, R.S. 2008. A Chronology of U.S.-China Energy Cooperation. Washington, D.C.: Atlantic Council of the United States. Pryor, S.C., R.J. Barthelmie, and E. Kjellström. 2005. Potential climate change impact on wind en - ergy resources in northern Europe: analyses using a regional climate model. Climate Dynamics 25(7-8): 815–835. Pryor, S.C., J.T. Schoof, and R.J. Barthelmie. 2006. Winds of change?: projections of near-surface winds under climate change scenarios. Geophysical Research Letters 33(L11702): 5 pp. doi:10.1029/2006GL026000. Pryor, S.C., R.J. Barthelmie, D.T. Young, E.S. Takle, R.W. Arritt, D. Flory, W.J. Gutowski Jr., A. Nunes, and J. Roads. 2009. Wind speed trends over the contiguous United States. Journal of Geophysical Research 114(D14105): 18 pp. doi:10.1029/2008JD011416. REN 21 (Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century). 2009. Renewables Global Status Report: 2009 Update. Paris, France: REN21 Secretariat. Available online at http://www.ren. net/pdf/RE_GSR_00_Update.pdf. REN 21. 2010. Renewables 2010: Global Status Report. Paris, France: REN21 Secretariat. Available online at http://www.ren.net/RENActiities/Publications/GlobalStatusReport/tabid/544/ Default.aspx. Robins, N., R. Clover, and C. Singh. 2009. A Climate for Recovery: The Colour of Stimulus Goes Green. HSBC Global Research. Roy, B.S., S.W. Pacala, and R.L. Walko. 2004. Can large wind farms affect local meteorology? Journal of Geophysical Research 109(D19101): 6 pp. doi:10.1029/2004JD004763. SEIA (Solar Energy Industries Association). 2004. Our Solar Power Future: The U.S Photovoltaic Industry Roadmap Through 2030 and Beyond. Washington, D.C.: SEIA. Sherwood, L. 2010. U.S. Solar Market Trends 2009. July. Latham, N.Y.: Interstate Renewable Energy Council. Shipp, S., and M. Stanley. 2009. Government’s Evolving Role in Supporting Corporate R&D in the United States: Theory, Practice, and Results in the Advanced Technology Program. In 21st Century Innovation Systems for Japan and the United States: Lessons from a Decade of Change: Report of a Symposium. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. Smith, R. 2009. Chinese-Made Turbines to Fill U.S. Wind Farm. Wall Street Journal, October 30, 2009. Solarbuzz. 2009. Annual World Solar Photovoltaic Industry Report in 2008. Available online at http:// www.solarbuzz.com/Marketbuzz00-intro.htm. Song, C. 2006. Global challenges and strategies for control, conversion and utilization of CO 2 for sustainable development involving energy, catalysis, adsorption and chemical processing. Ca - talysis Today 115(1-4): 2–32. Spath, P., and M. Mann. 2004. Biomass Power and Conventional Fossil Systems with and without CO2 Sequestration: Comparing the Energy Balance, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economics. NREL/TP-510-32575, Golden, Colo.: NREL. January.

OCR for page 191
0 REFERENCES Spitzley, D., and G.A. Keoleian. 2005. Life Cycle Environmental and Economic Assessment of Willo Biomass Electricity: A Comparison with Other Renewable and Non-Renewable Sources. Re - port # CSS04-05R (March 2004, revised February 10, 2005). Center for Sustainable Systems, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Stefansson, B., B. Palsson, and G.O. Frioleifsson. 2008, Iceland Deep Drilling Project: explora- tion of supercritical geothermal resources. In IEEE Power and Energy Society 2008 General Meeting: Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, July 20–24, 2008, Pittsburgh, Pa. Sterzinger, G., and M. Svrcek. 2004. Wind Turbine Development: Location of Manufacturing Activity. September. Washington, D.C.: Renewable Energy Policy Project. Su, W. 2008. Measures for energy saving and reducing pollution in polysilicon production. Nonfer- rous Metals Processing 37(2): 57–59 (in Chinese). Tan, X.M., and Z. Gang. 2009. An Emerging Revolution: Clean Technology, Research and Develop - ment in China. WRI Working Paper. Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute. Tester, J.W., E.M. Drake, M.J. Driscoll, M.W. Golay, and W.A. Peters. 2005. Sustainable Energy: Choosing Among Options. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. UNEP (United Nations Environment Program). 2008. Public Finance Mechanisms to Mobilize Public Investment in Climate Change Mitigation. Sustainable Energy Finance Initiative. Paris: United National Environment Programme. UNEP SEFI (Sustainable Energy Finance Initiative)/New Energy Finance. 2009. Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2009 Report: Analysis of Trends and Issues in the Financing of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency. Geneva, Switzerland: UNEP. Available online at http://www.unep.org/pdf/Global_trends_report_00.pdf. USGS (U.S. Geological Survey). 1979. Assessment of Geothermal Resources of the United States— 1978. Geological Survey Circular 790. Arlington, Va.: USGS. Available online at http://pubs. er.usgs.go/usgspubs/cir/cir70. USGS. 2005. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000. USGS Circular 1268. Revised February 2005. Arlington, Va.: USGS. USW (United Steel Workers). 2010. United Steelworkers’ Section 301 Petition Demonstrates China’s Green Technology Practices Violate WTO Rules. Available online at http://assets. usw.org/ releases/misc/section-0.pdf. Vant-Hull, L.L. 1991. Solar Thermal Electricity: An Environmental Benign and Viable Alternative. In Proceedings of the World Clean Energy Conference, Geneva, Switzerland, Nov. 4–7. Viebahn, P. 2004. INDITEP, Integration of DSG Technology for Electricity Production, WP 4.3, Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment of Construction Materials, Energy Demand and Emissions of DSG. Final Report. Available from http://www.esa.int/. VTT (Technical Research Center of Finland). 2008. Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power: Final Report: IEA WIND Task 25: Phase one 2006–2008. Avail- able online at http://www.tt.fi/inf/pdf/tiedotteet/00/T4.pdf. Walsh, M., R. Perlack, A. Turhollow, D. de la Torre Ugarte, D. Becker, R. Graham, S. Slinsky, and D. Ray. 2000. Biomass Feedstock Availability in the United States: 1999 State Level Analysis. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Available online at http://bioenergy.ornl. go/resourcedata/index.html. Walsh, M.E. 2008. U.S. Cellulosic Biomass Feedstock Supplies and Distribution. M&E Biomass, University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Wang, K.H., and D.Q. Zhao. 2007. Analysis and Comparison on Environment and Efficiency of the Trough and Tower Solar Thermal Power Generation. Energy Engineering 1: 25–28. Wang, M., and Q. Guo. 2010. The Yangbajing Geothermal Field and the Yangyi Geothermal Field: Two Representative Fields in Tibet, China. In Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali, Indonesia, April 25–29. Wang, Z.F. and Zhang M.M. 2008. Feed-in Tariff Research Report of Solar Thermal Power Plants, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS).

OCR for page 191
0 REFERENCES Wang, Z.F. 2009. Prospectives for China’s solar thermal power technology development. Energy 35(11): 4417–4420. Weiss, C., and W.B. Bonvillian. 2009. Structuring an Energy Technology Revolution. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Weissman, J. 2009. Credentialing: What’s in a Name? A Lot. Solar Today (September/October): 44. Available online at http://bit.ly/aPWN0V. WGA (Western Governors’ Association). 2006a. Clean and Diversified Energy Initiative Solar Task Force Report. Washington, D.C.: WGA. WGA. 2006b. Clean and Diversified Energy Initiative: Geothermal Task Force Report. Washington, D.C.: WGA. WGA. 2009. Western Renewable Energy Zones Initiative: Phase 1 Report. June 2009. Available online at http://bit.ly/digw. Comments online at http://bit.ly/oUKff. Williams, C.F., and B.S. Pierce. 2008. The U.S. Geothermal Resource Assessment. Available online at http://energy.usgs.go/flash/geothermal_slideshow.swf. Williams, C.F., M.J. Reed, and R.H. Mariner. 2008. A Review of Methods Applied by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Assessment of Identified Geothermal Resources. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1296. Reston, Va.: USGS. Available online at http://pubs.usgs. go/of/008/6/. Wilkinson, C. 2007. Blood Struggle: The Rise of Modern Indian Nations. New York: Norton. Wiser, R. 2008. The Development, Deployment, and Policy Context of Renewable Electricity: A Focus on Wind. Presentation at the 4th Meeting of the Panel on Electricity from Renewables, March 11, 2008, Washington, D.C. Wiser, R. and M. Bolinger. 2010. 2009 Wind Technologies Market Report. DOE/GO-102010-3107. Washington, DC: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Office of Energy Efficiency & Re- newable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. WRI (World Resources Institute). 2005. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Ecosystems and Human Well-Being. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. Wu, Y., D.G. Streets, S.X. Wang, and J.M. Hao. 2010. Uncertainties in estimating mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10:2937–2947. Xu, Y. 2007. Treatment of acidic wastewater with fluoride in the cleaning process of polysilicon raw materials. Jiangsu Metallurgy 35(6): 52–53 (in Chinese). Xu, D., T. Biegala, M. Carmody, J.W. Garland, C. Grein, and S. Sivananthan. 2010. Proposed mono - lithic triple-junction solar cell structures with the potential for ultrahigh efficiencies using II-VI alloys and silicon substrates. Applied Physics Letters 96(7): 073508. Xue, H., R.Z. Zhu, Z.B. Yang, and C.H. Yuan. 2001. Assessment of wind energy reserves in China. Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica 22(4): 168–170. Yan, L.G. 2009. Presentation to Committee, Xining, China, July 2009. Yang, J.X., C. Xu, and R.S. Wang. 2002. Methods and Applications of LCA of Products. Weather Publishing Company. Zeng, H. 2008. Analysis of harmful factors in in polysilicon production. Xinjiang Huagong (4): 41–46 (in Chinese). Zhong, W. 2005. Discussion and application analysis of polysilicon solar cell production technology. Ceramics Science & Art (5): 36–40 (in Chinese). Zhu, R., D. Zhang, and Y. Wang. 2009. Assessment of Wind Energy Potential in China. Engineering Sciences 7(2): 18–26. Zprýme Research and Consulting. 2010. Smart Grid Snapshot: China Tops Stimulus Funding. Austin, Tex.: Zprýme Research and Consulting.