Status: This project will backfill a total of 22 miles of C-38 and re-establish approximately 40 miles of meandering river channel. Three of the four phases (reaches) of the Kissimmee River Restoration Project to backfill the initial 14 miles of C-38 are complete, restoring a 24-mile section of the original river channel. Most of the 102,061 acres of land needed for the restoration have been acquired. The last remaining construction phases will backfill the final 12 miles of C-38. Phase 4B backfilling began in 2009 and was completed in 2010.
Observed Benefits: About 7,700 acres of formerly drained portions of the river’s floodplain are now experiencing enhanced inundation and are reverting back to wetland habitat. A comprehensive evaluation program for tracking environmental responses to the restoration is gauging the success of the project in meeting its goal of ecological integrity for the river and the floodplain. Densities of long-legged wading birds on the restored floodplain have exceeded restoration expectations each year since 2002, with the exception of the drought year 2007.
Integrated Financial Plan (IFP; SFERTF, 2009) Start Date: 1994
Current Estimated Completion Date: 2014
Original Estimated Cost (WRDA 1992): $427M
2009 IFP Estimated Cost: $619M
Status: Construction of Compartments B and C build-outs is scheduled for completion in December 2010. Flow-through operation of stormwater treatment area (STA)-2 Cell 4, and STA-6 Section 2 began in 2007 and 2008, respectively. STA-5 Flow-way 3, which became flow-capable in 2006 and began limited operation in 2008, dried out during drought conditions in water year (WY) 2009. This
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C Status of Key Non-CERP Projects KISSIMMEE RIVER RESTORATION Status: This project will backfill a total of 22 miles of C-38 and re-establish approximately 40 miles of meandering river channel. Three of the four phases (reaches) of the Kissimmee River Restoration Project to backfill the initial 14 miles of C-38 are complete, restoring a 24-mile section of the original river channel. Most of the 102,061 acres of land needed for the restoration have been acquired. The last remaining construction phases will backfill the final 12 miles of C-38. Phase 4B backfilling began in 2009 and was completed in 2010. Observed Benefits: About 7,700 acres of formerly drained portions of the river’s floodplain are now experiencing enhanced inundation and are reverting back to wetland habitat. A comprehensive evaluation program for tracking environ- mental responses to the restoration is gauging the success of the project in meet- ing its goal of ecological integrity for the river and the floodplain. Densities of long-legged wading birds on the restored floodplain have exceeded restoration expectations each year since 2002, with the exception of the drought year 2007. Integrated Financial Plan (IFP; SFERTF, 2009) Start Date: 1994 Current Estimated Completion Date: 2014 Original Estimated Cost (WRDA 1992): $427M 2009 IFP Estimated Cost: $619M EVERGLADES CONSTRUCTION PROJECT Status: Construction of Compartments B and C build-outs is scheduled for com- pletion in December 2010. Flow-through operation of stormwater treatment area (STA)-2 Cell 4, and STA-6 Section 2 began in 2007 and 2008, respectively. STA-5 Flow-way 3, which became flow-capable in 2006 and began limited operation in 2008, dried out during drought conditions in water year (WY) 2009. This 291
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292 Appendix C flow-way was off-line for half of WY2010 due to Compartment C construction activities. A major earthwork project was completed in the southern portion of STA-5 Cell 1A in early 2009 to fill in a west-to-east oriented slough and improve flow distribution and performance in this cell. Approximately 80–100 acres of the slough were filled with ~400,000 cubic yards of material obtained form a borrow area immediately to the west of the treatment cell. Conversion from emergent to submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) has been completed in STA- 1W Cell 3 (WY2009), is continuing in STA-3/4 Cell 1B, and has been initiated in STA-2 Cell 2. Large-scale bulrush planting was conducted in WY2009–2010. Planted areas included STA-5 Cells 1A and 1B; STA-1E Cells 5, 6, and 7; STA-1W Cells 5A and 5B: and STA 3/4 Cell 1A. Observed Benefits: Since 1994, the Everglades Construction Project (ECP) STAs have retained more than1,400 metric tons (mt) of total phosphorus (TP) that would have otherwise entered the Everglades Protection Area, reducing TP loads by 60–86 percent. Start Date: Authorized in 1994, Everglades Forever Act Current Estimated Completion Date: Not available Original Estimated Cost: $825M Current Estimated Cost: $836.2M MODIFICATIONS TO C-111 (SOUTH DADE) Status: Currently, two interim pump stations and one permanent pump station have been completed, along with construction of a retention/detention zone, replacement of the Taylor Slough Bridge, and removal of 4.75 miles of spoil mounds along lower C-111. Two construction projects were recently completed and transferred to the sponsor; the S-331 Command and Control Center and the southern retention/detention center. Construction contracts were initiated in 2008 to complete earthwork for the detention flowway linking the B and C pump station detention areas. This extension expands the effective area being used to build a hydrologic barrier between Everglades National Park (ENP) and the L-31N Canal to reduce seepage losses from ENP. A construction contract to extend the S-332B North detention area and contain discharges from the 8.5 square mile area (SMA) STA component of the modify water delivering (MWD) project is anticipated in 2012. Observed Benefits: Not yet fully implemented. Distribution of flows has improved downstream of the Taylor Slough bridge replacement and C-111 Spoil Mounds Removal areas.
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Appendix C 293 IFP Start Date: 1994 Current Estimated Completion Date: 2017 Original Estimated Cost: $121M (1994) 2009 IFP Estimated Cost: $383.6M ($118.2M appropriated thru fiscal year [FY]2009) MODIFIED WATER DELIVERIES TO EVERGLADES NATIONAL PARK Status: Construction features completed: 1. Spillway structures S-355A and B in the L-29 Levee 2. S-333 modifications 3. Tigertail Camp elevation 4. Pump Station S-356 between L-31N Canal and L-29 Canal (for MWD) 5. Levees and a seepage collector canal to provide flood mitigation for the east Everglades residential area (8.5 SMA) 6. S-331 Command and Control (cost shared with the C-111 [South Dade]) Work in progress: 1. Degradation of the L-67 Extension Canal and Levee (4 of 9 miles degraded) 2. Construction of the bridges and raising the road for the Tamiami Trail Modi- fications feature. Future work: 3. Structures S-345 A, B, and C through the L-67A and C Levees 4. Structures S-349 A, B, and C in the L-67A Borrow Canal 5. Osceola Camp elevation design and construction 6. L-29 weirs Observed Benefits: Not yet implemented. IFP Start Date: 1990 Current Estimated Completion Date: 2013 Original Estimated Cost: $98M (1989) 2009 IFP Estimated Cost: Information not found NORTHERN EVERGLADES AND ESTUARIES PROTECTION PROGRAM Status: In 2007, the Florida Legislature expanded the Lake Okeechobee Protec- tion Act to include protection and restoration of the interconnected Kissimmee, Lake Okeechobee, Caloosahatchee, and St. Lucie watersheds. This interagency initiative, known as the Northern Everglades and Estuaries Protection Program
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294 Appendix C (NEEPP), focuses on the water storage and water treatment needed to help improve and restore the Northern Everglades and coastal estuaries. As part of this initiative, the SFWMD and the state will expand water storage areas, con- struct treatment marshes, and expedite environmental management initiatives to enhance the ecological condition of the lake and downstream coastal estuaries. The NEEPP requires the SFWMD, in collaboration with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS) as coordinating agencies and in cooperation with local governments, to develop (1) the Lake Okeechobee Watershed Construc- tion Project Phase II Technical Plan, (2) the St. Lucie River Watershed Protection Plan, and (3) the Caloosahatchee River Watershed Protection Plan. The Phase II Technical Plan was submitted to the legislature in February 2008 and the St. Lucie River and Caloosahatchee River Watershed Protection Plans were submit- ted in January 2009. While Northern Everglades projects have been conceptually identified in these plans, specific projects and activities will be included in the annual work plan for each fiscal year. Currently, the coordinating agencies are developing the Lake Okeechobee Protection Plan update, which will be submit- ted to the Florida Legislature early in 2011, and they will initiate the St. Lucie and Caloosahatchee River Watershed Protection Plan updates in 2011. Observed Benefits: Coordinating agencies have been able to implement a large number of phosphorus reduction projects, including phosphorus source control grant programs for agricultural landowners, dairy best available technology pilot projects, soil amendment projects, isolated wetland restoration, remediation of former dairies, and regional public/private partnerships. Also, six Hybrid Wetland Treatment Technology projects have been constructed in a joint effort between the SFWMD and FDACS in St. Lucie and Lake Okeechobee watersheds. A com- prehensive monitoring program for water quality in the lake and watershed and ecological indicators in the lake has been implemented. The Phase II Technical Plan is currently being implemented. Start Date: 2007 Current Estimated Completion Date: Three phase implementation. The first phase occurs from 2008 to 2010 and includes continued implementation of ongoing measures and initiatives. Mid-term implementation measures will occur from 2011 to 2015 and long-term implementation measures will go beyond 2015. 2010 Estimated Cost: Since the enactment of the Lake Okeechobee Protection Act in 2000 and through 2010, approximately $273 million has been invested through the state appropriations and SFWMD contributions for Lake Okeechobee
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Appendix C 295 watershed restoration. Additional investment of approximately $47.4 million has been made through the state appropriations, local governments, and SFWMD contributions for the St. Lucie and Caloosahatchee River watersheds since 2007. Future costs will be estimated in future plan updates. INVASIVE SPECIES MANAGEMENT Status: Progress is being made through several programmatic initiatives. An interagency group, the Everglades Cooperative Invasive Species Management Area, has been assembled to support and enhance a weed management database (WEEDAR). Biocontrol agents have been successfully developed and introduced for Melaleuca; efforts to develop agents for Lygodium are continuing; and conventional controls (physical removal, herbicide applications) and airborne surveys are carried out regularly. There has been development of new manage- ment approaches for invasive plants through applied research and information exchange between cooperators. Funding comes from specific projects under CERP (Melaleuca Eradication and Other Exotic Plants project, funded in 2002) and a variety of state-based projects. Surveys of invasive species are con- ducted by a variety of agencies (Florida Department of Environmental Protection [FLDEP], South Florida Water Management District [SFWMD], National Park Service [NPS]). Shortages of funds for monitoring and assessment, and develop- ment of biocontrol agent hampers further progress. Management of exotic animal species lags well behind efforts for invasive exotic plants. Observed Benefits: Melaleuca is thought to be under control, with most popu- lations subject to maintenance control. Biocontrol agents are being introduced for Lygodium and Schinus; Lygodium is considered a major threat to ecosystem integrity. Start Date: 2007 Current Estimated Completion Date: TBD Original Estimated Cost: information not found Current Estimated Cost: information not found LAKESIDE RANCH Status: The enactment of Florida’s Northern Everglades Initiative in 2007 expanded the Lake Okeechobee Protection Act to the entire northern Everglades system, and identified the Lakeside Ranch STA as an expedited project. The Lakeside Ranch STA involves the construction of a 2,000-acre STA at Lakeside Ranch that will provide approximately 19 metric tons of phosphorus reduction.
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296 Appendix C The STA that will be constructed in two phases (STA North and STA South). Phase I includes 925 acres of effective treatment area ($31M construction cost) to be completed in February 2012. Phase II includes 1050 acres of effective treatment area ($42M construction cost). Observed Benefits: Not yet implemented Start Date: October 2005 Current Estimated Completion Date: February 2012 for STA North, TBD for STA South Original Estimated Cost: Information not found 2009 IFP Estimated Cost: $105M Everglades and South Florida (E&SF) Restoration: Critical Projects East Coast Canal Structues (C-4) Status: Construction of a gated water control structure (S-380) in the C-4 Basin in Dade County southeast of the Pennsuco wetlands is complete. Observed Benefits: Raised surface and ground water levels to help preserve wetlands, increased aquifer recharge, and reduced seepage. IFP Start Date: 1999 IFP Completion Date: 2003 2007 IFP Cost: $3.7M Tamiami Trail Culverts Status: Original plans included Phase 1 placement of 77 culverts along Tamiami Trail (62 culverts west of State Road (SR) 92 in the Picayune Strand area, plus 15 culverts east of SR92 near the Big Cypress Preserve area), and Phase 2 resurfac- ing of Tamiami Trail related to these efforts. Construction of 17 Western Phase 1 Tamiami Trail Culverts between SR92 and SR29 in Collier County was completed in May 2006. This portion of Phase 1 has been included as a component of the Picayune Strand Restoration Project (authorized for construction in WRDA 2007) and will be cost-shared under that CERP program instead of the Critical Projects Authority. Since the initial planning, the scope of the project was modified due to budget and time constraints. The remainder of Phase 1 and Phase 2 work is on hold pending funding
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Appendix C 297 Observed Benefits: Installation of Phase 1 culverts under the Tamiami Trail established more natural hydropatterns north and south of the highway, which is expected to enhance biological restoration in the area. IFP Start Date: 1998 Current Estimated Completion Date: TBD 2009 IFP Estimated Cost: $21.7M (for the original plan) Florida Keys Carrying Capacity Study Status: This project has been completed. It included the development of a decision-making tool, which will provide a comprehensive basis for coordinat- ing and strengthening water and land-related planning efforts by local, state, and federal agencies. Observed Benefits: The South Florida Regional Planning Council has agreed to steward and maintain the Carrying Capacity Impact Assessment Model as a decision-making tool. The Florida Marine Research Institute has also agreed to steward and maintain the databases. IFP Start Date: 1997 IFP Completion Date: 2003 2009 IFP Estimated Cost: $6M Western C-11 Water Quality Treatment Status: Construction is complete for this project to improve the quality and tim- ing of stormwater discharges to the Everglades Protection Area from the Western C-11 Basin located in south central Broward County. The structures have been turned over from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) for operation and maintenance. Observed Benefits: The S-381 structure in the C-11 Canal separates clean seep- age flows from untreated agricultural and urban stormwater runoff. The S-9A Pump Station pumps clean flows into WCA-3A. IFP Start Date: 1997 IFP Completion Date: 2006 2009 IFP Estimated Cost: $18.1M
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298 Appendix C Seminole Tribe Big Cypress Reservation Water Conservation Plan Status: Construction of the Phase 1 conveyance canal system was completed in 2004. Construction is under way on water control and treatment facilities in the western portion of Big Cypress Reservation. Phase II of this project has been divided into four basins. The USACE completed construction of the largest basin, Basin 1, in August 2008 and was transferred for operations and maintenance in February 2010. Permeability rates neces- sitated design modifications for the other three basins. The contract for Basin 4 construction will be awarded later in 2010. The two remaining construction features, Basin 2 and Basin 3, are scheduled for construction award in 2011 pending funding. Projected Benefits: Should improve the quality of agricultural water runoff within the reservation, restore storage capacity, and return native vegetation. IFP Start Date: 1997 Current Estimated Completion Date: 2013 for all basins (Basin 1 is complete). Original Estimated Cost: $75.3M (1996) 2009 IFP Estimated Cost: $60M Southern CREW Project Additions & Imperial River Flow Way Status: This project aims to reestablish more natural flow patterns to 4,100 acres in the Southern Corkscrew Regional Ecosystem Watershed (CREW) to improve and restore the hydrology and ecology of the project area. Land acquisition has been accomplished with state and federal cost-sharing. Due to escalating land costs and the difficulty in restoring hydrology in the areas south of the Kehl Canal, the SFWMD governing board approved changes to the project footprint in March 2009, removing the southern half of Sections 32 and 33 that are south of the Kehl Canal. The SFWMD continues to acquire land for this smaller footprint and construct the project. Observed Benefits: Removal of exotic species, primarily Melaleuca trees, on more than 2,560 acres has occurred. Two miles of canals have been plugged and associated berms breached and two miles of dirt roads degraded to restore sheet flow in Section 25, restoring hydropatterns on approximately 640 acres of wetlands.
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Appendix C 299 IFP Start Date: 1995 Current Estimated Completion Date: 2015 Yellow Book Original Estimated Cost: $33.5M ($3.4M Construction and $30.1M Real Estate) 2009 IFP Estimated Cost: $33.3M Lake Okeechobee Water Retention & Phosphorus Removal Status: Construction of two new stormwater treatment areas within the Taylor Creek/Nubbin Slough Basin was physically complete September 2006. The interim construction and testing phase, begun in 2007, is still in progress because of low water. After a pipe leak during a routine test in 2008, the project delivery team (PDT) is determining the responsible party for cost of reparations. Transfer of the project to the sponsor is pending resolution of all warranty issues. Projected Benefits: To improve the quality of water flowing into Lake Okeechobee. IFP Start Date: 1997 IFP Completion Date: Construction complete: 2006 Testing complete; transfer to sponsor: TBD 2009 IFP Cost: $22.35M Ten Mile Creek Water Preserve Area Status: Construction of an above-ground reservoir, pump station, and gated water-level control structure was complete in 2006. Since that time, interim operations, testing, and monitoring have been underway by the SFWMD and USACE in accordance with the water quality permit and Project Cooperation Agreement. During the process to transfer the project to the SFWMD for full operations, the USACE and SFWMD immediately began identifying all concerns and planning a course of action toward remediation. The additional project needs that have been identified have significant associated costs. In June 2009 the SFWMD transferred responsibility for the Ten Mile Creek project to the USACE, which has placed the facility in a passive operating state. Due to limita- tions on funding, reauthorization will likely be required to proceed. Projected Benefits: Will provide 6,000 acre-feet of seasonal or temporary stor- age of stormwater from the Ten Mile Creek Basin on 526 acres of land, which will moderate high-volume freshwater flows and salinity fluctuations in the St.
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300 Appendix C Lucie Estuary and reduce sediment and nutrient loads to benefit 2,740 acres of estuarine habitat. IFP Start Date: 1997 IFP Completion Date: TBD 2009 IFP Cost: $50M ($43.9M appropriated thru FY2009) Lake Trafford Restoration Status: The in-lake portion of dredging was completed by spring of 2006. The second phase of construction and muck removal should have been completed by December 2007, but dredging was delayed due to dry weather and low water. The uncompleted second phase was re-initiated in the spring of 2009 as Phase III, and included dredging the uncompleted littoral zones and deeper portions of the lake. This work is expected to be complete in the first quarter of 2011. The containment facility and much of the dredging have been completed as of early 2008. Observed and Projected Benefits: Approximately 3 million cubic yards of organic sediments that blanketed the bottom of the lake were removed. Expec- tations include improving water quality, reestablishing native vegetation, and improving subsequent flows to Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary and the Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge. Lake monitoring by the local university has identified significant improvement in the quality of the lake from Phase I and Phase II dredging. IFP Start Date: 1999 Current Estimated Completion Date: 2011 Yellow Book Original Estimated Cost: $15.4M 2009 IFP Estimated Cost: $35.2M SOURCES: SFERTF (2007a; 2009b); SFWMD (2007); USACE (2007c); Williams (2008); http://www.saj.usace.army.mil/projects/ index.html, D. Tipple, USACE, personal communication, 2010, L. Gerry, SFWMD, personal communication, 2010.