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Preparing for the Future of HIV/AIDS in Africa: A Shared Responsibility Appendix D Committee Member Biographical Sketches Thomas C. Quinn, M.D., M.Sc. (Co-Chair), is associate director for international research and head of the section on International HIV/AIDS Research in the Laboratory of Immunoregulation at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Dr. Quinn is also director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Global Health, facilitating international research at the allied health institutions of The Johns Hopkins University. He is a professor of medicine and pathology in the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and holds adjunct appointments in the Departments of International Health, Epidemiology, and Molecular Microbiology and Immunology in the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Quinn is board certified in internal medicine and infectious diseases and is on the clinical staff of Johns Hopkins Hospital and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center. His investigations have addressed the epidemiologic, virologic, and immunologic features of HIV infection in Africa, the Caribbean, South America, and Asia. In 1983, he led the first group of scientists to Haiti and central Africa to determine the extent of HIV within those countries. In 1984, he helped establish an interagency project called “Project SIDA” in Kinshasa, Zaire, which was the largest AIDS investigative project in sub-Saharan Africa. Since then he has generated numerous global initiatives and research programs in 28 countries. Dr. Quinn and his colleagues in Rakai, Uganda, demonstrated that HIV viral load was the single most important predictor of HIV perinatal and sexual transmission, correlating this with timing of infection and natural history. In 2004, Dr. Quinn was elected to the Institute of Medicine (IOM). He is a fellow of the Infectious Disease Society of America, a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a member of the American Association of Physicians, and a member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation. He
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Preparing for the Future of HIV/AIDS in Africa: A Shared Responsibility is a founding member of the Academic Alliance for AIDS Care and Prevention in Africa and helped design the Infectious Diseases Institute of Makerere University School of Medicine, where he also holds an adjunct appointment in medicine. Dr. Quinn is the recipient of multiple awards and honors and is the author of more than 800 publications on HIV, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and infectious diseases. David Serwadda, M.B.Ch.B., M.Med, M.Sc., M.P.H. (Co-Chair), is an infectious disease epidemiologist and professor and former dean of the School of Public Health at Makerere University in Kampala. He received his M.B.Ch.B., and M.Med (internal medicine) from Makerere University and an M.P.H. from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Serwadda was among the first researchers to report on the presence of HIV/AIDS in Uganda (Lancet, 1985) and has worked continuously on research related to the evaluation of population-based HIV interventions to reduce transmission since the mid-1980s. He has been a senior investigator in the Rakai Health Science Program since its inception in 1988 and is the Ugandan principal investigator on the ongoing NIH-funded Trial of Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention. He has been instrumental in the scientific design and management of the project and has served as a critical liaison among the project; the local community; Ugandan political and policy decision makers; the Ugandan Ministry of Health; and international agencies including the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the World Bank. Salim S. Abdool Karim, M.B.Ch.B., Ph.D., is an infectious diseases epidemiologist and pro vice-chancellor (research) at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in Durban. He is director of the Centre for the AIDS Program of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA). He is also professor of clinical epidemiology at Columbia University and adjunct professor of medicine at Cornell University. Dr. Abdool Karim’s research focuses on HIV epidemiology, HIV prevention through microbicides and vaccines, and treatment of HIV–TB coinfection. He was coprincipal investigator for the landmark CAPRISA 004 trial, which provided proof-of-concept that a microbicide prevents HIV infection. He is also coinventor of two HIV vaccine-related patents and has focused on the critical design challenges in HIV vaccine trials. His research on HIV–TB treatment has shaped the current therapeutic approach to treating coinfected patients and led to the 2009 revision of the WHO guidelines for treatment of HIV and TB coinfection. Dr. Abdool Karim serves on the Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise; the Scientific Advisory Board of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative; the Gates Foundation’s Global HIV Prevention Working Group; the UNAIDS Prevention Reference Group; and the WHO Expert Advisory Panel on Sexually Transmitted Infections, including HIV. He is chair of the WHO Scientific and Technical Advisory Group for Repro-
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Preparing for the Future of HIV/AIDS in Africa: A Shared Responsibility ductive Health. He is also a member of the Academy of Science of South Africa and a fellow of the South African Royal Society of Science. Jennifer G. Cooke, M.A., is director of the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) Africa Program, which she joined in 2000. She works on a range of U.S.–Africa policy issues, including security, health, conflict, and democratization. She has written numerous reports, articles, and commentaries for a range of U.S. and international publications. With J. Stephen Morrison, she is coeditor of U.S. Africa Policy Beyond the Bush Administration: Critical Challenges for the Obama Administration (CSIS, 2009), as well as a previous volume titled Africa Policy in the Clinton Years: Critical Choices for the Bush Administration (CSIS, 2001). Previously, she worked for the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Africa, as well as for the National Academy of Sciences’ Office of News and Public Information and Committee on Human Rights. Ms. Cooke has lived in Côte d’Ivoire and the Central Africa Republic. She earned an M.A. in African studies and international economics from the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies and a B.A. in government from Harvard University. Amaboo (Ames) Dhai, M.B.Ch.B., FCOG, LLM, is director of the Steve Biko Centre for Bioethics at the University of the Witwatersrand Medical School. She started her career as a medical doctor when she obtained an M.B.Ch.B. through the University of Natal. She thereafter specialized as an obstetrician/gynecologist through the Colleges of Medicine, South Africa. She subsequently obtained an LLM through the Law School of the University of Natal and a diploma in international research ethics at the University of Cape Town. She was appointed head of bioethics, medical law, and research ethics at the Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine in 2004, and in January 2006 took on the position of head of bioethics at the University of the Witwatersrand Medical School. Dr. Dhai’s special interest is research ethics. She served as chair of the Research Ethics Committee of the University of KwaZulu-Natal for 2 years and as a member of the Interim National Ministerial Research Ethics Committee during 2002–2005, and in 2006 she was appointed deputy chair of the National Health Research Ethics Council. Currently, she serves on the Medical Research Council (MRC) Ethics Committee. She established and chairs the Hospice Palliative Care of South Africa Research Ethics Committee and is cochair of the Wits Human Research Ethics Committee (Medical). She also serves on the Medical and Dental Board of the Health Professions Council of South Africa and the Council of the Colleges of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of South Africa and is a member of the Human Rights, Ethics and Professional Development Committee of the Health Professions Council and the Human Rights and Ethics Committee of the South African Medical Association. Dr. Dhai was recently appointed to the National Biotechnology Advisory Committee, which has been tasked to offer specialist advice to the Minister of Science and Technology. Her publications address mainly issues
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Preparing for the Future of HIV/AIDS in Africa: A Shared Responsibility of bioethics and medical law. She is editor-in-chief of the South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. Geoffrey P. Garnett, Ph.D., is professor of microparasite epidemiology in the Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and director of a masters program in epidemiology at the Imperial College London. He holds a Ph.D. in pure science from the University of Sheffield, where he studied the transmission dynamics of varicella-zoster virus. He has worked on the epidemiology of STDs, including HIV, since 1990, with an interest in mathematical models of the clinical course of infections, patterns of sexual behavior, and patterns of infection. He has collaborated on community randomized trials of HIV and STD interventions and developed observational methods for tracking changes in HIV risk. He has developed models to explore the impact of prevention and treatment interventions and serves as chair of the UNAIDS Reference Group on Estimates, Models, and Projections. Peter Ndumbe, M.D., has served as dean of the Faculty of Health Sciences of the University of Buea in Cameroon since December 2006. Previously he was dean of the Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences of the University of Yaoundé from January 1999 to December 2006. He is professor of virus immunology and director of the Centre for the Study and Control of Communicable Diseases at the University of Yaoundé. Professor Ndumbe is vice chair of the Scientific Committee of the Chantal Biya International Research Centre on HIV/AIDS and related diseases, created by the First Lady of Cameroon. He is also 2nd vice chair of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences. Prior to becoming dean, Professor Ndumbe was deputy director general of the Institute of Medical Research and Studies on Medicinal Plants in Cameroon. He was the founding director of Camdiagnostix, a center for the production of diagnostic kits for the detection of HIV and hepatitis B. He has also served as chair of the National AIDS Commission of Cameroon. In WHO, Professor Ndumbe is a member of several committees, serving among other functions as chair of the Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee of the Tropical Diseases Research program and chair of the Advisory Committee on Research of the Initiative for Vaccine Research. His research interests are in HIV, STDs, vaccine-preventable diseases, and health systems for the delivery of interventions. Francis Omaswa, M.D., is executive director of the African Center for Global Health and Social Transformation (ACHEST), a think tank that aspires to stimulate the building of transformational African capacity for leadership in health and is based in Kampala, Uganda. Until May 2008, he was founding executive director of the Global Health Workforce Alliance (GHWA), whose secretariat is provided by WHO headquarters in Geneva. There he coordinated the design and adoption of the Kampala Declaration and Agenda for Global Action on the
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Preparing for the Future of HIV/AIDS in Africa: A Shared Responsibility Health Workforce that now guides the global response to the health workforce crisis. He was director general of health services in the Ministry of Health in Uganda, during which time he coordinated major reforms in the health sector and was instrumental in drafting the African Union’s Abuja Declaration on HIV/AIDS and was a member of the task forces that developed its implementation and monitoring framework. He was lead consultant in the development of the African Union HIV/AIDS Strategy in 2004. Dr. Omaswa has been active in international health, serving as chair/vice chair of the STOP TB Partnership and chair of the Global Fund Portfolio and Procurement Committee; he is currently chair of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Independent Review Committee and the sub-Saharan African Medical Schools Study. He is a graduate of Makerere University Medical School, Kampala, Uganda. He has held teaching appointments at Makerere University and Nairobi University, is a senior associate at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and is chancellor of Busitema University in Uganda. Mead Over, Ph.D., is a senior fellow at the Center for Global Development (CGD), conducting research on the economics of efficient, effective, and cost-effective health interventions in developing countries. Holding a Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin, Dr. Over taught econometrics and health economics for 11 years at Williams College and then at Boston University, leaving for The World Bank in 1986 with the rank of associate professor. Much of his work since 1987, for 20 years at The World Bank and now at the CGD, is on the economics of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. After working on the economic impact of the epidemic and on cost-effective interventions, he coauthored the Bank’s first comprehensive treatment of the economics of AIDS—the book Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities for a Global Epidemic (1997, 1999). Dr. Over’s most recent book is entitled The Economics of Effective AIDS Treatment: Evaluating Policy Options for Thailand (2006). His forthcoming book from the CGD is entitled Achieving the AIDS Transition: Preventing Infections to Sustain Treatment. Papers he has published examine the economics of preventing and of treating malaria. He is currently working on the efficiency of AIDS service delivery in poor countries. Carmen Portillo, R.N., Ph.D., FAAN, is codirector of a Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)-sponsored nurse capacity development and health systems strengthening twinning project funded through the American International Health Alliance. Since 2006, this project has collaborated with the School of Nursing, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, and the Ministry of Health, Nursing Unit, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Dr. Portillo is professor and chair of the Department of Community Health Systems, School of Nursing, at the University of California, San Francisco (SON, UCSF). She is currently director of the HIV Advanced Practice Nurse Education Program and codirector of the International Center for HIV/AIDS Research and Clinical
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Preparing for the Future of HIV/AIDS in Africa: A Shared Responsibility Training in Nursing at SON, UCSF, and for the last 9 years has been a senior advisory nurse for the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH). Her research focuses on HIV/AIDS, particularly in women; adherence issues and stigma; and Hispanic health issues. She is a member of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care and a fellow in the American Academy of Nursing. Jessica E. Price, Ph.D., has been engaged in designing, implementing, and documenting outcomes of HIV interventions in sub-Saharan Africa since 1989. Over the years, working closely with African government, academic, private-sector, and civil society institutions, Dr. Price has led large technical assistance programs aimed at strategically introducing and scaling up new services and approaches in HIV prevention, care, and treatment, as well as at contributing to broader needs in national health sector plans and strategies. Dr. Price received her Ph.D. in cultural anthropology from Case Western Reserve University in 2002, with a specialization in health and illness. At present, she is Family Health International’s (FHI’s) technical director for Africa. She has also served as FHI country director in Rwanda and Kenya, performed several short-term consultancies to support national health programs in Africa, and held faculty positions in anthropology in the United States. Marla Salmon, Sc.D., R.N., FAAN, is Robert G. and Jean A. Reid Dean in Nursing and professor of psychosocial and community health at the University of Washington School of Nursing, and professor of global health in the University’s School of Public Health. Dr. Salmon was previously dean and professor at Emory University School of Nursing, where she was also founding director of the Lillian Carter Center for International Nursing. She has held academic leadership positions in nursing and public health at the University of Pennsylvania, the University of North Carolina, and the University of Minnesota. Dr. Salmon’s scholarship and policy leadership have focused on national and international health workforce development, with a particular emphasis on policy and capacity building. She served as director of the Division of Nursing for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, where she also chaired the National Advisory Council for Nurse Education and Practice and served on the White House Taskforce on Healthcare Reform. She has served as a consultant and senior advisor to numerous governments and international organizations, including WHO, Commonwealth, the Pan American Health Organization, and Caribbean Community. Dr. Salmon has served on numerous boards and advisory groups, including her current membership on The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Board of Trustees, the NIH National Advisory Council for Nursing Research, the Institute for the International Education of Students (IES), and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations’ Nursing Advisory Council. She is a member of the IOM and a fellow of the American Academy of Nursing. The recipient of numerous honors and recognitions for leadership in
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Preparing for the Future of HIV/AIDS in Africa: A Shared Responsibility nursing and public health, Dr. Salmon holds a doctor of science degree from the Johns Hopkins University and a BSN, BA in political science and an MSN from the University of Portland (Oregon), and was a Fulbright Scholar in Germany. She holds three honorary degrees. Scholar-in-Residence Elena O. Nightingale, M.D., Ph.D., is a scholar-in-residence at the IOM and adjunct professor of pediatrics at both Georgetown University Medical Center and George Washington University Medical Center. Previously, she was special advisor to the president and senior program officer at Carnegie Corporation of New York and lecturer in social medicine at Harvard University. She retired from both positions at the end of 1994. Dr. Nightingale earned an A.B. degree in zoology, summa cum laude, from Barnard College of Columbia University; a Ph.D. in microbial genetics from the Rockefeller University; and an M.D. from New York University School of Medicine. With Eric Stover, she coedited The Breaking of Bodies and Minds: Torture, Psychiatric Abuse and the Health Professions, published in 1985, one of the earliest efforts to discuss this topic. She is also coeditor of Promoting the Health of Adolescents: New Directions for the 21st Century and Prenatal Screening, Policies, and Values: The Example of Neural Tube Defects. She coauthored Before Birth: Prenatal Testing for Genetic Disease and has authored numerous book chapters and articles on microbial genetics, child and adolescent health, health promotion and disease prevention, health policy, and human rights. Dr. Nightingale continues to be active in the protection of human rights, particularly those of children, and serves on the Advisory Committee of the Children’s Rights Division of Human Rights Watch. She is a member of the IOM and of the IOM Roundtable on Health Disparities and the Report Review Committee of the National Academies. In 2006, she received the Walsh McDermott medal in recognition of her distinguished service to the IOM and the National Academies. In 2008, in recognition of extraordinary service, she was designated a lifetime national associate of the National Research Council of the National Academies. Consultants Robert Black, M.D., M.P.H., is chair of the Department of International Health and Edgar Berman Professor in International Health, as well as director of the Institute for International Programs, at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Black is trained in medicine, infectious diseases, and epidemiology. He has served as a medical epidemiologist at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and worked at institutions in Bangladesh and Peru on research related to childhood infectious diseases and nutritional problems. Dr. Black’s current research includes field trials of vaccines, micronutrients, and
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Preparing for the Future of HIV/AIDS in Africa: A Shared Responsibility other nutritional interventions; effectiveness studies of health programs; and evaluation of preventive and curative health service programs in low- and middle-income countries. His other interests are related to the use of evidence in policy and programs, including estimates of burden of disease and the development of research capacity. As a member of the IOM and advisory bodies of WHO, the International Vaccine Institute, and other international organizations, he assists with the development of policies intended to improve child health. He chairs the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group and the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative. He currently is involved in projects in Bangladesh, Ghana, India, Malawi, Mali, Peru, Tanzania, and Zanzibar. Dr. Black has authored more than 450 scientific journal publications and is coeditor of the textbook International Public Health. He has served on four committees and the Board on International Health (now Global Health) of the IOM. Lawrence Gostin, J.D., is an internationally acclaimed scholar. He is Linda D. and Timothy J. O’Neill Professor of Global Health Law at the Georgetown University Law Center, where he directs the O’Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law. He served as associate dean for research at Georgetown Law until 2008. He is also professor of public health at the Johns Hopkins and Georgetown Universities—a Collaborating Center of WHO and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. He is visiting professor of public health (Faculty of Medical Sciences) and research fellow (Centre for Socio-Legal Studies) at Oxford University. Prof. Gostin is health law and ethics editor, contributing writer, and columnist for the Journal of the American Medical Association. In 2007, the director general of WHO appointed him to the International Health Regulations (IHR) Roster of Experts and the Expert Advisory Panel on Mental Health. Prof. Gostin holds three honorary degrees. An elected lifetime Member of the IOM, he serves on the Board on Health Sciences Policy and the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. He currently chairs the IOM Committee on National Preparation for Mass Disasters and has chaired committees on privacy, genomics, and prisoner research. The IOM awarded Prof. Gostin the Adam Yarmolinsky Medal for distinguished service in furthering its mission of science and health. He also received the Public Health Law Association’s Distinguished Lifetime Achievement Award. Internationally, Prof. Gostin received the Rosemary Delbridge Memorial Award from the National Consumer Council (U.K.) and the Key to Tohoko University (Japan) for distinguished contributions to human rights in mental health. Prof. Gostin has led major law reform initiatives in the United States, including the drafting of the Model Emergency Health Powers Act to combat bioterrorism and the “Turning Point” Model State Public Health Act. He is also leading a team developing a Model Public Health Law for WHO and drafting a Framework Convention on Human Services for The World Bank—a multilat-
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Preparing for the Future of HIV/AIDS in Africa: A Shared Responsibility eral treaty on the health care professional capacity in poor and middle-income countries. Maria Merritt, Ph.D., is a core faculty member of the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics and assistant professor in the Department of International Health (Health Systems Program) at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. She is a co–associate director of the Greenwall Fellowship Program in Bioethics and Health Policy and a faculty affiliate and advisory board member of the Johns Hopkins–Fogarty African Bioethics Training Program. Dr. Merritt holds a career development award (2009–2012) funded by the Greenwall Faculty Scholars Program in Bioethics. Her research interests include bioethics, global health ethics, international research ethics, moral philosophy, and moral psychology.