2
Overview of Agent Destruction Processes at Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant and Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant

The Pueblo and Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plants (PCAPP and BGCAPP) will use neutralization technology instead of the incineration processes used at five other storage sites to destroy chemical munitions. Two other sites, Aberdeen, Maryland, and Newport, Indiana, at which chemical agents were stored only in bulk ton containers, used neutralization technology developed by the Army and have since completed destruction operations and been closed. In view of this, and in recognition of local public opposition to the use of incineration, Congress mandated that nonincineration technologies also be used to destroy the assembled chemical weapons stored at the Pueblo and Blue Grass sites (Public Laws 104-201 and 104-208). Neutralization involves the hydrolysis of chemical agent and energetics using hot water for mustard agent and alkali for nerve agents and energetics. BGCAPP will use neutralization followed by the treatment of the resultant hydrolysis products with supercritical water oxidation (SCWO). PCAPP plans to ship the energetics removed from the munitions for disposal offsite; it will use neutralization to destroy the mustard agent followed by biotreatment of the hydrolysate. These plants will be operated 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

The processes planned for use at PCAPP and BGCAPP are described briefly below. These overview descriptions are not intended to delineate all of the waste streams and final products of the destruction processes. For example, most of the processes are batch operated and have sufficient buffer storage between unit operations. Rather, only those processes that will be discussed later in this report are described here, including those that will be used to exemplify aspects of process safety management. A more extensive description of the unit operations can be found in earlier National Research Council reports and on the Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (ACWA) Web site.1 Tables 2-1 and 2-2 give the physical properties of the chemical agents that will be processed at PCAPP and BGCAPP. The munitions to be destroyed are depicted in Figures 2-1 through 2-5.

PCAPP PROCESS OVERVIEW

Unless otherwise noted, the material in this section is based on a presentation to the committee.2 The chemical munitions stockpile stored at the Pueblo Chemical Depot (PCD) consists only of artillery projectiles and 4.2-inch mortars containing mustard agent. The stockpile contents are shown in Table 2-3. The process flow chart for PCAPP is shown in Figure 2-6.

Pallets containing projectiles will be transported from the depot’s storage igloos to the munitions storage magazine (MSM) at PCAPP (first box in Figure 2-6). Because munitions can be transported only during daylight hours and in good weather, the accumulation

1

See, for example, Interim Design Assessment for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (2005) and Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (2005) at http://www.nap.edu/. The Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives Web site is at http://www.pmacwa.army.mil/.

2

Joe Novad, Deputy Program Manager, U.S. Army Element, ACWA, “PCAPP Overview,” presentation to the committee on June 14, 2010.



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2 Overview of Agent Destruction Processes at Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant and Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant The Pueblo and Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruc- here, including those that will be used to exemplify tion Pilot Plants (PCAPP and BGCAPP) will use aspects of process safety management. A more exten- neutralization technology instead of the incineration sive description of the unit operations can be found in processes used at five other storage sites to destroy earlier National Research Council reports and on the chemical munitions. Two other sites, Aberdeen, Mary- Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (ACWA) Web site.1 Tables 2-1 and 2-2 give the physical proper- land, and Newport, Indiana, at which chemical agents were stored only in bulk ton containers, used neutraliza- ties of the chemical agents that will be processed at tion technology developed by the Army and have since PCAPP and BGCAPP. The munitions to be destroyed completed destruction operations and been closed. In are depicted in Figures 2-1 through 2-5. view of this, and in recognition of local public opposi- tion to the use of incineration, Congress mandated that PCAPP PROCESS OVERVIEW nonincineration technologies also be used to destroy the assembled chemical weapons stored at the Pueblo and Unless otherwise noted, the material in this section is based on a presentation to the committee.2 The chemi- Blue Grass sites (Public Laws 104-201 and 104-208). Neutralization involves the hydrolysis of chemical cal munitions stockpile stored at the Pueblo Chemical agent and energetics using hot water for mustard agent Depot (PCD) consists only of artillery projectiles and and alkali for nerve agents and energetics. BGCAPP 4.2-inch mortars containing mustard agent. The stock- will use neutralization followed by the treatment of the pile contents are shown in Table 2-3. The process flow resultant hydrolysis products with supercritical water chart for PCAPP is shown in Figure 2-6. oxidation (SCWO). PCAPP plans to ship the energet- Pallets containing projectiles will be transported ics removed from the munitions for disposal offsite; from the depot’s storage igloos to the munitions stor- it will use neutralization to destroy the mustard agent age magazine (MSM) at PCAPP (first box in Figure followed by biotreatment of the hydrolysate. These 2-6). Because munitions can be transported only during plants will be operated 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. daylight hours and in good weather, the accumulation The processes planned for use at PCAPP and BGCAPP are described briefly below. These over- 1See, for example, Interim Design Assessment for the Blue Grass view descriptions are not intended to delineate all of Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (2005) and Interim Design the waste streams and final products of the destruc- Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant tion processes. For example, most of the processes (2005) at http://www.nap.edu/. The Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives Web site is at http://www.pmacwa.army.mil/. are batch operated and have sufficient buffer storage 2Joe Novad, Deputy Program Manager, U.S. Army Element, between unit operations. Rather, only those processes ACWA, “PCAPP Overview,” presentation to the committee on that will be discussed later in this report are described June 14, 2010. 13

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14 PROCESS SAFETY METRICS AT THE BLUE GRASS AND PUEBLO CHEMICAL AGENT DESTRUCTION PILOT PLANTS TABLE 2-1 Physical Properties of Nerve Agents Agent Characteristic GB VX Chemical formula C4H10FO2P C11H26NO2PS Molecular weight 140.10 267.38 Boiling point (°C) 150 (extrapolated) 292 (extrapolated) ≤51 Freezing point (°C) −56 Vapor pressure at 25°C (mm Hg) 2.48 0.000878 Volatility at 25°C (mg/m3 ) 18,700 12.6 Surface tension at 20°C (dynes/cm) 26.5 32.0 Kinematic viscosity (cSt) 1.28 at 25°C 12.26 at 20°C Liquid density at 25°C (g/cm3) 1.0887 1.0083 Solubility (g/100 g of distilled water) 100; soluble in organic solvents 5 at 25°C; best solvents are dilute mineral acids Heat of vaporization (cal/g) 82.9 71.8 Heat of combustion (cal/g) 5,600 8,300 SOURCE: NRC, 2005; Abercrombie, 2003. Physical Properties of Mustard Agentsa TABLE 2-2 HTb Agent Characteristic HD Chemical name Bis (2-chloroethyl) sulfide or Same as HD with 20 to 40 wt% agent 2,2'-dichlorodiethyl sulfide T, bis[2(2-chlorethylthio) ethyl] ether Chemical formula C4H8Cl2S Not applicable Molecular weight 159.07 188.96 (based on 60/40 wt%) Vapor density (relative to air) 5.5 (calculated) 6.5 (calculated based on 60/40 wt%) Boiling point (°C) 218 (extrapolated) No constant boiling point Decomposition temperature (oC) 180 165 to 180 Freezing point (°C) 14.45 1.3 (measured as melting point) 7.7 × 10–2 (calculated based on Raoult’s Vapor pressure at 25°C (mm Hg) 0.106 law equation) Volatility at 25°C (mg/m3) 9.06 × 102 (calculated from vapor pressure) 7.83 × 102 (calculated from vapor pressure) Diffusion coefficient for vapor in air 0.060 at 20°C (68°F) 0.05 at 25°C (77°F) (cm2/sec) Flash point (°C) 105 Flash point range 109 to 115 Surface tension (dynes/cm) 43.2 at 20°C (68°F) 44 at 25°C (77°F) Viscosity at 20°C (cSt) 3.52 6.05 Liquid density at 25oC (g/cm3) 1.2685 1.263 Solubility (g/100 g of distilled water) 0.092 at 22°C (72°F); soluble in acetone, Slightly soluble in water; soluble in most carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, organic solvents tetrachloroethane, ethyl benzoate, ether Heat of vaporization Not available (Btu/lb) 190 (J/g) 82 Heat of combustion Not available (Btu/lb) 8,100 (J/g) 3,482 aMustard agents are labeled H, HD, and HT. The active ingredient in all these blister agents is bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, or (ClCH CH ) S. 2 22 HD, called the distilled mustard, is nominally pure mustard agent. H, often called Levinstein mustard, was approximately 70% pure mus - tard agent and 30% impurities at the time of manufacture. However, the stored H mustard agent has deteriorated over time and its physical properties are highly variable. H is the only form of mustard agent stored at Blue Grass Army Depot. bOverall proportional composition of the mixture. HT is prepared by a chemical process that synthesizes the HT directly in such a way that it contains both the HD and T constituents without further formulation. SOURCES: Adapted from U.S. Army, 1988; Abercrombie, 2003; BPT, 2004.

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15 OVERVIEW OF THE AGENT DESTRUCTION PROCESSES FIGURE 2-1 A 105-mm howitzer projectile. Some cartridges FIGURE 2-2 A 155-mm howitzer projectile. These projec- have been reconfigured and therefore will not have propellant tiles have been separated from their propellant and stored. in the box with the projectile. For those that still have propel- SOURCE: Adapted from U.S. Army, 1977. lant, there will be propelling charges in the box. SOURCE: Adapted from U.S. Army, 1977. FIGURE 2-3 A 4.2-inch mortar cartridge. The 4.2-inch mortar cartridges will be reconfigured as will be the projectiles. Most 4.2-inch cartridges will also be defuzed. SOURCE: Adapted from U.S. Army, 1977. of munitions in the MSM allows for round-the-clock technology, without disassembling the munition (fifth box in Figure 2-6).4 The reconfigured projectiles (that operation at PCAPP. From the MSM, munitions will be moved to the unpack area in the enhanced recon- is, those whose bursters have been removed) will then figuration building (second box in Figure 2-6). If the be transported robotically along a long corridor to the projectiles contain bursters,3 they will be moved to agent processing building in munition transfer carts. the reconfiguration room, where the bursters will be removed by the linear projectile and mortar disassem- 4A leaker is a munition that has leaked. A reject is a munition bly (LPMD) machine (described later in this chapter) that for any reason cannot be disassembled. These munitions will be without disturbing the burster well that seals in the destroyed by an explosive destruction technology without removing chemical agent. Uncontaminated energetics will be them from their outer protective overpack, reducing the risk of ex- posing personnel or the environment to agent. For more information sent offsite for processing. Leaker and reject projec- on explosive destruction technology, see the NRC reports Review of tiles will be disposed of using an explosive destruction International Technologies for Destruction of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel (2006) and Assessment of Explosive Destruction Technologies for Specific Munitions at the Blue Grass and Pueblo 3A burster is an explosive charge, the purpose of which is to Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plants (2009). Both are available burst the munition casing and disperse the chemical agent within. at http://www.nap.edu.

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16 PROCESS SAFETY METRICS AT THE BLUE GRASS AND PUEBLO CHEMICAL AGENT DESTRUCTION PILOT PLANTS Fuze adapter Burster well Lifting plug GB Gasket Body FIGURE 2-4 An 8-inch projectile. The 8-inch projectiles at BGAD do not contain any energetic materials. SOURCE: U.S. Army, 1983. 6 fee t 6 in ches over all leng Rocket th motor Warh ead s ectio n Fins M28 Propellant Fig 2-4Thin-wall aluminum Chemical agent cavity Burster Fuze FIGURE 2-5 An M55 rocket. SOURCE: Beth Feinberg, Office of the Program Manager for Alternative Technologies and Approaches, presentation to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, March 28, 2001. 2-5 In the agent processing building, the shells, still neutralization system, where it will be neutralized containing the burster well, will be moved on trays to (third box in Figure 2-6). (Agent neutralization is the munition washout system (MWS) (second box in described after the BGCAPP process description later Figure 2-6). A robot will take a projectile from a tray in this chapter.) Hydrolysate will not be transferred and place that projectile into a cavity access machine from the agent neutralization system until it has been in an inverted position. In the cavity access machine, analyzed and verified that agent destruction is com- an arm will dislodge the burster well by ramming it plete. The hydrolysate produced from the neutralization into the shell to expose the agent. The agent will then of mustard agent contains mostly thiodiglycol, which is be drained and the interior of the shell washed using a biodegradable. The hydrolysate will thus be transferred high-pressure water wand. The chemical agent removed to and treated in immobilized-cell bioreactors, where from the munition will then be transferred to the agent bacteria will feed on the thiodiglycol that is the prime

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17 OVERVIEW OF THE AGENT DESTRUCTION PROCESSES TABLE 2-3 Chemical Weapons Stockpile Stored at sulfur originating from the mustard (seventh box in PCD Figure 2-6). It is also anticipated that this sludge will contain mercury owing to previous experience with Munition Agent Fill Quantity the contamination of mustard agent with mercury at 155-mm projectiles M110 HD 266,492 other stockpile sites that contained mustard agent. The 155-mm projectiles M104 HD 33,062 Program Manager for Assembled Weapons Alternatives 105-mm cartridge M60 HD 383,418 (PMACWA) is working on procedures to address the 4.2-inch mortar M2A1 HD 76,722 anticipated presence of mercury. 4.2-inch mortar M2 HT 20,384 The projectile bodies are meanwhile placed in other SOURCE: NRC, 2001. trays and moved to the munitions treatment unit (sixth box in Figure 2-6), where they will be decontaminated at 1000°F for over 15 minutes before being released. constituent of the mustard hydrolysate and convert the The munitions treatment unit is a long muffle furnace hydrolysate compounds to water, carbon dioxide, and with a conveyor that will slowly move projectile bodies sludge that will contain compounds of chlorine and from one end to the other as they are heated. 5 1 2 Agent and HD & HT Contaminated energetics, leakers, rejects Energetics treatment energetics access filled projectiles (EDT) (PMD, MWS) 4 Supplemental Contaminated dunnage decontamination (SDU) (autoclave) 3 Munition bodies Agent neutralization HD/HT using hot water (ANS) 6 Metal parts treatment 7 (MTU, OTS) Agent hydrolysate Biotreatment and 8 water recovery (BTA, BRS, WRS) Munition bodies Waste disposal Non-contaminated energetics, dunnage Brine residue MTU Munitions treatment unit PMD Projectile mortar disassembly OTS Offgas treatment system MWS Munitions washout system BRS Brine reduction system ANS Agent neutralization system WRS Water recovery system EDT Energetics destruction technology SDU Supplemental decontamination unit BTA Biotreatment area FIGURE 2-6 PCAPP process flow chart. SOURCE: Joe Novad, Deputy Program Manager, U.S. Army Element, Program Manager for ACWA, “PCAPP Overview,” presentationigure committee on June 14, 2010. F to the 2-6.eps

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18 PROCESS SAFETY METRICS AT THE BLUE GRASS AND PUEBLO CHEMICAL AGENT DESTRUCTION PILOT PLANTS TABLE 2-4 Chemical Weapons Stockpile Stored at body with a pipe cutter-like device. The first cut is BGAD only deep enough to cut open the SFT so that it can be removed. The second cut will be deep enough to Munition Agent Fill Quantity breach the outer body of the rocket, allowing the 115-mm rockets M55 GB 51,716 warhead and motor sections to be separated. Uncon - 115-mm rockets M55 VX 17,733 taminated propellant sections and the warhead’s 115-mm rocket warheads M56 GB 24 SFT sections will be shipped offsite for disposal. 115-mm rocket warheads M56 VX 6 Contaminated propellant sections and SFT sections 155-mm projectiles M121/A1 VX 12,816 155-mm projectiles M110 H 15,492 will be sent to the energetics neutralization process 8-inch projectiles GB 3,977 for treatment (fourth box in Figure 2-7). After separation, the rocket warhead will be trans- SOURCE: NRC, 2005. ferred to the rocket shear machine in the explosive con- tainment room (second box in Figure 2-7). The warhead BGCAPP PROCESS OVERVIEW will be punched on its top and bottom and the agent drained out. The warhead cavity will then be washed Unless otherwise noted, the material in this section is out with a high-pressure water system to remove based on a presentation to the committee.5 The chemi- residual agent as well as any gelled or crystallized cal munitions stockpile stored at the Blue Grass Army material that may have formed during storage. The Depot (BGAD) is smaller but far more diverse than that drained warhead will then be sheared into segments in at PCD. It contains both rockets and projectiles and the the rocket shear machine. If the rocket warhead cannot chemical agents H (mustard), GB (sarin), and VX. Con- be separated from its SFT, it will be processed while it sequently, the process for destroying the munitions in is still in the SFT. Any rockets where agent is detected the BGAD inventory is more complex than that for the before punching and draining are returned to storage munitions at PCD. The contents of the stockpile stored to await the disposal of leaking rockets. at the BGAD are shown in Table 2-4, and the flow chart The chemical agent drained from the warhead will for the destruction process is shown in Figure 2-7. be sent to the agent collection system and put into hold- ing tanks until processed. The wash water from rinsing Rocket Processing the warhead will be sent to another holding tank that is used for spent decontamination solution. From the Because the M55 rockets, which contain about 19 holding tanks, the chemical agent and wash water are pounds of a two-base propellant and 10 pounds of sent to an agent neutralization reactor (ANR), where nerve agent, pose the highest storage and processing the chemical agent will be neutralized (third box in risks, they will be destroyed first. The rockets will Figure 2-7). The resulting hydrolysate will then be sent be transported from the igloos into the unpack area, through the SCWO units for further treatment, reduc- where personnel will remove them from the pallets ing the products to water, carbon dioxide, and salts, (first box in Figure 2-7). If agent is detected outside before being released for disposal (box 6b in Figure the shipping and firing tube, the rocket is returned 2-7). The neutralization process is described in more to storage until it and other leaking rockets are dis - detail below. posed of. After being removed from their pallets, the Each rocket segment that was cut in the rocket shear rockets, still contained in their fiberglass shipping machine will be dropped into a bucket as it is sheared. and firing tubes (SFTs), will be placed on a conveyor These parts will include the burster and the fuze. The and moved to the explosion containment vestibule buckets will then be transported to the energetics batch and onto the rocket cutting machine (second box in hydrolyzer (EBH) room (fourth box in Figure 2-7) Figure 2-7). First, the propellant motor section at the (BPBGT, 2009a). The three EBHs are large rotating back end will be separated from the rocket warhead vessels that have discontinuous helical flights that are in two stages by cutting through the SFT and rocket used to mix the components as the EBH rotates. Indeed, an EBH can be thought of as the drum on a cement mixer. Once in the EBH room, a robot will pick each 5Joe Novad, Deputy Program Manager, U.S. Army Element, bucket up and raise it to a platform near the top of the ACWA,“BGAPP Overview,” presentation to the committee on EBHs. A second robot will then move the bucket from June 14, 2010.

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19 OVERVIEW OF THE AGENT DESTRUCTION PROCESSES 1 2 4 Contaminated rocket motors, drained warheads, Agent and energetics GB & VX rockets bursters from the H projectiles Energetics neutralization access, rocket separation H, GB & VX projectiles using caustic (RCM, RSM, PMD, MWS) (EBH, ENR, OTE) EBH solids Energetics 3 hydrolysate Liquid Munition bodies 6a Agent neutralization GB / VX / H and solid debris using caustic Aluminum (ANS) precipitation & filtration 5 Energetics Aluminum hydrolysate filtercake 6b Metal parts treatment Agent hydrolysate (MTU, OTM) SCWO and 7 water recovery (SCWO, RO) Solids Off-site waste disposal Non-contaminated motors*, dunnage RO reject (brine) RCM Rocket cutter machine MPT Metal parts treater RSM Rocket shear machine MTU Munitions treatment unit PMD Projectile mortar disassembly OTM Offgas treatment system for MPT MWS Munitions washout system Offgas treatment system for EBH OTE EBH Energetics batch hydrolyzer SCWO Supercritical water oxidation ENR Energetics neutralization reactor RO Reverse osmosis ANS Agent neutralization system Non-contaminated rocket motor * disposition still under review FIGURE 2-7 BGCAPP process flow chart. SOURCE: Joe Novad, Deputy Program Manager, U.S. Army Element, Program Figure 2-7.eps Manager for ACWA, “BGCAPP Overview,” presentation to the committee on June 14, 2010. 15 minutes (fifth box in Figure 2-7). The metal parts the platform to an EBH, into which the contents are can then be sent offsite for recycling or to a landfill dumped. (seventh box in Figure 2-7). The hydrolysate from the Prior to the addition of metal parts and energetics, EBHs will be sent to the three energetics neutralization the EBHs will be filled first with water and next with reactors, where it will be analyzed for presence of agent 50 percent caustic, to reach a concentration of 39.5 and energetic material (fourth box in Figure 2-7). The percent caustic, and will then be heated. After pro- contents will remain in the energetics neutralization cessing the metal parts and energetics for the specified reactors until it has been verified that any energetics time, the direction of rotation of the EBH drum will and agent have been neutralized. The hydrolysate from be reversed, lifting the metal parts out of the EBH and the EBHs will then be sent to the three SCWO units dropping them onto the vibrating screen belt of a hori- to reduce it to water, carbon dioxide, and salts (box 6b zontal conveyor. Any liquid passes through the screen in Figure 2-7) (BPBGT, 2009b). It is anticipated that and is collected. When this operation is completed, the the solid wastes resulting from mustard hydrolysis will rotation speed of the vessel will be increased, allowing contain mercury owing to previous experience with the the liquid to be removed from the EBH through a wire contamination of mustard agent with mercury at other screen that catches any remaining solids. stockpile sites that contained mustard agent. PMACWA The metal parts from the EBH will then be sent to is working on procedures to address the anticipated the metal parts treater, where they will be decontami- presence of mercury. nated by heating them to over 1000°F for more than

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20 PROCESS SAFETY METRICS AT THE BLUE GRASS AND PUEBLO CHEMICAL AGENT DESTRUCTION PILOT PLANTS Projectile Processing procedural modifications to varying degrees of redesign as they are developed, tested, and integrated into actual Projectiles will be processed differently from rock- agent processing operations. ets. They will be unpacked manually and conveyed into The LPMD is one of the pieces of FOAK equipment an explosive containment room where the bursters will to be used at both PCAPP and BGCAPP. While it had be removed by the two LPMD machines (second box previously undergone testing on simulated equipment in Figure 2-7). The munition bodies, still containing test hardware (SETH) munitions, it had not been tested their burster wells, will then be moved to the munitions on actual chemical munitions. washout station. The process from this point on will Because the remaining stockpile being destroyed be identical to the process at PCAPP, described above, at the Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Facility except that the hydrolysate will be sent to the SCWO (ANCDF) contains mustard agent and projectiles, as units instead of bioreactors for treatment. does the stockpile to be destroyed at PCAPP, and simi- lar issues relating to age of munitions can therefore be NEUTRALIZATION OF CHEMICAL AGENT expected at both sites, PCAPP established a test project at ANCDF to evaluate the reliability, operational effi- The chemical agent at both sites will be treated by ciency, and safety of the LPMD. chemical neutralization. The agent will first be col- To date, LPMD testing at ANCDF has revealed a lected in the agent collection system, where it will be number of design and operational problems that would stored in holding tanks until it is moved to an agent have considerably impacted systemization at PCAPP. neutralization reactor (ANR). The ANR will be a con- For example, the munitions reject rate of the process tinuously stirred vessel where the hydrolysis reaction was found to be significantly higher than had been will be taken to completion. anticipated (1.3 percent actual versus 0.01 percent For mustard neutralization, hot water will be used. expected). Thus far, 164 specific LPMD operating cri- Caustic will be added to neutralize the HCl that forms teria have been reviewed, and 20 documented lessons and to maintain the pH at 10.5 until the hydrolysis is learned will be applied to the design and operation completed (BPT, 2010). Caustic will be used to neutral- of the system at PCAPP. Additionally, more than 110 ize GB and VX agent. First, water is added to the ANR. significant code changes have been identified during Then the prescribed amount of 50 percent caustic is testing at ANCDF.6 The committee believes that based added. The final caustic concentration will be different on the LPMD experience, similar difficulties can be for GB and VX. Finally, agent from the holding tanks expected with other FOAK equipment as systemization will slowly be added to the ANR (BPBGT, 2009c). The progresses. contents will be both continuously stirred and recircu- lated to ensure good mixing and a complete reaction. SYSTEMIZATION FIRST-OF-A-KIND PROCESS EQUIPMENT PCAPP and BGCAPP will both undergo preop - erational systemization prior to starting actual agent Since the processes for chemical agent and muni- d isposal operations. Both facilities will follow a tions destruction to be used at PCAPP and BGCAPP progression of steps that consist of the installation of are new, several pieces of process equipment that have process equipment, integration of process equipment, never been used before have been included in the design and demonstration of overall plant operation using of these two pilot plants. These pieces of process equip- surrogates instead of actual chemical agent. During ment are referred to as first of a kind (FOAK). The this phase of the project, the systems used to operate pieces of FOAK equipment the committee believes the plant will be tested and configured. Systemization are the most likely to pose challenges to operations at involves progressive testing, from a component basis PCAPP and BGCAPP are briefly described in Table to a subsystem basis to a system demonstration on 2-5. Because they embody new technologies or novel surrogate munitions to bring each system to its fully applications of existing technologies these FOAK items are at greater risk of having problems with respect to functionality, reliability, availability, and maintainabil- 6Joe Novad, Deputy Program Manager, U.S. Army Ele - ity and may therefore require adjustments ranging from ment, ACWA, “Anniston LPMD,” presentation to the com- mittee on June 14, 2010.

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21 OVERVIEW OF THE AGENT DESTRUCTION PROCESSES TABLE 2-5 First-of-a-Kind Equipment and Processes That Could Pose Significant Challenges for PCAPP and BGCAPP FOAK Equipment Site(s) Function Notes Rocket cutting machine BGCAPP To separate rocket motors from This is an entirely new piece of (RCM) the warhead. equipment. Linear projectile mortar BGCAPP To disassemble projectiles This is a new unit that replaces the disassembly (LMPD) PCAPP and mortars and remove their PMD machine used at the baseline machine bursters. incineration sites operated by CMA. Munitions washout station BGCAPP To remove the burster well This is an entirely new piece of (MWS) PCAPP from projectiles, drain the equipment. It replaces the PMD chemical agent, and wash out machine used at the baseline any agent residues. incineration sites operated by CMA. Energetics batch hydrolyser BGCAPP To neutralize energetics and This is an entirely new piece of (EBH) any chemical agent in the metal equipment. parts of the rockets and fuzes from projectiles. Metal parts treater (MPT) BGCAPP To decontaminate projectile This is an entirely new piece of bodies and secondary waste equipment. by heating to over 1000°F for more than 15 minutes. Munitions treatment unit PCAPP To decontaminate projectile This is an entirely new piece of (MTU) bodies and secondary waste equipment. by heating to over 1000°F for more than 15 minutes. Supercritical water BGCAPP To treat agent and energetics This is an entirely new piece of oxidation (SCWO) hydrolysates before releasing equipment and process. them for final disposal. Immobilized-cell PCAPP To treat mustard hydrolysate This is an entirely new piece of bioreactors (ICBs) before releasing it for final equipment and process. disposal. operational design function. Systemization provides equipment, the use of both leading and lagging pro- an opportunity to train operators and to integrate plant cess safety metrics will be important in achieving the systems and processes with a trained workforce and congressional mandate to safely destroy the chemical appropriate documentation. This ensures that each of weapons stockpiles at the respective sites. Systemiza- the systems functions properly before a Declaration of tion affords an excellent opportunity to implement and Readiness is issued, Army endorsement is obtained, evaluate leading and lagging process safety metrics. and governmental approval to begin agent operations is granted. The steps in systemization, along with the staffing levels, are shown in Figure 2-8. Recommendation 2-1. During systemization, the Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Finding 2-1. Because of the unique nature of the pro- Alternatives should develop and implement extensive cesses at the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot process safety metrics that can be evaluated for rel- Plant and the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction evance and utility. Metrics that are found to be mean- Pilot Plant and the extensive use of first-of-a-kind ingful should be carried forward to operations. While

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22 PROCESS SAFETY METRICS AT THE BLUE GRASS AND PUEBLO CHEMICAL AGENT DESTRUCTION PILOT PLANTS Sys Commissioning and startup Optimization ORR Presystemization prep O&M certification Utilities System & facilities specific documentation SU BSY Government approval for agent operations SYS Controls Overarching documentation PR SYS STE OV PR O&M documentation TEM Start-up teams TEM CO Facilities MT IS IO EC TUR MM Level 1 activities Level 2 activities Level 3 activities STA OM Declaration of readiness UR DE NA ACWA endorsement IS S HVAC NO MIS MO NO RT- LO IODs VER ION NS VER S IO UP PER TRA ING APB NIN TO ATI TO TIO G STA ON O& ERB N S M RT- UP BTA ORR process ORR program development Readiness assessments Operation & maintenance Fully staffed for agent operations staffing Commission and start-up staffing FIGURE 2-8 Overview of the systemization process. SOURCE: Joe Novad, Deputy Program Manager, U.S. Army Element, Program Manager for ACWA, “PCAPP Overview,” presentation to the committee on June 14, 2010. Figure 2-8.eps both leading and lagging metrics should be developed BPT (Bechtel Pueblo Team). 2004. Initial Design for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (PCAPP) Project, Rev. A—redacted for and implemented to the extent possible, both the Pueblo release to the NRC, January 16. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Pro - Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant and the Blue gram Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives. Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant should BPT. 2010. System Design Description (SDD) for Agent Collection and Neutralization System No. B04, Rev. 002. Aberdeen Proving Ground, emphasize developing leading metrics to guide them in Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives. process safety management. NRC (National Research Council). 2001. Analysis of Engineering Design Studies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons at Pueblo Chemical Depot. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. REFERENCES NRC. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Abercrombie, P.L. 2003. Physical Property Data Review of Selected Press. Chemical Agents and Related Compounds: Updated Field Manual 3-9 U.S. Army. 1977. Army Ammunition Data Sheets: Artillery Ammunition, (FM 3-9), ECBC-TR-294, September. Edgewood, Md.: U.S. Army Guns, Howitzers, Mortars, Recoilless Rifles, Grenade Launchers, and Edgewood Chemical Biological Center. Artillery Fuzes (FSC 1310, 1315, 1320, 1390), TM 43-0001-28, April. BPBGT (Bechtel Parsons Blue Grass Team). 2009a. System Design De- Washington, D.C.: Headquarters, U.S. Army. scription for Rocket Handling System (RHS), Blue Grass Chemical U.S. Army. 1983. Final Demilitarization Plan for Operation of the Chemi- Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (BGCAPP) Project, rev. 5. Aberdeen cal Agent Munitions Disposal System (CAMDS) at the Tooele Army Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Depot, Utah, June. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Toxic Weapons Alternatives. and Hazardous Materials Agency. BPBGT. 2009b. System Design Description for Energetics Neutralization U.S. Army. 1988. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program Final Program - System (ENS), Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant matic Environmental Impact Statement. Aberdeen Proving Ground, (BGCAPP) Project, rev. 5. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Md.: U.S. Army Chemical Materials Agency. Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives. BPBGT. 2009c. System Design Description for Agent Collection and Neutralization, Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (BGCAPP) Project, rev. 6. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives.