convinced that a focused science and engineering program can achieve successes that will bring the space community, the U.S. public, and policymakers to an understanding that we are ready for the next significant phase of human space exploration. The goal of this report is to lay out steps whereby NASA can reinvigorate its partnership with the life and physical sciences research community and develop a forward-looking portfolio of research that will provide the basis for recapturing the excitement and value of human spaceflight—thereby enabling the U.S. space program to deliver on new exploration initiatives that serve the nation, excite the public, and place the United States again at the forefront of space exploration for the global good. This report examines the fundamental science and technology that underpin developments whose payoffs for human exploration programs will be substantial, as the following examples illustrate:

• An effective countermeasures program to attenuate the adverse effects of the space environment on the health and performance capabilities of astronauts, a development that will make it possible to conduct prolonged human space exploration missions.

• A deeper understanding of the mechanistic role of gravity in the regulation of biological systems (e.g., mechanisms by which microgravity triggers the loss of bone mass or cardiovascular function)—understanding that will provide insights for strategies to optimize biological function during spaceflight as well as on Earth (e.g., slowing the loss of bone or cardiovascular function with aging).

• Game changers, such as architecture-altering systems involving on-orbit depots for cryogenic rocket fuels, an example of a revolutionary advance possible only with the scientific understanding required to make this Apollo-era notion a reality. As an example, for some lunar missions such a depot could produce major cost savings by enabling use of an Ares I type launch system rather than a much larger Ares V type system.

• The critical ability to collect or produce large amounts of water from a source such as the Moon or Mars, which requires a scientific understanding of how to retrieve and refine water-bearing materials from extremely cold, rugged regions under partial-gravity conditions. Once cost-effective production is available, water can be transported to either surface bases or orbit for use in the many exploration functions that require it. Major cost savings will result from using that water in a photovoltaic-powered electrolysis and cryogenics plant to produce liquid oxygen and hydrogen for propulsion.

• Advances stemming from research on fire retardants, fire suppression, fire sensors, and combustion in microgravity that provide the basis for a comprehensive fire-safety system, greatly reducing the likelihood of a catastrophic event.

• Regenerative fuel cells that can provide lunar surface power for the long eclipse period (14 days) at high rates (e.g., greater than tens of kilowatts). Research on low-mass tankage, thermal management, and fluid handling in low gravity is on track to achieve regenerative fuel cells with specific energy greater than two times that of advanced batteries.

In keeping with its charge, the committee developed recommendations for research fitting in either one or both of these two broad categories:

1. Research that enables space exploration: scientific research in the life and physical sciences that is needed to develop advanced exploration technologies and processes, particularly those that are profoundly affected by operation in a space environment.

2. Research enabled by access to space: scientific research in the life and physical sciences that takes advantage of unique aspects of the space environment to significantly advance fundamental scientific understanding.

The key research challenges, and the steps needed to craft a program of research capable of facilitating the progress of human exploration in space, are highlighted below and described in more detail in the body of the report. In the committee’s view, these are steps that NASA will have to take in order to recapture a vision of space exploration that is achievable and that has inspired the country, and humanity, since the founding of NASA.

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